יום שלישי, 4 באוגוסט 2015


Book IV.
Chapter I.-Halt at Dora.
Having set out from Caesarea on the way to Tripolis, we made our first stoppage at a small town called Dora, because it was not far distant; and almost all those who had believed through the preaching of Peter could scarcely bear to be separated from him, but walked along with us, again and again gazing upon him, again and again embracing him, again and again conversing with him, until we came to the inn. On the following day we came to Ptolemais, where we stayed ten days; and when a considerable number had received the word of God, we signified to some of them who seemed particularly attentive, and wished to detain us longer for the sake of instruction, that they might, if so disposed, follow us to Tripolis. We acted in the same way at Tyre, and Sidon, and Berytus, and announced to those who desired to hear further discourses, that we were to spend the winter at Tripolis.1 Therefore, as all those who were anxious followe d Peter from each city, we were a great multitude of elect ones when we entered into Tripolis. On our arrival, the brethren who had been sent before met us before the gates of the city; and taking us under their charge, conducted us to the various lodgings which they bad prepared. Then there arose a commotion in the city, and a great assemblage of persons desirous to see Peter.2
Chapter II.-Reception in the House of Maro.
And when we had come to the house of Maro, in which preparation had been made for Peter, he turned to the crowd, and told them that he would address them the day after to-morrow. Therefore the brethren who had been sent before assigned lodgings to all who had come with us. Then, when Peter had entered into the house of Maro, and was asked to partake of food, he answered that he would by no means do so, until he had ascertained whether all those that had accompanied him were provided with lodgings. Then he learned from the brethren who had been sent before, that the citizens had received them not only hospitably, but with all kindness, by reason of their love towards Peter; so much so, that several were disappointed because there were no guests for them; for that all had made such preparations, that even if many more had come, there would still have been a deficiency of guests for the hosts, not of hosts for the guests.
Chapter III.-Simon's Flight.
Thereupon Peter was greatly delighted, and praised the brethren, and blessed them, and requested them to remain with him. Then, when he had bathed in the sea, and had taken food, he went to sleep in the evening; and rising, as usual, at cock-crow, while the evening light was still burning, he found us all awake. Now there were in all sixteen of us, viz. Peter and I, Clement, Niceta and Aquila, and those twelve who had preceded us.3 Saluting us, then, as was his wont, Peter said: "Since we are not taken up with others to-day, let us be taken up with ourselves. I shall tell you what took place at Caesarea after your departure, and you shall tell us of the doings of Simon here." And while the conversation was going on on these subjects, at daybreak some of the members of the family came in and told Peter that Simon, when he heard of Peter's arrival, departed in the night, on the way to Syria. They also stated that the crowds thought that the day which he had said was to intervene was a very long time for their affection, and that they were standing in impatience before the gate, conversing among themselves about those things which they wished to hear, and that they hoped that they should by all means see him before the time appointed; and that as the day became lighter the multitudes were increasing, and that they were trusting confidently, whatever they might be presuming upon, that they should hear a discourse from him. "Now then "said they "instruct us to tell them what seems good to you; for it is absurd that so great a multitude should have come together, and should depart with sadness, through no answer being returned to them. For they will not consider that it is they that have not waited for; the appointed day but rather they will think that you are slighting them."
Chapter IV.-The Harvest Plenteous,
Then Peter, filled with admiration, said :4 "You see, brethren, how every word of the Lord spoken prophetically is fulfilled. For I remember that He said, `The harvest indeed is plenteous, but the labourers are few; ask therefore the Lord of the harvest, that He would send out labourers into His harvest.'5 Behold, therefore, the things which are foretold in a mystery are fulfilled. But whereas He said also, `Many shall come from the east and the west, from the north and the south, and shall recline in the bosom of Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob; '6 this also is, as yon see, in like manner fulfilled. Wherefore I entreat you, my fellow-servants and helpers, that you would learn diligently the order of preaching, and the ways of absolutions, that ye may be able to save the souls of men, which by the secret power of God acknowledge whom they ought to love, even before they are taught. For you see that these men, like good servants, long for him whom they expect to announce to them the coming of their Lord, that they may be able to fulfil His will when they have learned it. The desire, therefore, of hearing the word of God, and inquiring into His will, they have from God; and this is the beginning of the gift of God, which is given to the Gentiles, that by this they may be able to receive the doctrine of truth.
Chapter V.-Moses and Christ.
"For so also it was given to the people of the Hebrews from the beginning, that they should love Moses, and believe his word; whence also it is written: `The people believed God, and Moses His servant.7 What, therefore, was of peculiar gift from God toward the nation of the Hebrews, we see now to be given also to those who are called from among the Gentiles to the faith. But the method of works is put into the power and will of every one, and this is their own; but to have an affection towards a teacher of truth. this is a gift of the heavenly Father. But salvation is in this, that you do His will of whom you have conceived a love and affection through the gift of God; lest that saying of His be addressed to you which He spoke, `Why call ye me Lord, Lord, and do not what I say? '8 It is therefore the peculiar gift bestowed by God upon the Hebrews, that they believe M oses; and the peculiar gift bestowed upon the Gentiles is that they love Jesus. For this also the Master intimated, when He said, `I will confess' to Thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because Thou hast concealed these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them to babes.9 By which it is certainly declared, that the people of the Hebrews, who were instructed out of the law, did not know Him; but the people of the Gentiles have acknowledged Jesus, and venerate Him; on which account also they shall be saved, not only acknowledging Him, but also doing His will. But he who is of the Gentiles, and who has it of God to believe Moses, ought also to have it of his own purpose to love Jesus also. And again, the Hebrew, who has it of God to believe Moses, ought to have it also of his own purpose to believe in Jesus; so that each of them, having in himself something of the divine gift, and something of his own exertion, may be perfect by both. For concerning such an one our Lord spoke, as of a rich man, `Who brings forth from his treasures things new and old.'10
Chapter VI.-A Congregation.
"But enough has been said of these things for time presses, and the religious devotion of the people invites us to address them." And when he had thus spoken, he asked where there was a suitable place for discussion. And Maro said: "I have a very spacious hall11 which can hold more than five hundred men, and there is also a garden within the house; or if it please you to be in some public place, all would prefer it, for there is nobody who does not desire at least to see your face." Then Peter said: "Show me the hall, or the garden." And when he had seen the hall, he went in to see the garden also; and suddenly the whole multitude, as if some one had called them, rushed into the house, and thence broke through into the garden, where Peter was already standing, selecting a fit place for discussion.
Chapter VII.-The Sick Healed.
But when he saw that the crowds had, like the waters of a great river, poured over the narrow passage, he mounted upon a pillar which happened to stand near the wall of the garden, and first saluted the people in a religious manner. But some of those who were present, and who had been for a long time distressed by demons, threw themselves on the ground, while the unclean spirits entreated that they might be allowed but for one day to remain in the bodies that they had taken possession of. But Peter rebuked them, and commanded them to depart; and they went out without delay. After these, others who had been afflicted with long-standing sicknesses asked Peter that they might receive healing; and he promised that he would entreat the Lord for them as soon as his discourse of instruction was completed. But as soon as he promised, they were freed from their sicknesses;12 and he ordered them to sit down apart, with those who ha d been freed from the demons, as after the fatigue of labour. Meantime, while this was going on, a vast multitude assembled, attracted not only by the desire of hearing Peter, but also by the report of the cures which had been accomplished. But Peter, beckoning with his hand to the people to he still, and settling the crowds in tranquillity, began to address them as follows:-
Chapter VIII.-Providence Vindicated
"It seems to me necessary, at the outset of a discourse concerning the true worship of God, first of all to instruct those who have not as yet acquired any knowledge of the subject, that throughout the divine providence must be maintained to be without blame, by which the world is ruled and governed. Moreover, the reason of the present undertaking, and the occasion offered by those whom the power of God has healed, suggest this subject for a beginning, viz. to show that for good reason very many persons are possessed of demons, that so the justice of God may appear. For ignorance will be found to be the mother of almost all evils. But now let us come to the reason.
Chapter IX.-State of Innocence a State of Enjoyment.
"When God had made man after His own image and likeness, He grafted into His work a certain breathing and odour of His divinity, that so men, being made partakers of His Only-begotten, might through Him be also friends of God and sons of adoption. Whence also He Himself, as the true Prophet, knowing with what actions the Father is pleased, instructed them in what way they might obtain that privilege. At that time, therefore, there was among men only one worship of God-a pure mind and an uncorrupted spirit. And for this reason every creature kept an inviolable covenant with the human race. For by reason of their reverence of the Creator, no sickness, or bodily disorder, or corruption of food, had power over them; whence it came to pass, that a life of a thousand years did not fall into the frailty of old age.
Chapter X.-Sin the Cause of Suffering.
"But when men, leading a life void of distress, began to think that the continuance of good things was granted them not by the divine bounty, but by the chance of things, and to accept as a debt of nature, not as a gift of God's goodness, their enjoyment without any exertion of the delights of the divine complaisance,-men, being led by these things into contrary and impious thoughts, came at last, at the instigation of idleness, to think that the life of gods was theirs by nature, without any labours or merits on their part. Hence they go from bad to worse, to believe that neither is the world governed by the providence of God, nor is there any place for virtues, since they knew that they themselves possessed the fulness of ease and delights, without the assignment of any works previously, and without any labours were treated as the friends of God.
Chapter XI.-Suffering Salutary.
"By the most righteous judgment of God, therefore, labours and afflictions are assigned as a remedy to men languishing in the vanity of such thoughts. And when labour and tribulations came upon them, they were excluded from the place of delights and amenity. Also the earth began to produce nothing to them without labour; and then men's thoughts being turned in them, they were warned to seek the aid of their Creator, and by prayers and vows to ask for the divine protection. And thus it came to pass, that the worship of God, which they had neglected by reason of their prosperity, they recovered through their adversity; and their thoughts towards God, which indulgence had perverted, affliction corrected. So therefore the divine providence, seeing that this was more profitable to man, removed from them the ways of benignity and abundance, as being hurtful, and introduced the way of vexation and tribulation.13
Chapter XII.-Translation of Enoch.
"But14 that He might show that these things were done on account of the ungrateful, He translated to immortality a certain one of the first race of men, because He saw that he was not unmindful of His grace, and because he hoped to call on the name of God;15 while the rest, who were so ungrateful that they could not be amended and corrected even by labours and tribulations, were condemned to a terrible death. Yet amongst them also He found a certain one, who was righteous with his house,16 whom He preserved, having enjoined him to build an ark, in which he and those who were commanded to go with him might escape, when all things should be destroyed by a deluge: in order that, the wicked being cut off by the overflow of waters, the world might receive a purification; and he who had been preserved for the continua nce of the race, being purified by water, might anew repair the world.
Chapter XIII.-Origin of Idolatry.
"But when all these things were done, men turned again to impiety;17 and on this account a law was given by God to instruct them in the manner of living. But in process of time, the worship of God and righteousness were corrupted by the unbelieving and the wicked, as we shall show more fully by and by. Moreover, perverse and erratic religions were introduced, to which the greater part of men gave themselves up, by occasion of holidays and solemnities, instituting drinkings and banquets, following pipes, and flutes, and harps, and diverse kinds of musical instruments, and indulging themselves in all kinds of drunkenness and luxury. Hence every kind of error took rise; hence they invented groves and altars, fillets and victims, and after drunkenness they were agitated as if with mad emotions. By this means power was given to the demons to enter into minds of this sort, so that they seemed to lead insane dances and to rave l ike Bacchanalians; hence were invented the gnashing of teeth, and bellowing from the depth of their bowels; hence a terrible countenance and a fierce aspect in men, so that he whom drunkenness had subverted and a demon had instigated, was believed by the deceived and the erring to be filled with the Deity.
Chapter XIV.-God Both Good and Righteous.
"Hence, since so many false and erratic religions have been introduced into the world,18 we have been sent, as good merchants, bringing unto you the worship of the true God, handed down from the fathers, and preserved; as the seeds of which we scatter these words amongst you, and place it in your choice to choose what seems to you to be right. For if you receive those things which we bring you, you shall not only be able yourselves to escape the incursions of the demon, but also to drive them away from others; and at the same time you shall obtain the rewards of eternal good things. But those who shall refuse to receive those things which are spoken by us, shall be subject in the present life to diverse demons and disorders of sicknesses, and their souls after their departure from the body shall be tormented for ever. For God is not only good, but also just; for if He were always good, and never just to render to every on e according to his deeds, goodness would be found to be injustice. For it were injustice if the impious and the pious were treated by Him alike.
Chapter XV.-How Demons Get Power Over Men.
"Therefore demons, as we have just said, when once they have been able, by means of opportunities afforded them, to convey themselves through base and evil actions into the bodies of men, if they remain in them a long time through their own negligence, because they do not seek after what is profitable to their souls, they necessarily compel them for the future to fulfil the desires of the demons who dwell in them. But what is worst of all, at the end of the world, when that demon shall be consigned to eternal fire, of necessity the soul also which obeyed him, shall with him be tortured in eternal fires, together with its body which it hath polluted.
Chapter XVI.-Why They Wish to Possess Men.
"Now that the demons are desirous of occupying the bodies of men, this is the reason. They are spirits baring their purpose turned to wickedness. Therefore by immoderate eating and drinking, and lust, they urge men on to sin, but only those who entertain the purpose of sinning, who, while they seem simply desirous of satisfying the necessary cravings of nature, give opportunity to the demons to enter into them, because through excess they do not maintain moderation. For as long as the measure of nature is kept, and legitimate moderation is preserved, the mercy of God does not give them liberty to enter into men. But when either the mind falls into impiety, or the body is filled with immoderate meat or drink, then, as if invited by the will and purpose of those who thus neglect themselves, they receive power as against those who have broken the law imposed by God.
Chapter XVII.-The Gospel Gives Power Over Demons.
"You see, then, how important is the acknowledgment of God, and the observance of the divine religion, which not only protects those who believe from the assaults of the demon, but also gives them command over those who rule over others. And therefore it is necessary for you, who are of the Gentiles, to betake yourselves to God, and to keep yourselves from all uncleanness, that the demons may be expelled, and God may dwell in you And at the same time, by prayers, commit yourselves to God, and call for His aid against the impudence of the demons; for `whatever things ye ask, believing, ye shall receive.'19 But even the demons themselves, in proportion as they see faith grow in a man, in that proportion they depart from him, residing only in that part in which something of infidelity still remains; but from those who believe with full faith, they depart without any delay. For when a soul has come to the faith of God, it obt ains the virtue of heavenly water, by which it extinguishes the demon like a spark of fire.
Chapter XVII.-This Power in Proportion to Faith.
"There is therefore a measure of faith, which, if it be perfect, drives the demon perfectly from the soul; but if it has any defect, something on the part of the demon still remains in the portion of infidelity; and it is the greatest difficulty for the soul to understand when or how, whether fully or less fully, the demon has been expelled from it. For if he remains in any quarter, when he gets an opportunity, he suggests thoughts to men's hearts; and they, not knowing whence they come, believe the suggestions of the demons, as if they were the perceptions of their own souls. Thus they suggest to some to follow pleasure by occasion of bodily necessity; they excuse the passionateness of others by excess of gall; they colour over the madness of others by the vehemence of melancholy; and even extenuate the folly of some as the result of abundance of phlegm. But even if this were so, still none of these could be hurtful to the body, except from the excess of meats and drinks; bec ause, when these are taken in excessive quantities, their abundance, which the natural warmth is not sufficient to digest, curdles into a sort of poison, and it, flowing through the bowels and all the veins like a common sewer, renders the motions of the body unhealthy and base. Wherefore moderation is to be attained in all things, that neither may place be given to demons, nor the soul, being possessed by them, be delivered along with them to be tormented in eternalfires.
Chapter XIX.-Demons Incite to Idolatry.
"There is also another error of the demons, which they suggest to the senses of men, that they should think that those things which they suffer, they suffer from such as are called gods, in order that thereby, offering sacrifices and gifts, as if to propitiate them, they may strengthen the worship of false religion, and avoid us who are interested in their salvation, that they may be freed from error; but this they do, as I have said, not knowing that these thing are suggested to them by demons, for fear they should be saved. It is therefore in the power of every one, since man has been made possessed of free-will, whether he shall hear us to life, or the demons to destruction. Also to some, the demons, appearing visibly under various figures, sometimes throw out threats, sometimes promise relief from sufferings, that they may instil into those whom they deceive the opinion of their being gods, and that it may not be known that they are demons. But they are not concealed from us, who know the mysteries of the creation, and for what reason it is permitted to the demons to do those things in the present world; how it is allowed them to transform themselves into what figures they please, and to suggest evil thoughts, and to convey themselves, by means of meats and of drink consecrated to them, into the minds or bodies of those who partake of it, and to concoct vain dreams to further the worship of some idol.
Chapter XX.-Folly of Idolatry.
"And yet who can be found so senseless as to be persuaded to worship an idol, whether it be made of gold or of any other metal? To whom is it not manifest that the metal is just that which the artificer pleased? How then can the divinity be thought to be in that which would not be at all unless the artificer had pleased? Or how can they hope that future things should be declared to them by that in which there is no perception of present things? For although they should divine something, they should not straightway be held to be gods; for divination is one thing, divinity is another. For the Pythons also seem to divine, yet they are not gods; and, in short, they are driven out of men by Christians. And how can that be God which is put to flight by a man? But perhaps you will say, What as to their effecting cures, and their showing how one can be cured? On this principle, physicians ought also to be worshipped as gods, for they cure many; and in proportion as any one is more ski lful, the more he will cure.
Chapter XXI.-Heathen Oracles.
"Whence it is evident that they since they are demoniac spirits, know some things both more quickly and more perfectly than men; for they are not retarded in their learning by the heaviness of a body. And therefore they, as being spirits, know without delay and without difficulty what physicians attain after a long time and by much labour. It is not wonderful, therefore, if they know somewhat more than men do; but this is to be observed, that what they know they do not employ for the salvation of souls, but for the deception of them, that by means of it they may indoctrinate them in the worship of false religion. But God, that the error of so great deception might not be concealed, and that He Himself might not seem to be a cause of error in permitting them so great licence to deceive men by divinations, and cures, and dreams, has of His mercy furnished men with a remedy, and has made the distinction of falsehood and truth patent to those who desire to know. This, there fore, is that distinction: what is spoken by the true God, whether by prophets or by diverse visions, is always true; but what is foretold by demons is not always true. It is therefore an evident sign that those things are not spoken by the true God, in which at any time there is falsehood; for in truth there is never falsehood. But in the case of those who speak falsehoods, there may occasionally be a slight mixture of truth, to give as it were seasoning to the falsehoods.
Chapter XXII.-Why They Sometimes Come True.
"But if any one say, What is the use of this, that they should be permitted even sometimes to speak truth, and thereby so much error be introduced amongst men? let him take this for answer: If they had never been allowed to speak any truth, then they would not foretell anything at all; while if they did not foretell, they would not be known to be demons. But if demons were not known to be in this world, the cause of our struggle and contest would be concealed from us, and we should suffer openly what was done in secret, that is, if the power were granted to them of only acting against us, and not of speaking. But now, since they sometimes speak truth, and sometimes falsehood, we ought to acknowledge, as I have said, that their responses are of demons, and not of God, with whom there is never falsehood.
Chapter XXIII.-Evil Not in Substance.
"But if any one, proceeding more curiously, inquire: What then was the use of God's making these evil things, which should have so great a tendency to subvert the minds of men?20 To one proposing such a question, we answer that we must first of all inquire whether there is any evil in substance. And although it would be sufficient to say to him that it is not suitable that the creature judge the Creator, but that to judge the work of another belongs to him who is either of equal skill or equal power; yet, to come directly to the point, we say absolutely that there is no evil in substance. But if this be so, then the Creator of substance is vainly blamed.
Chapter XXIV.-Why God Permits Evil.
"But you will meet me by saying, Even if it has come to this through freedom of will, was the Creator ignorant that those whom He created would fall away into evil? He ought therefore not to have created those who, He foresaw, would deviate from the path of righteousness. Now we tell those who ask such questions, that the purpose of assertions of the sort made by us is to show why the wickedness of those who as yet were not, did not prevail over the goodness of the Creator.21 For if, wishing to fill up the number and measure of His creation, He had been afraid of the wickedness of those who were to be, and like one who could find no other way of remedy and cure, except only this, that He should refrain from His purpose of creating, lest the wickedness of those who were to be should be ascribed to Him; what else would this show but unworthy suffering and unseemly feebleness on the part of the Creator, who should so fear th e actings of those who as yet were not, that He refrained from His purposed creation?
Chapter XXV.-Evil Beings Turned to Good Account.
"But, setting aside these things, let us consider this earnestly, that God the Creator of the universe, foreseeing the future differences of His creation, foresaw and provided diverse ranks and different offices to each of His creatures, according to the peculiar movements which were produced from freedom of will; so that while all men are of one substance in respect of the method of creation, there should yet be diversity in ranks and offices, according to the peculiar movements of minds, to be produced from liberty of will. Therefore He foresaw that there would be faults in His creatures; and the method of His justice demanded that punishment should follow faults, for the sake of amendment. It behoved, therefore, that there should be ministers of punishment, and yet that freedom of will should draw them into that order. Moreover, those also must have enemies to conquer, who had undertaken the contests for the heavenly rewards. Thus, therefore, neither are those things destit ute of utility which are thought to be evil, since the conquered unwillingly acquire eternal rewards for those by whom they are conquered. But let this suffice on these points, for in process of time even more secret things shall be disclosed.
Chapter XXVI.-Evil Angels Seducers.
"Now therefore, since you do not yet understand how great darkness of ignorance surrounds you, meantime I wish to explain to you whence the worship of idols began in this world. And by idols, I mean those lifeless images which you worship, whether made of wood, or earthenware, or stone, or brass, or any other metals: of these the beginning was in this wise. Certain angels, having left the course of their proper order, began to favour the vices of men,22 and in some measure to lend unworthy aid to their lust, in order that by these means they might indulge their own pleasures the more; and then, that they might not seem to be inclined of their own accord to unworthy services, taught men that demons could, by certain arts-that is, by magical invocations-be made to obey men; and so, as from a furnace and workshop of wickedness, they filled the whole world with the smoke of impiety, the light of piety being withdrawn.
Chapter XXVII.-Ham the First Magician.
"For these and some other causes, a flood was brought upon the world,23 as we have said already, and shall say again; and all who were upon the earth were destroyed, except the family of Noah, who survived, with his three sons and their wives. One of these, by name Ham, unhappily discovered the magical act, and handed down the instruction of it to one of his sons, who was called Mesraim, from whom the race of the Egyptians and Babylonians and Persians are descended. Him the nations who then existed called Zoroaster,24 admiring him as the first author of the magic art; trader whose name also many books on this subject exist. He therefore, being much and frequently intent upon the stars, and wishing to be esteemed a god among them, began to draw forth, as it were, certain sparks from the stars, and to show them to men, in order that the rude and ignorant might be aston ished, as with a miracle; and desiring to increase this estimation of him, he attempted these things again and again, until he was set on fire, and consumed by the demon himself, whom he accosted with too great importunity.
Chapter XXVIII.-Tower of Babel.
"But the foolish men who were then, whereas they ought to have abandoned the opinion which they bad conceived of him, inasmuch as they had seen it confuted by his mortal punishment, extolled him the more. For raising a sepulchre to his honour, they went so far as to adore him as a friend of God, and one who had been removed to heaven in a chariot of lightning, and to worship him as if he were a living star. Hence also his name was called Zoroaster after his death-that is, living star-by those who, after one generation, had been taught to speak the Greek language. In fine, by this example, even now many worship those who have been struck with lightning, honouring them with sepulchres, and worshipping them as friends of God. But this man was born in the fourteenth generation, and died in the fifteenth, in which the tower was built, and the languages of men were divided into many.
Chapter XXIX.-Fire-Worship of the Persians.
"First among whom is named a certain king Nimrod, the magic art having been handed down to him as by a flash, whom the Greeks, also called Ninus, and from whom the city of Nineveh took its name. Thus, therefore, diverse and erratic superstitions took their beginning from the magic art. For, because it was difficult to draw away the human race from the love of God, and attach them to deaf and lifeless images, the magicians made use of higher efforts, that men might be turned to erratic worship, by signs among the stars, and motions brought down as it were from heaven, and by the will of God. And those who had been first deceived, collecting the ashes of Zoroaster,-who, as we have said, was burnt up by the indignation of the demon, to whom he had been too troublesome,-brought them to the Persians, that they might be preserved by them with perpetual watching, as divine fire fallen from heaven, and might be worshipped as a heavenly God.
Chapter XXX.-Hero-Worship.
"By a like example, other men in other places built temples, set up statues, instituted mysteries and ceremonies and sacrifices, to those whom they had admired, either for some arts or for virtue, or at least had held in very great affection; and rejoiced, by means of all things belonging to gods, to hand down their fame to posterity; and that especially, because, as we have already said, they scented to be supported by some phantasies of magic art, so that by invocation of demons something seemed to be done and moved by them towards the deception of men. To these they add also certain solemnities, and drunken banquets, in which men might with all freedom indulge; and demons, conveyed into them in the chariot of repletion, might be mixed with their very bowels, and holding a place there, might bind the acts and thoughts of men to their own will. Such errors, then, having been introduced from the beginning, and having been aided by lust and drunkenness, in which carnal men chie fly delight, the religion of God, which consisted in continence and sobriety, began to become rare amongst men, and to be well-nigh abolished.
Chapter XXXI.-Idolatry Led to All Immorality.
"For whereas at first, men worshipping a righteous and all-seeing God, neither dared sin nor do injury to their neighbours, being persuaded that God sees the actions and movements of every one; when religious worship was directed to lifeless images, concerning which they were certain that they were incapable of hearing, or sight, or motion, they began to sin licentiously, and to go forward to every crime, because they had no fear of suffering anything at the hands of those whom they worshipped as gods. Hence the madness of wars burst out; hence plunderings, rapines, captivities, and liberty reduced to slavery; each one, as he could, satisfied his lust and his covetousness, although no power can satisfy covetousness. For as fire, the more fuel it gets, is the more extensively kindled and strengthened, so also the madness of covetousness is made greater and more vehement by means of those things which it acquires.
Chapter XXXII.-Invitation.
"Wherefore begin now with better understanding to resist yourselves in those things which you do not rightly desire;25 if so be that you can in any way repair and restore in yourselves that purity of religion and innocence of life which at first were bestowed upon man by God, that thereby also the hope of immortal blessings may be restored to you. And give thanks to the bountiful Father of all, by Him whom He has constituted King of peace, and the treasury of unspeakable honours, that even at the present time your sins may be washed away with the water of the fountain, or river, or even sea: the threefold name of blessedness being called over you, that by it not only evil spirits may be driven out, if any dwell in you, but also that, when you have forsaken your sins, and have with entire faith and entire purity of mind believed in God, you may drive out wicked spirits and demons from others also, and may be able to set ot hers free from sufferings and sicknesses. For the demons themselves know and acknowledge those who have given themselves up to God, and sometimes they are driven out by the mere presence of such, as you saw a little while ago, how, when we had only addressed to you the word of salutation, straightway the demons, on account of their respect for our religion, began to cry out, and could not bear our presence even for a little.
Chapter XXXIII.-The Weakest Christian More Powerful Than the Strongest Demon.
"Is it, then, that we are of another and a superior nature, and that therefore the demons are afraid of us? Nay, we are of one and the same nature with you, but we differ in religion. But if you will also be like us, we do not grudge it, but rather we exhort you, and wish you to be assured, that when the same faith and religion and innocence of life shall be in you that is in us, you will have equal and the same power and virtue against demons, through God rewarding your faith. For as he who has soldiers under him, although he may be inferior, and they superior to him in strength, yet 'says to this one, Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to another, Do this, and he doeth it; '26 and this he is able to do, not by his own power, but by the fear of Caesar; so every faithful one commands the demons, although they seem to he much stronger than men, and that not by means of his own power, but by m eans of the power of God, who has put them in subjection. For even that which we have just spoken of, that Caesar is held in awe by all soldiers, and in every camp, and in his whole kingdom, though he is but one man, and perhaps feeble in respect of bodily strength, this is not effected but by the power of God, who inspires all with fear, that they may be subject to one.
Chapter XXXIV.-Temptation of Christ.
"This we would have you know assuredly, that a demon has no power against a man, unless one voluntarily submit himself to his desires.27 Whence even that one who is the prince of wickedness, approached Him who, as we have said, is appointed of God King of peace, tempting Him, and began to promise Him all the glory of the world; because he knew that when he had offered this to others, for the sake of deceiving them, they had worshipped him. Therefore, impious as he was, and unmindful of himself, which indeed is the special peculiarity of wickedness, he presumed that he should be worshipped by Him by whom he knew that he was to be destroyed. Therefore our Lord, confirming the worship of one God, answered him: `It is written, Thou shall worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve.'28 And he, terrified by this answer, and fearing lest the true religion of the one and true God should be restored, hastened straightway to send forth into this world false prophets, and false apostles, and false teachers, who should speak indeed in the name of Christ, but should accomplish the will of the demon.
Chapter XXXV.-False Apostles.
"Wherefore observe the greatest caution, that you believe no teacher, unless he bring from Jerusalem the testimonial of James the Lord's brother, or of whosoever may come after him.29 For no one, unless he has gone up thither, and there has been approved as a fit and faithful teacher for preaching the word of Christ,-unless, I say, he brings a testimonial thence, is by any means to be received. But let neither prophet nor apostle be looked for by you at this time, besides us. For there is one true Prophet, whose words we twelve apostles preach; for He is the accepted year of God, having us apostles as His twelve months. But for what reason the world itself was made, or what diversities have occurred in it, and why our Lord, coming for its restoration, has chosen and sent us twelve apostles, shall be explained more at length at another time. Meantime He has commanded us to go forth to preach, and to invite you to the suppe r of the heavenly King, which the Father hath prepared for the marriage of His Son, and that we should give you wedding garments, that is, the grace of baptism;30 which whosoever obtains, as a spotless robe with which he is to enter to the supper of the King, ought to beware that it be not in any part of it stained with sin, and so he be rejected as unworthy and reprobate.
Chapter XXXVI.-The Garments Unspotted.
"But the ways in which this garment may be spotted are these: If any one withdraw from God the Father and Creator of all, receiving another teacher besides Christ, who alone is the faithful and true Prophet, and who has sent us twelve apostles to preach the word; if any one think otherwise than worthily of the substance of the Godhead, which excels all things;-these are the things which even fatally pollute the garment of baptism. But the things which pollute it in actions are these: murders, adulteries, hatreds, avarice, evil ambition. And the things which pollute at once the soul and the body are these: to partake of the table of demons, that is, to taste things sacrificed, or blood, or a carcase which is strangled,31 and if there be aught else which has been offered to demons. Be this therefore the first step to you of three; which step brings forth thirty commands, and the second sixty, and the third a hundred,32 as we shall expound more fully to you at another time."
Chapter XXXVII.-The Congregation Dismissed.
When he had thus spoken, and had charged them to come to the same place in good time on the following day, he dismissed the crowds; and when they were unwilling to depart, Peter said to them: "Do me this favour on account of the fatigue of yesterday's journey; and now go away. and meet in good time to-morrow." And so they departed with joy. But Peter, commanding me to withdraw a little for the purpose of prayer,33 afterwards ordered the couches to be spread in the part of the garden which was covered with shade; and every one, according to custom, recognising the place of his own rank, we took food. Then, as there was still some portion of the day left, he conversed with us concerning the Lord's miracles; and when evening was come, he entered his bed-chamber and went to sleep.
Book V.
Chapter I.-Peter's Salutation.
But on the following day,1 Peter rising a little earlier than usual, found us asleep; and when he saw it, he gave orders that silence should be kept for him, as though he himself wished to sleep longer, that we might not be disturbed in our rest. But when we rose refreshed with sleep, we found him, having finished his prayer, waiting for us in his bed-chamber. And as it was already dawn, he addressed us shortly, saluting us according to his custom, and forthwith proceeded to the usual place for the purpose of teaching; and when he saw that many had assembled there, having invoked peace upon them according to the first religious form, he began to speak as follows:-
Chapter II.-Suffering the Effect of Sin.
"God, the Creator of all, at the beginning made man after His own image, and gave him dominion over the earth and sea, and over the air; as the true Prophet has told us, and as the very reason of things instructs us: for man alone is rational, and it is fitting that reason should rule over the irrational. At first, therefore, while he was still righteous, he was superior to all disorders and all frailty; but when he sinned, as we taught you yesterday, and became the servant of sin, he became at the same time liable to frailty. This therefore is written, that men may know that, as by impiety they have been made liable to suffer, so by piety they may be made free from suffering; and not only free from suffering, but by even a little faith in God be able to cure the sufferings of others. For thus the true Prophet promised us, saying, `Verily I say to you, that if ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say to this mountain, Remove hence, and it shall remove.'2 Of this saving you have yourselves also had proofs; for you saw yesterday how at our presence the demons removed and were put to flight, with those sufferings which they had brought upon men.
Chapter III.-Faith and Unbelief.
"Whereas therefore some men suffer, and others cure those who suffer, it is necessary, to know the cause at once of the suffering and the cure; and this is proved to be nought else than unbelief on the part of the sufferers, and faith on the part of those who cure them. For unbelief, while it does not believe that there is to be a judgment by God, affords licence to sin, and sin makes men liable to sufferings; but faith, believing that there is to be a judgment of God, restrains men from sin; and those who do not sin are not only free from demons and sufferings, but can also put to flight the demons and sufferings of others.
Chapter IV.-Ignorance the Mother of Evils.
"From3 all these things, therefore, it is concluded that all evil springs from ignorance; and ignorance herself, the mother of all evils, is sprung from carelessness and sloth, and is nourished, and increased, and rooted in the senses of men by negligence; and if any one teach that she is to be put to flight, she is with difficulty and indignantly torn away, as from an ancient and hereditary abode. And therefore we must labour for a little, that we may search out the presumptions of ignorance, and cut them off by means of knowledge, especially in those who are preoccupied with some erroneous opinions, by means of which ignorance is the more firmly rooted in them, as under the appearance of a certain kind of knowledge; for nothing is worse than for one to believe that he knows what he is ignorant of, and to maintain that to be true which is false. This is as if a drunk man should think himself to be sober, and should act i ndeed in all respects as a drunk man, and yet think himself to be sober, and should wish to be called so by others. Thus, therefore, are those also who do not know what is true, yet hold some appearance of knowledge, and do many evil things as if they were good, and hasten destruction as if it were to salvation.
Chapter V.-Advantages of Knowledge.
"Wherefore we must, above all things, hasten to the knowledge of the truth, that, as with a light kindled thereat, we may be able to dispel the darkness of errors: for ignorance, as we have said, is a great evil; but because it has no substance, it is easily dispelled by those who are: in earnest. For ignorance is nothing else than not knowing what is good for us; once know this, and ignorance perishes. Therefore the knowledge of truth ought to be eagerly sought after; and no one can confer it except the true Prophet. For this is the gate of life to those who will enter, and the road of good works to those going to the city of salvation.
Chapter VI.-Free-Will.
"Whether any one, truly hearing the word of of the true Prophet; is willing or unwilling to receive it, and to embrace His burden, that is, the precepts of life, he has either in his power, for we are free in will.4 For if it were so, that those who hear had it not in their power to do otherwise than they had heard, there were some power of nature in virtue of which it were not free to him to pass over to another opinion. Or if, again, no one of the hearers could at all receive it, this also were a power of nature which should compel the doing of some one thing, and should leave no place for the other course. But now, since it is free for the mind to turn its judgment to which side it pleases, and to choose the way which it approves, it is clearly manifest that there is in men a liberty of choice.
Chapter VII.-Responsibility of Knowledge.
"Therefore, before any one hears what is good for him, it is certain that he is ignorant; and being ignorant, he wishes and desires to do what is not good for him; wherefore he is not judged for that. But when once he has heard the causes of his error, and has received the method of truth, then, if he remain in those errors with which he had been long ago preoccupied, he shall rightly be called into judgment, to suffer punishment, because he has spent in the sport of errors that portion of life which was given him to be spent in living well. But he who, hearing those things, willingly receives them, and is thankful that the teaching of good things has been brought to him, inquires more eagerly, and does not cease to learn, until he ascertains whether there be truly another world, in which rewards are prepared for the good. And when he is assured of this, he gives thanks to God because He has shown him the light of truth; and for the future directs his actions in all good works , for which he is assured that there is a reward prepared in the world to come; while he constantly wonders and is astonished at the errors of other men, and that no one sees the truth which is placed before his eyes. Yet he himself, rejoicing in the riches of wisdom which he hath found, desires insatiably to enjoy them, and is delighted with the practice of good works; hastening to attain, with a clean heart and a pure conscience, the world to come, when he shall be able even to see God, the king of all.
Chapter VIII.-Desires of the Flesh to Be Subdued.
"But the sole cause of our wanting and being deprived of all these things is ignorance. For while men do not know how much good there is in knowledge, they do not suffer the evil of ignorance to be removed from them; for they know not how great a difference is involved in the change of one of these things for the other. Wherefore I counsel every learner willingly to lend his ear to the word of God, and to hear with love of the truth what we say, that his mind, receiving the best seed, may bring forth joyful fruits by good deeds. For if, while I teach the things which pertain to salvation, any one refuses to receive them, and strives to resist them with a mind occupied by evil opinions, he shall have the cause of his perishing, not from us, but from himself. For it is his duty to examine with just judgment the things which we say, and to understand that we speak the words of truth, that, knowing how things are, and directing his life in good actions, he may be found a partaker of the kingdom of heaven, subjecting to himself the desires of the flesh, and becoming lord of them, that so at length he himself also may become the pleasant possession of the Ruler of all.
Chapter IX.-The Two Kingdoms.
"For he who persists in evil, and is the servant of evil, cannot be made a portion of good so long as he persists in evil, because from the beginning, as we have said, God instituted two kingdoms, and has given to each man the power of becoming a portion of that kingdom to which he shall yield himself to obey. And since it is decreed by God that no one man can be a servant of both kingdoms, therefore endeavour with all earnestness to betake yourselves to the covenant and laws of the good King. Wherefore also the true Prophet, when He was present with us, and saw some rich men negligent with respect to the worship of God, thus unfolded the truth of this matter: `No one, 'said He, `can serve two masters; ye cannot serve God and mammon; `5 calling riches, in the language of His country, mammon.
Chapter X.-Jesus the True Prophet.
"He therefore is the true Prophet, who appeared to us, as you have heard, in Judaea, who, standing in public places, by a simple command made the blind see, the deaf hear, cast out demons, restored health to the sick, and life to the dead; and since nothing was impossible to Him, He even perceived the thoughts of men, which is possible for none but God only. He proclaimed the kingdom of God; and we believed Him as a true Prophet in all that He spoke, deriving the confirmation of our faith not only from His words, but also from His works; and also because the sayings of the law, which many generations before had set forth His coming, were fulfilled in Him; and the figures of the doings of Moses, and of the patriarch Jacob before him, bore in all respects a type of Him. It is evident also that the time of His advent, that is, the very time at which He came, was foretold by them; and, above all, it was contained in the sacred writings, that He was to be waited for by the Gentiles . And all these things were equally fulfilled in Him.
Chapter XI.-The Expectation of the Gentiles.
"But that which a prophet of the Jews foretold, that He was to be waited for by the Gentiles,6 confirms above measure the faith of truth in Him. For if he had said that He was to be waited for by the Jews, he would not have seemed to prophesy anything extraordinary, that He whose coming had been promised for the salvation of the world should be the object of hope to the people of the same tribe with Himself, and to His own nation: for that this would take place, would seem rather to be a matter of natural inference than one requiring the grandeur of a prophetic utterance. But now, whereas the prophets say that all that hope which is set forth concerning the salvation of the world, and the newness of the kingdom which is to be established by Christ, and all things which are declared concerning Him are to be transferred to the Gentiles; the grandeur of the prophetic office is confirmed, not according to the sequence of thin gs, but by an incredible fulfilment of the prophecy. For the Jews from the beginning had understood by a most certain tradition that this man should at some time come, by whom all things should be restored; and daily meditating and looking out for His coming, when they saw Him amongst them, and accomplishing the signs and miracles, as had been written of Him, being blinded with envy, they could not recognise Him when present, in the hope of whom they rejoiced while He was absent; yet the few of us who were chosen by Him understood it.
Chapter XII.-Call of the Gentiles.
"But this happened by the providence of God, that the knowledge of this good One should be handed over to the Gentiles, and those who had never heard of Him, nor had learned from the prophets, should acknowledge Him, while those who had acknowledged Him in their daily meditations should not know Him. For, behold, by you who are now present, and desire to hear the doctrine of His faith, and to know what, and how, and of what sort is His coming, the prophetic truth is fulfilled. For this is what the prophets foretold, that He is to he sought for by you, who never heard of Him.7 And, therefore, seeing that the prophetic sayings are fulfilled even in yourselves, you rightly believe in Him alone, you rightly wait for Him, you rightly inquire concerning Him, that you not only may wait for Him, but also believing, you may obtain the inheritance of His kingdom; according to what Himself said, that every one is made the servant of him to whom he yields subjection.8
Chapter XIII.-Invitation of the Gentiles.
"Wherefore awake, and take to yourselves our Lord and God, even that Lord who is Lord both of heaven and earth, and conform yourselves to His image and likeness, as the true Prophet Himself teaches, saying, `Be ye merciful, as also your heavenly Father is merciful, who makes His sun to rise upon the good and the evil, and rains upon the just and the unjust.'9 Imitate Him, therefore, and fear Him, as the commandment is given to men, `Thou shall worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve.'10 For it is profitable to you to serve this Lord alone, that through Him knowing the one God, ye may be freed from the many whom ye vainly feared. For he who fears not God the Creator of all, but fears those whom he himself with his own hands hath made, what does he do but make himself subject to a vain and senseless fear, and render himself more vile and abject than tho se very things, the fear of which he has conceived in his mind? But rather, by the goodness of Him who inviteth you, return to your former nobleness, and by good deeds show that you bear the image of your Creator, that by contemplation of His likeness ye may be believed to be even His sons.
Chapter XIV.-Idols Unprofitable.
"Begin,11 therefore, to cast out of your minds the vain ideas of idols, and your useless and empty fears, that at the same time you may also escape the condition of unrighteous bondage. For those have become your lords, who could not even have been profitable servants to you. For how should lifeless images seem fit even to serve you, when they can neither hear, nor see, nor feel anything? Yea, even the material of which they are made, whether it be gold or silver, or even brass or wood, though it might have profiled yon for necessary uses, you have rendered wholly inefficient and useless by fashioning gods out of it. We therefore declare to you he true worship of God, and at the same timewarn and exhort the worshippers, that by good deeds they, imitate Him whom they worship, and hasten to return to His image and likeness, as we said before.
Chapter XV.-Folly of Idolatry.
"But I should like if those who worship idols would tell me if they wish to become like those whom they worship? Does any one of you wish to see in such sort as they see? or to hear after the manner of their hearing? or to have such understanding as they have? Far be this from any of my hearers! For this were rather to be thought a curse and a reproach to a man, who bears in himself the image of God, although he has lost the likeness. What sort of gods, then, are they to be reckoned, the imitation of whom would be execrable to their worshippers, and to have whose likeness would be a reproach? What then? Melt your useless images, and make useful vessels. Melt the unserviceable and inactive metal, and make implements fit for the use of men. But, says one, human laws do not allow us.12 He says well; for it is human laws, and not their own power, that prevents it. What kind of gods, then, are those which are defended by human laws, and not by their own energies? And so also they are preserved from thieves by watch-dogs and the protection of bolts, at least if they be of silver, or gold, or even of brass; for those that are of stone and earthenware are protected by their own worthlessness, for no one will steal a stone or a crockery god. Hence those seem to be the more miserable whose more precious metal exposes them to the greater danger. Since, then, they can be stolen, since they must be guarded by men, since they can be melted, and weighed out, and forged with hammers, ought men possessed of understanding to hold them as gods?
Chapter XVI.-God Alone a Fit Object of Worship.
"Oh! into what wretched plight the understanding of men has fallen! For if it is reckoned the greatest folly to fear the dead, what shall we judge of those who fear something that is worse than the dead are? For those images are not even to be reckoned among the number of the dead, because they were never alive. Even the sepulchres of the dead are preferable to them, since, although they are now dead, yet they once had life; but those whom you worship never possessed even such base life as is in all, the life of frogs and owls. But why say more about them, since it is enough to say to him who adores them: Do you not see that he whom you adore sees not, hear that he whom you adore hears not, and understand that he understands not?-for he is the work of man's hand, and necessarily is void of understanding. You therefore worship a god without sense, whereas every one who has sense believes that not even those things are to be worshipped which have been made by God and have sense, 13 such as the sun, moon, and stars, and all things that are in heaven and upon earth. For they think it reasonable, that not those things which have been made for the service of the world, but the Creator of those things themselves, and of the whole world, should be worshipped. For even these things rejoice when He is adored and worshipped, and do not take it well that the honour of the Creator should be bestowed on the creature. For the worship of God alone is acceptable to them, who alone is uncreated, and all things also are His creatures. For as it belongs to him who alone is uncreated to be God, so everything that has been created is not truly God
Chapter XVII.-Suggestions of the Old Serpent.
"Above all, therefore, you ought to understand the deception of the old serpent14 and his cunning suggestions, who deceives you as it were by prudence, and as by a sort of reason creeps through your senses; and beginning at the head, he glides through your inner marrow, accounting the deceiving of you a great gain. Therefore he insinuates into your minds opinions of gods of whatsoever kinds, only that he may withdraw you from the faith of one God knowing that your sin is his comfort. For he, for his wickedness, was condemned from the beginning to eat dust, for that he caused to be again resolved into dust him who had been taken from the dust, even till the time when your souls shall be restored, being brought through the fire; as we shall instruct you more fully at another time. From him, therefore, proceed all the errors and doubts, by which you are driven from the faith and belief of one God.
Chapter XVIII.-His First Suggestion.
"And first of all he suggests to men's thoughts not to hear the words of truth, by which they might put to flight the ignorance of those things which are evils. And this he does, as by the presentation of another knowledge, making a show of that opinion which very many hold, to think that they shall not be held guilty if they have been in ignorance, and that they shall not be called to account for what they have not heard; and thereby he persuades them to turn aside from hearing the word. But I tell you, in opposition to this, that ignorance is in itself a most deadly poison, which is sufficient to ruin the soul without any aid from without. And therefore there is no one who is ignorant who shall escape through his ignorance, but it is certain that he shall perish. For the power of sin naturally destroys the sinner. But since the judgment shall be according to reason, the cause and origin of ignorance shall be inquired into, as well as of every sin. For he who is unwilling to know how he may attain to life, and prefers to be in ignorance lest he thereby be made guilty, from this very fact is judged as if he knew and had knowledge. For he knew what it was that he was unwilling to hear; and the cunning obtained by the artifice of the serpent will avail him nothing for an excuse, for he will have to do with Him to whom the heart is open. But that you may know that ignorance of itself brings destruction, I assure you that when the soul departs from the body, if it leave it in ignorance of Him by whom it was created, and from whom in this world it obtained all things that were necessary for its uses, it is driven forth from the light of His kingdom as ungrateful and unfaithful.
Chapter XIX.-His Second Suggestion.
"Again, the wicked serpent suggests another opinion to men, which many of you are in the habit of bringing forward,-that there is, as we say, one God, who is Lord of all; but these also, they say, are gods. For as there is one Caesar, and he has under him many judges,-for example, prefects, consuls, tribunes, and other officers,-in like manner we think, that while there is one God greater than all, yet still that these gods are ordained in this world, after the likeness of those officers of whom we have spoken, subject indeed to that greater God, yet ruling us and the things that are in this world. In answer to this, I shall show you how, in those very things which you propose for deception, you are confuted by the reasons of truth. You say that God occupies the place of Caesar, and those who are called gods represent His judges and officers. Hold then, as you have adduced it, by the example of Caesar; and know that, as one of Caesar's judges or administrators, as prefects, pr oconsuls, generals, or tribunes, may lawfully take the name of Caesar,-or else both he who should take it and those who should confer it should be destroyed together,-so also in this case yon ought to observe, that if any one give the name of God to any but Himself, and he accept it, they shall partake one and the same destruction, by a much more terrible fate than the servants of Caesar. For he who offends against Caesar shall undergo temporal destruction; but he who offends against Him who is the sole and true God, shall suffer eternal punishment, and that deservedly, as having injured by a wrongful condition the name which is unique.
Chapter XX.-Egyptian Idolatry,
"Although this word God is pot the name of God, but meantime that word is employed by men as His name; and therefore, as I have said, when it is used reproachfully, the reproach is referred to the injury of the true name. In short, the ancient Egyptians, who thought that they had discovered the theory of the heavenly revolutions and the nature of the stars, nevertheless, through the demon's blocking up their senses, subjected the incommunicable name to all kinds of indignity. For some taught that their ox, which is called Apis, ought to be worshipped; others taught that the he-goat, others that cats, the ibis, a fish also, a serpent, onions, drains, crepitus ventris, ought to be regarded as deities, and innumerable other things, which I am ashamed even to mention."
Chapter XXI.-Egyptian Idolatry More Reasonable Than Others.
When Peter was speaking thus, all we who heard him laughed. Then said Peter: "You laugh at the absurdities of others, because through long custom you do not see your own. For indeed it is not without reason that you laugh at the folly of the Egyptians, who worship dumb animals, while they themselves are rational. But I will tell you how they also laugh at you; for they say, We worship living animals, though mortal; but you worship and adore things which never were alive at all. They add this also, that they are figures and allegories of certain powers by whose help the race of men is governed. Taking refuge in this for shame, they fabricate these and similar excuses, and so endeavour to screen their error. But this is not the time to answer the Egyptians, and leaving the care of those who are present to heal the disease of the absent. For it is a certain indication that you are held to be free from sickness of this sort, since you do not grieve over it as your own, but laugh a t it as that of others.
Chapter XXII.-Second Suggestion Continued.
"But let us come back to you, whose opinion it is that God should be regarded as Caesar, and the gods as the ministers and deputies of Caesar. Follow me attentively, and I shall presently show you the lurking-places of the serpent, which lie in the crooked windings of this argument. It ought to be regarded by all as certain and beyond doubt, that no creature can be on a level with God, because He was made by none, but Himself made all things; nor indeed can any one be found so irrational, as to suppose that the thing made can be compared with the maker. If therefore the human mind, not only by reason, but even by a sort of natural instinct, rightly holds this opinion, that that is called God to which nothing can be compared or equalled, but which exceeds all and excels all; how can it be supposed that that name which is believed to be above all, is rightly given to those whom you think to be employed for the service and comfort of human life? But we shall add this also. This w orld was undoubtedly made, and is corruptible, as we shall show more fully by and by; meantime it is admitted both that it has been made and that it is corruptible. If therefore the world cannot be called God, and rightly so, because it is corruptible, how shall parts of the world take the name of God? For inasmuch as the whole world cannot be God, much more its parts cannot. Therefore, if we come back to the example of Caesar, you will see how far you are in error. It is not lawful for any one, though a man of the same nature with him, to be compared with Caesar: do you think, then, that any one ought to be compared with God, who excels all in this respect, that He was made by none, but Himself made all things? But, indeed, you dare not give the name of Caesar to any other, because he immediately punishes one who offends against him; you dare give that of God to others, because He delays the punishment of offenders against Him, in order to their repentance.
Chapter XXIII.-Third Suggestion.
"Through the mouths of others also that serpent is wont to speak in this wise: We adore visible images in honour of the invisible God.15 Now this is most certainly false. For if you really wished to worship the image of God, you would do good to man, and so worship the true image of God in him. For the image of God is in every man, though His likeness is not in all, but where the soul is benign and the mind pure. If, therefore, you wish truly to honour the image of God, we declare to you what is true, that you should do good to and pay honour and reverence to man, who is made in the image of God; that you minister food to the hungry, drink to the thirsty, clothing to the naked, hospitality to the stranger, and necessary things to the prisoner; and that is what will be regarded as truly bestowed upon God. And so far do these things go to the honour of God's image, that he who does not these things is regarded as casting re proach upon the divine image. What, then, is that honour of God which consists in running from one stone or wooden figure to another, in venerating empty and lifeless figures as deities, and despising men in whom the image of God is of a truth? Yea, rather be assured, that whoever commits murder or adultery, or anything that causes suffering or injury to men, in all these the image of God is violated. For to injure men is a great impiety towards God. Whenever, therefore, you do to another what you would not have another do to you, you defile the image of God with undeserved distresses. Understand, therefore, that that is the suggestion of the serpent lurking within you, which persuades you that you may seem to be pious when you worship insensible things, and may not seem impious when you injure sensible and rational beings.
Chapter XXIV.-Fourth Suggestion.
"But to these things the serpent answers us with another mouth, and says: If God did not wish these things to he, then they should not be. I am not telling you how it is that many contrary things are permitted to be in this world for the probation of every one's mind. But this is what is suitable to be said in the meantime: If, according to you, everything that was to be worshipped ought not to have been, there would have been almost nothing in this world. For what is there that you have left without worshipping it? The sun, the moon, the stars, the water, the earth, mountains, trees, stones, men; there is no one of these that ye have not worshipped. According to your saying, therefore, none of these ought to have been made by God, that you might not have anything that you could worship! Yea, He ought not even to have made men themselves to be the worshippers! But this is the very thing which that serpent which lurks within you desires: for he spares none of you; he would have no one of you escape from destruction. But it shall not be so. For I tell you, that not that which is worshipped is in fault, but he who worships. For with God is righteous judgment; and He judges in one way the sufferer, and in another way the doer, of wrong.
Chapter XXV.-Fifth Suggestion.
"But you say: Then those who adore what ought not to be adored, should be immediately destroyed by God, to prevent others doing the like. But are you wiser than God, that you should offer Him counsel?16 He knows what to do. For with all who are placed in ignorance He exercises patience, because He is merciful and gracious; and He foresees that many of the ungodly become godly, and that even some of those who worship impure statues and polluted images have been converted to God, and forsaking their sins and doing good works, attain to salvation. But it is said: We ought never to have come even to the thought of doing these things. You do not know what freedom of will is, and you forget that he is good who is so by his own intention; but, he who is retained in goodness by necessity cannot be called good, because it is not of himself that he is so. Because, therefore, there is in every one liberty to choose good or evil, he either acquires rewards, or brings destruction on himself. Nay it is said, God brings to our minds whatsoever we think. What mean ye, O then? Ye blaspheme. For if He brings all our thoughts into our minds, then it is He that suggests to us thoughts of adultery, and covetousness, and blasphemy, and every kind of effeminacy. Cease, I entreat of you, these blasphemies, and understand what is the honour worthy of God. And say not, as some of you are wont to say, that God needs not honour from men. Indeed, He truly is in need of none; but you ought to know that tile honour which you bestow upon God is profitable to yourselves. For what is so execrable, as for a man not to render thanks to his Creator?
Chapter XXVI.-Sixth Suggestion.
"But it is said: We do better, who give thanks both to Himself, and to all with Him. In this you do not understand that there is the ruin of your salvation. For it is as if a sick man should call in for his cure at once a physician and poisoners; since these could indeed injure him, but not cure him; and the true physician would refuse to mix his remedies with their poisons, lest either the man's destruction should be ascribed to the good, or his recovery, to the injurious. But you say: Is God then indignant or envious, if, when He benefits us, our thanks be rendered to others? Even if He be not indignant, at all events He does not wish to be the author of error, that by means of His work credit should be given to a vain idol. And what is so impious, so ungrateful, as to obtain a benefit from God, and to render thanks to blocks of wood and stone? Wherefore arise, and understand your salvation. For God is in need of no one, nor does He require anything, nor is He hurt by anythi ng; but we are either helped or hurt, in that we are grateful or ungrateful. For what does God gain from our praises, or what does He lose by our blasphemies? Only this we must remember, that God brings into proximity and friendship with Himself the soul that renders thanks to Him. But the wicked demon possesses the ungrateful soul.
Chapter XXVII.-Creatures Take Vengeance on Sinners.
"But this also I would have you know, that upon such souls God does not take vengeance directly, but His whole creation rises up and inflicts punishments upon the impious; and although in the present world the goodness of God bestows the light of the world and the services of the earth alike upon the pious and the impious, yet not without grief does the sun afford his light, and the other elements perform their service, to the impious. And, in short, sometimes even in opposition to the goodness of the Creator, the elements are wearied out by the crimes of the wicked; and thence it is that either the fruit of the earth is blighted, or the composition of the air is vitiated, or the heat of the sun is increased beyond measure, or there is an excessive amount of rain or of cold. Thence pestilence, and famine, and death in various forms stalk forth, for the creature hastens to take vengeance on the wicked; yet the goodness of God restrains it, and bridles its indignation against th e wicked, and compels it to be obedient to His mercy, rather than to be inflamed by the sins and the crimes of men. For the patience of God waiteth for the conversion of men, as long as they are ill this body.
Chapter XXVIII.-Eternity of Punishments.
"But if any persist in impiety till the end of life, then as soon as the soul, which is immortal, departs, it shall pay the penalty of its persistence in impiety. For even the souls of the impious are immortal, though perhaps they themselves would wish them to end with their bodies. But it is not so; for they endure without end the torments of eternal fire, and to their destruction they have not the quality of mortality. But perhaps you will say to me, You terrify us, O Peter. And how shall we speak to you the things which are in reality? Can we declare to you the truth by keeping silence? We cannot state the things which are, otherwise than as they are. But if we were silent, we should make ourselves the cause of the ignorance that is ruinous to you, and should satisfy the serpent that lurks within you, and blocks up your senses, who cunningly suggests these things to you, that he may make you always the enemies of God. But we are sent for this end, that we may betray his dis guises to you; and melting your enmities, may reconcile you to God, that you may be converted to Him, and may please Him by good works. For man is at enmity with God, and is in an unreasonable and impious state of mind and wicked disposition towards Him, especially when he thinks that he knows something, and is in ignorance. But when you lay aside these, and begin to he pleased and displeased with the same things which please and displease God, and to will what God willeth then ye shall truly be called His friends.
Chapter XXIX.-God's Care of Human Things.
"But perhaps some of you will say, God has no care of human things; and if we cannot even attain to the knowledge of Him, how shall we attain to His friendship? That God does concern Himself with the affairs of men, His government of the world bears witness: for the sun daily waits upon it, the showers minister to it; the fountains, rivers, winds, and all elements, attend upon it; and the more these things become known to men, the more do they indicate God's care over men. For unless by the power of the. Most High, the more powerful would never minister to the inferior; and by this God is shown to have not only a care over men, but some great affection, since He has deputed such noble elements to their service. But that men may also attain to the friendship of God, is proved to us by the example of those to whose prayers He has been so favourable, that He has withheld the heaven from rain when they wished, and has again opened it when they prayed.17 And many other things He has bestowed upon those who does His will, which could not be bestowed but upon His friends. But you will say, What harm is done to God if these things also are worshipped by us? If any one of you should pay to another the honour that is due to his father, from whom he has received innumerable benefits, and should reverence a stranger and foreigner as his father, should you not think that he was undutiful towards his father, and most deserving to be disinherited?
Chapter XXX.-Religion of Fathers to Be Abandoned.
"Others say, It is wicked if we do not worship those idols which have come down to us from our fathers, and prove false to the religion bequeathed to us by our ancestors. On this principle, if any one's father was a robber or a base fellow, he ought not to change the manner of life handed down to him by his fathers, nor to be recalled from his father's errors to a better way; and it is reckoned impious if one do not sin with his parents, or does not persist in impiety with them. Others say, We ought not to be troublesome to God, and to be always burdening Him with complaints of our miseries, or with the exigencies of our petitions. How foolish and witless an answer! Do you think it is troublesome to God if you thank Him for His benefits, while you do not think it troublesome to Him if, for His gifts, you render thanks to stocks and stones? And how comes it, that when rain is withheld in a long drought, we all turn our eyes to heaven, and entreat the gift of rain from Go d Almighty, and all of us with oar little ones pour out prayers on God and entreat His compassion? But truly ungrateful souls, when they obtain the blessing, quickly forget: for as soon as they have gathered in their harvest or their vintage, straightway they offer the first-fruits to deaf and dumb images, and pay vows in temples or groves for those things which God has bestowed upon them, and then offer sacrifices to demons; and having received a favour, deny the bestower of the favour.18
Chapter XXXI.-Paganism, Its Enormities.
"But some say, These things are instituted for the sake of joy, and for refreshing our minds; and they have been devised for this end, that the human mind may be relaxed for a little from cares and sorrows. See now what a charge you yourselves bring upon the things which you practise. If these things have been invented for the purpose of lightening sorrow and affording enjoyment, how is it that the invocations of demons are performed in groves and woods? What is the meaning of the insane whirlings, and the slashing of limbs, and the cutting off of members? How is it that mad rage is produced in them? How is insanity produced? How is it that women are driven violently, raging with dishevelled hair? Whence the shrieking and gnashing of teeth? Whence the bellowing of the heart and the bowels, and all those things which, whether they are pretended or are contrived by the ministration of demons, are exhibited to the terror of the foolish and ignorant? Are these things done for the sake of lightening the mind, or rather for the sake of oppressing it? Do ye not yet perceive nor understand, that these are the counsels of the serpent lurking within you, which draws yon away from the apprehension of truth by irrational suggestions of errors, that he may hold you as slaves and servants of lust and concupiscence and every disgraceful thing?
Chapter XXXII.-True Religion Calls to Sobriety and Modesty.
"But I protest to you with the clear voice of preaching, that, on the contrary, the religion of God calls you to sobriety and modesty; orders you to refrain from effeminacy and madness, and by patience and gentleness to prevent the inroads of anger; to be content with your own possessions, and with the virtue of frugality; not even when driven by poverty to plunder the goods of others, bat in all things to observe justice; to withdraw yourselves wholly from the idol sacrifices: for by these things you invite demons to you, and of your own accord give them the power of entering into you; and so you admit that which is the cause either of madness or of unlawful love.
Chapter XXXIII.-Origin of Impiety.
"Hence is the origin of all impiety; hence murders, adulteries, thefts; and a nursery is formed of all evils and wickednesses, while you indulge in profane libations and odours, and give to wicked spirits an opportunity of ruling and obtaining some sort of authority over you. For when they invade your senses, what do they else than work the things which belong to lust and injustice and cruelty, and compel you to be obedient to all things that are pleasing to them? God, indeed, permits you to suffer this at their hands by a certain righteous judgment, that from the very disgrace of your doings and your feelings you may understand how unworthy it is to be subject to demons and not to God. Hence also, by the friendship of demons, men are brought to disgraceful and base deeds; hence, men proceed even to the destruction of life, either through the fire of lust, or through the madness of anger through excess of grief, so that, as is well 19 known, some have even laid violent hands upon themselves. And this, as we have said, by a just sentence of God they are not prevented from doing, that they may both understand to whom they have yielded themselves in subjection, and know whom they have forsaken.
Chapter XXXIV.-Who are Worshippers of God?
"But some one will say, These passions sometimes befall even those who worship God. It is not true. For we say, that he is a worshipper of God, who does the will of God, and observes the precepts of His law. For in God's estimation he is not a Jew who is called a Jew among men (nor is he a Gentile that is called a Gentile), but he who, believing in God, fulfils His law and does His will, though he be not circumcised.20 He is the true worshipper of God, who not only is himself free from passions, but also sets others free from them; though they be so heavy that they are like mountains, he removes them by means of the faith with which he believes in God. Yea, by faith be truly removes mountains with their trees, if it be necessary.21 But he who seems to worship God, but is neither fortified by a full faith, nor by obedience to the commandments, but is a sinner, has giv en a place in himself, by reason of his sins, to passions, which are appointed of God for the punishment of those who sin, that they may exact from them the deserts of their sins by means of punishments inflicted, and may bring them purified to the general judgment of all, provided always that their faith do not fail them in their chastisement. For the chastisement of unbelievers in the present life is a judgment, by which they begin to be separated from future blessings; but the chastisement of those who worship God, while it is inflicted upon them for sins into which they have fallen, exacts from them the due of what they have done, that, preventing the judgment, they may pay the debt of their sin in the present life, and be freed, at least in half, from the eternal punishments which are there prepared.
Chapter XXXV.-Judgment to Come.
"But he does not receive these things as true who does not believe that there is to be a judgment of God, and therefore, being bound by the pleasures of the present life, is shut out from eternal good things; and therefore we do not neglect to proclaim to you what we know to be necessary for your salvation, and to show you what is the true worship of God, that, believing in God, you may be able, by means of good works, to be heirs with us of the world to come. But if you are not yet convinced that what we say is true, meantime, in the first instance, you ought not to take it amiss and to be hostile to us because we announce to you the things which we consider to be good, and because we do not grudge to bestow also upon you that which we believe brings salvation to ourselves, labouring, as I have said, with all eagerness, that we may have you as fellow-heirs of the blessings which we believe are to befall ourselves. But whether those things which we declare to you are certainly true, you shall not be able to know otherwise than by rendering obedience to the things which are commanded, that you may be taught by the issue of things, and the most certain end of blessedness.
Chapter XXXVI.-Conclusion of Discourse.
"And, therefore, although the serpent lurking within you occupies your senses with a thou sand arts of corruption, and throws in your way a thousand obstacles, by which he may turn you away from the hearing of saving instruction, all the more ought you to resist him, and despising his suggestions, to come together the more frequently to hear the word and receive instruction from us, because nobody can learn anything who is not taught."22
And when he had done speaking, he ordered those to be brought to him who were oppressed by sickness or demons, and laid his hands upon them with prayer; and so he dismissed the crowds, charging them to resort to the hearing of the word during the days that he was to remain there. Therefore, when the crowds had departed, Peter washed his body in the waters which ran through the garden, with as many of the others as chose to do so; and then ordered the couches to be spread on the ground under a very shady tree, and directed us to recline according to the order established at Caesarea. And thus, having taken food and given thanks to God after the manner of the Hebrews, as there was yet some portion of the day remaining, he ordered us to question him on any matters that we pleased. And although we were with him twenty in all, he explained to every one whatever he pleased to ask of him; the particulars of which I set down in books and sent to you some time ago. And when evening came we entered with him into the lodging, and went to sleep, each one in his own place.

Book VI.
Chapter I.-Book VI. Diligence in Study.
But as soon as day began to advance the dawn upon the retiring darkness, Peter having gone into the garden to pray, and returning thence and coming to us, by way of excuse for awaking and coming to us a little later than usual, said this:1 "Now that the spring-time has lengthened the day, of course the night is shorter; if, therefore, one desires to occupy some portion of the night in study, he must not keep the same hours2 for waking at all seasons, but should spend the same length of time in sleeping, whether the night be longer or shorter, and be exceedingly careful that he do not cut off from the period which he is wont to have for study, and so add to his sleep and lessen his time of keeping awake. And this also is to be observed, lest haply if sleep be interrupted while the food is still undigested, the undigested mass lead the mind, and by the exhalation of cr ude spirits render the inner sense confused and disturbed. It is right, therefore, that that part also be cherished with sufficient rest, so that, those things being sufficiently accomplished which are due to it, the body may be able in other things to render due service to the mind."
Chapter II.-Much to Be Done in a Little Time.
When he had said this, as very many had already assembled in the accustomed place of the garden to hear him, Peter went forth; and having saluted the crowds in his usual manner, began to speak as follows:3 "Since, indeed, as land neglected by the cultivator necessarily produces thorns and thistles, so your sense, by long neglect, has produced a plentiful crop of noxious opinions of things and dogmas of false science; there is need now of much care in cultivating the field of your mind, that the word of truth, which is the true and diligent husbandman of the heart, may cultivate it with continual instructions. It is therefore your part render obedience to it, and to lop off superfluous occupations and anxieties, lest a noxious growth choke the good seed of the word. For it may be that a short and earnest diligence may repair a long time's neglect; for the time of every one's life is uncertain, and therefore we must hasten to salvation, lest haply sudden death seize upon him who delays.
Chapter III.-Righteous Anger.
"And all the more eagerly must we strive on this account, that while there is time, the collected vices of evil custom may be cut off. And this you shall not be able to do otherwise, than by being angry with yourselves on account of your profitless and base doings. For this is righteous and necessary anger, by which every one is indignant with himself, and accuses himself for those things in which he has erred and done amiss; and by this indignation a certain fire is kindled in us, which, applied as it were to a barren field, consumes and burns up the roots of vile pleasure, and renders the soil of the heart more fertile for the good seed of the word of God. And I think that you have sufficiently worthy causes of anger, from which that most righteous fire may be kindled, if you consider into what errors the evil of ignorance has drawn you, and how it has caused you to fall and rush headlong into sin, from what good things it has withdrawn you, and into what evils it has driven you, and, what is of more importance than all the rest, how it has made you liable to eternal punishments in the world to come. Is not the fire of most righteous indignation kindled within you for all these things, now that the light of truth has shone upon you; and does not the flame of that anger which is pleasing to God rise within you, that every sprout may be burnt up and destroyed from the root, if haply any shoot of evil concupiscence has budded within you?
Chapter IV.-Not Peace, But a Sword.
Hence, also, He who hath sent us, when He had come,4 and had seen that all the world had fallen into wickedness, did not forthwith give peace to him who is in error, lest He should confirm him in evil; but set the knowledge of truth in opposition to the ruins of ignorance of it, that, if haply men would repent and look upon the light of truth, they might rightly grieve that they hall been deceived and drawn away into the precipices of error, and might kindle the fire of salutary anger against the ignorance that had deceived, them. On this account, therefore, He said, `I have come to send fire on the earth; and how I wish that it were kindled!'5 There is therefore a certain fight, which is to be fought by us in this life; for the word of truth and knowledge necessarily separates men from error and ignorance, as we have often seen putrified and dead flesh in the body s eparated by the cutting knife from its connection with the living members. Such is the effect produced by knowledge of the truth. For it is necessary that, for the sake of salvation, the son, for example, who has received the word of truth, be separated from his unbelieving parents; or again, that the father. be separated from his son, or the daughter from her mother. And in this manner the battle of knowledge and ignorance, of truth and error, arises between believing and unbelieving kinsmen and relations. And therefore He who has sent us said again `I am not come to send peace on earth, but a sword.'6
Chapter V.-How the Fight Begins.
"But if any one say, How does it seem right for men to be separated from their parents? I will tell you how. Because, if they remained with them in error, they would do no good to them, and they would themselves perish with them. It is therefore right, and very right, that he who will be saved be separated from him who will not. But observe this also, that this separation does not come from those who understand aright; for they wish to be with their relatives, and to do them good, and to teach them better things. But it is the vice peculiar to ignorance, that it will not bear to have near it the light of truth, which confutes it; and therefore that separation originates with them. For those who receive the knowledge of the truth, because it is full of goodness, desire, if it be possible, to share it with all, as given by the good God; yea, even with those who hate and persecute them: for they know that ignorance is the cause of their sin. Wherefore, in short, the Master Himsel f, when He was being led to the cross by those who knew Him not, prayed the Father for His murderers, and said, `Father, forgive their sin, for they know not what they do!'7 The disciples also, in imitation of the Master, even when themselves were suffering, in like manner prayed for their murderers.8 But if we are taught to pray even for our murderers and persecutors, how ought we not to bear the persecutions of parents and relations, and to pray for their conversion?
Chapter VI.-God to Be Loved More Than Parents.
"Then let us consider carefully, in the next place, what reason we have for loving our parents. For this cause, it is said, we love them, because they seem to be the authors of our life. But our parents are not authors of our life, but means of it. For they do not bestow life, but afford the means of our entering into this life; while the one and sole author of life is God. If, therefore we would love the Author of our life, let us know that it is He that is to be loved. But then it is said, We cannot know Him; but them we know, and hold in affection. Be it so: you cannot know what God is, but you can very easily know what God is not. For how can any man fail to know that wood, or stone, or brass, or other such matter, is not God? But if you will not give your mind to consider the things which you might easily apprehend, it is certain that you are hindered in the knowledge of God, not by impossibility, but by indolence; for if you had wished it, even from these u seless images you might have been set on the way of understanding.
Chapter VII.-The Earth Made for Men.
"For it is certain that these images are made with iron tools; but iron is wrought by fire, which fire is extinguished by water. But water is moved by spirit; and spirit has its beginning from God. For thus saith the prophet Moses: `In the beginning God made the heaven and the earth. But the earth was invisible, and unarranged; and darkness was over the deep: and the Spirit of God was upon the waters.'9 Which Spirit. like the Creator's hand, by command of God separated light from darkness; and after that invisible heaven produced this visible one, that He might make the higher places a habitation for angels, and the lower for men. For your sake, therefore, by command of God, the water which was upon the face of the earth withdrew, that the earth might produce fruits for you; and into the earth also He inserted veins of moisture, that fountains and rivers might flow forth from it for you. For your sake it was commanded to bring forth living creatures, and all things which could serve for your use and pleasure. Is it not for you that the winds blow, that the earth, conceiving by them, may bring forth fruits? Is it not for you that the showers fall, and the seasons change? Is it not for you that the sun rises and sets, and the moon undergoes her changes? For you the sea offers its service, that all things may be subject to you, ungrateful as you are. For all these things shall there not be a righteous punishment of vengeance, because beyond all else you are ignorant of the bestower of all these things, whom you ought to acknowledge and reverence above all?
Chapter VIII.-Necessity of Baptism.
"But now I lead you to understanding by the same paths. For you see that all things are produced from waters. But water was made at first by the Only-begotten; and the Almighty God is the head of the Only-begotten, by whom we come to the Father in such order as we have stated above. But when you have come to the Father you will learn that this is His will, that you be born anew by means of waters, which were first created.10 For he who is regenerated by water, having filled up the measure of good works, is made heir of Him by whom he has been regenerated in incorruption. Wherefore, with prepared minds, approach as sons to a father, that your sins may be washed away, and it may be proved before God that ignorance was their sole cause. For if, after the learning of these things, you remain in unbelief, the cause of your destruction will be imputed to yourselves, and not to ignorance. And do you suppose that yon can have hop e towards God, even if you cultivate all piety and all righteousness, but do not receive baptism. Yea rather, he will be worthy or greater punishment, who does good works not well; for merit accrues to men from good works, but only if they be done as God commands. Now God has ordered every one who worships Him to be sealed by baptism; hut if you refuse, and obey your own will rather than God's, you are doubtless contrary and hostile to His will.
Chapter IX.-Use of Baptism,
"But you will perhaps say, What does the, baptism of water contribute towards the worship of God? In the first place, because that which hath pleased God is fulfilled. In the second place, because, when yon are regenerated and born again of water and of God, the frailty of your former birth, which you have through men, is cut off, and so at length you shall be able to attain salvation; hut otherwise it is impossible. For thus hath the true prophet testified to its with an oath: `Verily I say to you, That unless a man is born again of water, he shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven.11 Therefore make haste; for there is in these waters a certain power of mercy which was borne upon them at the beginning, and acknowledges those who are baptized under the name of the threefold sacrament, and rescues them from future punishments, presenting as a gift to God the souls that are consecrated by baptism. Betake yourselves there fore to these waters, for they alone can quench the violence of the future fire; and he who delays to approach to them, it is evident that the idol of unbelief remains in him, and by it be is prevented from hastening to the waters which confer salvation. For whether you be righteous or unrighteous, baptism is necessary for you in every respect: for the righteous, that perfection may be accomplished in him, and he may be born again to God; for the unrighteous, that pardon may he vouchsafed him of the sins which he has committed in ignorance. Therefore all should hasten to he horn again to God without delay, because the end of every one's life is uncertain.
Chapter X.-Necessity of Good Works.
"But when you have been regenerated by water, show by good works the likeness in you of that Father who hath begotten you. Now you know God, honour Him as a father; and His honour is, that yon live according to His will. And His will is, that you so live as to know nothing of murder or adultery, to flee from hatred and covetousness, to put away anger, pride, and boasting, to abhor envy, and to count all such things entirely unsuitable to you. There is truly a certain peculiar observance of our religion, which is not so much imposed upon men, as it is sought out by every worshipper of God by reason of its purity. By reason of chastity, I say, of which there are many kinds, but first, that every one be careful that he `come not near a menstruous woman; 'for this the law of God regards as detestable. But though the law had given no admonition concerning these things, should we willingly, like beetles, roll ourselves in filth? For we ought to have something more than the animals, as reasonable men, and capable of heavenly senses, whose chief study it ought to be to guard the conscience from every defilement of the heart.
Chapter XI.-Inward and Outward Cleansing.
"Moreover, it is good, and tends to purity, also to wash the body with water. I call it good, not as if it were that prime good of the purifying of the mind, but because this of the washing of the body is the sequel of that good. For so also our Master rebuked some of the Pharisees and scribes, who seemed to be better than others, and separated from the people, calling them hypocrites, because they purified only those things which were seen of men, but left defiled and sordid their hearts, which God alone sees. To some therefore of them-not to all-He said, `Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye cleanse the outside of the cup and platter, but the inside is full of pollution. O blind Pharisees, first make clean what is within, and what is without shall be clean also.'12 For truly, if the mind be purified by the light of knowledge, when once it is clean and clear, then it necessarily takes care of that wh ich is without a man, that is, his flesh, that it also may he purified. But when that which is without, the cleansing of the flesh, is neglected, it is certain that there is no care taken of the purity of the mind and the cleanness of the heart. Thus therefore it comes to pass, that he who is clean inwardly is without doubt cleansed outwardly also, but not always that he who is clean outwardly is also cleansed inwardly-to wit, when he does these things that he may please men.
Chapter XII.-Importance of Chastity.
"But this kind of chastity is also to be observed, that sexual intercourse must not take place heedlessly and for the sake of mere pleasure, but for the sake of begetting children.13 And since this observance is found even amongst some of the lower animals, it were a shame if it be not observed by men, reasonable, and worshipping God. But there is this further reason why chastity should be observed by those who hold the trite worship of God, in those forms of it of which we have spoken, and others of like sort, that it is observed strictly even amongst those who are still held by the devil in error, for even amongst them there is in some degree the observance of chastity. What then? Will you not observe, now that you are reformed, what you observed when you were in error?
Chapter XIII.-Superiority of Christian Morality.
"But perhaps some one of you will say, Must we then observe all things which we did while we worshipped idols? Not all. But whatever things were done well, these you ought to observe even now; because, if anything is rightly done by those who are in error, it is certain that that is derived from the truth; whereas, if anything is not rightly done in the true religion, that is, without doubt, borrowed from error. For good is good, though it be done by those who are in error; and evil is evil, though it be done by those who follow the truth. Or shall we be so foolish, that if we sue a worshipper of idols to be sober, we shall refuse to be sober, lest we should seem to do the same things which he does who worships idols? It is not so. But let this be our study, that if those who err do not commit murder, we should not even be angry; if they do not commit adultery, we should not even covet another's wife; if they love their neighbours, we should love even our enemies; if they lend to those who have the means of paying, we should give to those from whom we do not hope to receive anything. And in all things, we who hope for the inheritance of the eternal world ought to excel those who know only the present world; knowing that if their works, when compared with our works, be found like and equal in the day of judgment, there will be confusion to us, because we are found equal in our works to those who are condemned on account of ignorance, and had no hope of the world to come.
Chapter XIV.-Knowledge Enhances Responsibility.
"And truly confusion is our worthy portion, if we have done no more than those who are inferior to us in knowledge. But if it be confusion to us, to be found equal to them in works, what shall become of us if the examination that is to take place find us inferior and worse than them? Hear, therefore, how our true Prophet has taught us concerning these things; for, with respect to those who neglect to hear the words of wisdom, He speaks thus: `The queen of the south shall rise in judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it, because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and, behold, a greater than Solomon is here, and they hear Him not.'"14 But with respect to those who refused to repent of their evil deeds, He spoke thus: `The men of Nineve shall rise in the judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it; for they repented at the preaching of Jonas; and, behold, a greater than Jona s is here.'15 You see, therefore, how He condemned those who were instructed out of the law, by adducing the example of those who came from Gentile ignorance, and showing that the former were not even equal to those who seemed to live in error. From all these things, then, the statement that He propounded is proved, that chastity, which is observed to a certain extent even by those who live in error, should be held much more purely and strictly, in all its forms, as we showed above, by us who follow the truth; and the rather because with us eternal rewards are assigned to its observance."
Chapter XV.-Bishops, Presbyters, Deacons, and Widows Ordained at Tripolis.
When he had said these things, and others to the same effect, he dismissed the crowds; and having, according to his custom, supped with his friends, he went to sleep. And while in this manner he was teaching the word of God for three whole months, and converting multitudes to the faith, at the last he ordered me to fast; and after the fast he conferred on me the baptism of ever-flowing water, in the fountains which adjoin the sea.16 And when, for the grace of regeneration divinely conferred upon me, we had joyfully kept holiday with our brethren, Peter ordered those who had been appointed to go before him, to proceed to Antioch, and there to wait three months more. And they having gone, he himself led down to the fountains, which, I have said, are near the sea, those who had fully received the faith of the Lord, and baptized them; and celebrating17 the Eucharist wi th them, he appointed, as bishop over them, Maro, who had entertained him in his house, and who was now perfect in all things; and with him he ordained twelve presbyters and deacons at the same time. He also instituted the order of widows, and arranged all the services of the Church; and charged them all to obey Maro their bishop in all things that he should command them. And thus all things being suitably arranged, when the three months were fulfilled, we bade farewell to those who were at Tripolis, and set out for Antioch.
Book VII.
Chapter I.-Journey from Tripolis.
At length leaving Tripolis,1 a city of Phoenicia, we made our first halt at Ortosias, not far from Tripolis; and there we remained the next day also, because almost all those that hart believed in the Lord, unable to part from Peter, followed him thus far. Thence we came to Antharadus. But because there were many in our company, Peter said to Niceta and Aquila: "As there are immense crowds of brethren with as, and we bring upon ourselves no title envy as we enter into every city, it seems to me that we must take means, without doing so unpleasing a thing as to prevent their following us, to secure that the wicked one shall not stir up envy against us on account of any display! I wish, therefore, that you, Niceta and Aquila, would go before us with them, so that you may lead the multitude divided into two sections, that we may enter every city of the Gentiles travelling apart, rather than in one assemblage.
Chapter I.-Disciples Divided into Two Bands.
"But I know that you think it sad to be separated from me for the space of at least two days. Believe me, that in whatever degree you love me, my diction towards you is tenfold greater. But if, by reason of our mutual affection, we will not do the things that are right and honourable, such love will appear to be unreasonable. And therefore, without bating a tittle of oar love, let us attend to those things which seem useful and necessary; especially since not a day can pass in which you may not be present at my discussions. For I purpose to pass through the most noted cities of the provinces one by one, as you also know, and to reside three months in each for the sake of teaching. Now, therefore, go before me to Laodicea, which is the nearest city, and I shall follow yon after two or three days, so far as I purpose. But you shall wait for me at the inn nearest to the gate of the city; and thence again, when we have spent a few days there, you shall go before me to more distant cities. And this I wish you to do at every city, for the sake of avoiding envy as much as in us lies, and also that the brethren who are with us, finding lodgings prepared in the several cities by your foresight, may not seem to be vagabonds."
Chapter III.-Order of March.
When Peter thus spoke, they of course acquiesced, saying: "It does not greatly sadden us to do this, because we are ordered by you, who have been chosen by the foresight of Christ to I do and to counsel well in all things; but also because, while it is a heavy loss not to see our lord Peter for one, or it may be two days, yet it is not intolerable. And we think of our twelve brethren who go before us, and who are deprived of the advantage of hearing and seeing you for a whole month out of the three that you stay in every city. Therefore we shall not delay doing as you order, because you order all things aright." And thus saying, they went forward, having received instructions that they should speak to the brethren who journeyed with them outside the city, and request them not to enter the cities in a crowd and with tumult, but apart, and divided
Chapter IV.-Clement's Joy at Remaining with Peter.
But when they were gone, I Clement rejoiced greatly because he had kept me with himself, and I said to him: "I give thanks to God that yon have not sent me forward with the others, for I should have died through sadness." Then said Peter: "And what will happen if necessity shall demand that yon be sent anywhere for the purpose of teaching? Would yon die if you were separated from me for a good purpose? Would you not put a restraint upon yourself, to bear patiently what necessity has laid upon you? Or do you not know that friends are always together, and are joined in memory, though they be separated bodily; as, on the other hand, some. persons are near to one another in body, but are separate in mind? "
Chapter V.-Clement's Affection for Peter.
Then I answered: "Think not, my lord, that I suffer these things unreasonably; hut there is a certain cause and reason of this affection of mine towards you. For I have you alone as the object of all my affections, instead of father and mother, and brethren; bat above all this, is the fact that you alone are the cause of my salvation and knowledge of the truth. And also this I do not count of least moment, that my youthful age is subject to the snares of lusts; and I am afraid to he without you, by whose sole presence all effeminacy, however irrational it be, is put to shame; although I trust, by the mercy of God, that even my mind, from what it has conceived through your instruction, shall be unable to receive aught else into its thoughts. Besides, I remember your saying at Caesarea, `If any one wishes to accompany me, without violating dutifulness, let him accompany me.' And by this you meant that he should not make any one sad, to whom he ought according to God's appointmen t to cleave; for example, that he should not leave a faithful wife, or parents, or the like. Now from these I am entirely free, and so I am fit for following you; and I wish you would grant me that I might perform to you the service of a servant."
Chapter VI.-Peter's Simplicity of Life.
Then Peter, laughing. said: "And do you not think, Clement, that very necessity must make you my servant? For who else can spread my sheets, and arrange my beautiful coverlets? Who will be at hand to keep my rings, and prepare my robes, which I must be constantly changing? Who shall superintend my cooks, and provide various and choice meats to be prepared by most recondite and various art; and all those things which are procured at enormous expense, and arc brought together for men of delicate up-bringing, yea rather, for their appetite, as for some enormous beast? But perhaps, although you live with me, you do not know my manner of life. I live on bread alone, with olives, and seldom even with pot-herbs; and my dress is what you see, a tunic with a pallium: and having these, I require nothing more. This is sufficient for me, because my mind does not regard things present, but things eternal, and therefore no present and visible thing delights me. Whence I embrace and admire i ndeed your good mind towards me; and I commend you the more, because, though you have been accustomed to so great abundance, you have been able so soon to abandon it, and to accommodate yourself to this life of ours, which makes use of necessary things alone. For we-that is, I and my brother Andrew-have grown up from our childhood not only orphans, but also extremely poor, and through necessity have become used to labour, whence now also we easily bear tile fatigues of our journeyings. But rather, if you would consent and allow it, I, who am a working man, could more easily discharge the duty of a servant to you."
Chapter VII.-Peter's Humility.
But I trembled when I heard this, and my tears immediately gushed forth, because so great a man, who is worth more than the whole world, had addressed such a proposal to me. Then he, when he saw me weeping, inquired the reason; and I answered him: "How have I so sinned against you, that you should distress me with such a proposal? "Then Peter: "If it is evil that I said I should serve you, you were first in fault in saying tile same thing to me." Then said I: "The cases are not alike: for it becomes me to do this to you; but it is grievous that you, who are sent as the herald of the Most High God to save the souls of men, should say it to me." Then said Peter: "I should agree with you, were it not that our Lord, who came for the salvation of the whole world, and who was nobler than any creature, submitted to be a servant, that He might persuade us not to be ashamed to perform the ministry of servants to our brethren." Then said I: "It were foolishness in me to suppose that I c an prevail with you; nevertheless I give thanks to the providence of God, because I have merited to have you instead of parents."
Chapter VIII.-Clement's Family History.
Then said Peter: "Is there then no one of your family surviving? "I answered: "There are indeed many powerful men, coming of the stock of Caesar; for Caesar himself gave a wife to my father, as being his relative, and educated along with him, and of a suitably noble family. By her my father had twin sons, born before me, not very like one another, as my father told me; for I never knew them. But indeed I have not a distinct recollection even of my mother; but I cherish the remembrance of her face, as if I had seen it in a dream. My mother's name was Matthidia, my father's Faustinianus: my brothers', Faustinus and Faustus.2 Now, when I was barely five years old, my mother saw a vision-so I learned from my father-by which she was warned that, unless she speedily for the city with her twin sons, and was absent for ten years, she and her children should perish by a miserable fate.
Chapter IX.-Disappearance of His Mother and Brothers.
"Then my father, who tenderly loved his sons, put them on board a ship with their mother, and sent them to Athens to be educated, with slaves and maid-servants, and a sufficient supply of money; retaining me only to be a comfort to him, and thankful for this, that the vision had not commanded me also to go with my mother. And at the end of a year my father sent men to Athens with money for them, desiring also to know how they did; but those who were sent never returned. Again, in the third year, my sorrowful father sent other men with money, who returned in the fourth year, and related that they had seen neither my mother nor my brothers, that they had never reached Athens, and that no trace had been found of any one of those who had been with them.
Chapter X.-Disappearance of His Father.
"My father hearing this, and confounded with excessive sorrow, not knowing whither to go or where to seek, went down with me to the harbour, and began to ask of the sailors whether any of them had seen or heard of the bodies of a mother and two little children being cast ashore anywhere, four years ago; when one told one story and another another, but nothing definite was disclosed to us searching in this boundless sea. Yet my father, by reason of the great affection which he bore to his wife and children, was fed with vain hopes, until he thought of placing me under guardians and leaving me at Rome, as I was now twelve years old, and himself going in quest of them. Therefore he went down to the harbour weeping, and going on board a ship, took his departure; and from that time till now I have never received any letters from him, nor do I know whether he is alive or dead. But I rather suspect that he also has perished, either through a broken heart or by shipwreck; for twenty y ears have now elapsed since then, and no tidings of him have ever reached me."
Chapter XI.-Different Effects of Suffering on Heathens and Christians.
Peter, hearing this, shed tears of sympathy, and said to his friends who were present: "If any man who is a worshipper of God had endured what this man's father has endured, immediately men would assign his religion as the cause of his calamities; but when these things happen to miserable Gentiles, they charge their misfortunes upon fate. I call them miserable, because they are both vexed with errors here, and are deprived of future hope; whereas, when the worshippers of God suffer these things, their patient endurance of them contributes to their cleansing from sin."
Chapter XII.-Excursion to Aradus.
After this, one of those present began to ask Peter, that early next day we should go to a neighbouring island called Aradus, which was not more than six furlongs off, to see a certain wonderful work that was in it, viz. vine-wood3 columns of immense size. To this Peter assented, as he was very complaisant; but he charged us that, when we left the ship, we should not rush all together to see it: "for," said he, "I do not wish you to be noticed by the crowd." When therefore, next day, we reached the island by ship in the course of an hour forthwith we hastened to the place where the wonderful columns were. They were placed in a certain temple, in which there were very magnificent works of Phidias, on which every one of us gazed earnestly.
Chapter XIII.-The Beggar Woman.
But when Peter had admired only the columns, being no wise ravished with the grace of the painting, he went out, and saw before the gates a poor woman asking alms of those who went in; and looking earnestly at her, he said: "Tell me, O woman, what member of your body is wanting, that you subject yourself to the indignity of asking alms, and do not rather gain your bread by labouring with your hands which God has given you." But she, sighing, said: "Would that I had hands which could be moved; but now only the appearance of hands has been preserved, for they are lifeless, and have been rendered feeble and without feeling by my knawing of them." Then Peter said: "What has been the cause of your inflicting so great an injury upon yourself? ""Want of courage," said she, "and nought else; for if I had had any bravery in me, I could either have thrown myself from a precipice, or cast myself into the depths of the sea, and so ended my griefs."
Chapter XIV.-The Woman's Grief.
Then Peter said: "Do you think, O woman, that those who destroy themselves are set free from torments, and not rather that the souls of those who lay violent hands upon themselves are subjected to greater punishments? "Then said she: "I wish I were sure that souls live in the infernal regions, for I would gladly embrace the suffering of the penalty of suicide, only that I might see my darling children, if it were but for an hour." Then Peter: "What thing is it so great, that effects you with so heavy sadness? I should like to know. For if you informed me of the cause, I might be able both to show you clearly, O woman, that souls do live in the infernal regions; and instead of the precipice or the deep sea, I might give yon some remedy, that you may be able to end your life without torment."
Chapter XV.-The Woman's Story.
Then the woman, hearing this welcome promise, began to say: "It is neither easy of belief, nor do I think it necessary to tell, what is my extraction, or what is my country. It is enough only to explain the cause of my grief, why I have rendered my hands powerless by gnawing them. Being born of noble parents, and having become the wife of a suitably powerful man, I had two twin sons, and after them one other. But my husband's brother was vehemently enflamed with unlawful love towards me; and as I valued chastity above all things, and would neither consent to so great wickedness, nor wished to disclose to my husband the baseness of his brother, I considered whether in any way I could escape unpolluted, and yet not set brother against brother, and so bring the whole race of a noble family into disgrace. I made up my mind, therefore, to leave my country with my two twins, until the incestuous love should subside, which the sight of me was fostering and inflaming; and I thought th at our other son should remain to comfort his father to some extent.
Chapter XVI.-The Woman's Story Continued.
"Now in order to carry out this plan, I pretended that I had had a dream, in which some deity stood by me in a vision, and told me that I should immediately depart from the city with my twins, and should be absent until he should command me to return; and that, if I did not do so, I should perish with all my children. And so it was done. For as soon as I told the dream to my husband, he was terrified; and sending with me my twin sons, and also slaves and maid-servants, and giving me plenty of money, he ordered me to sail to Athens, where I might educate my sons, and that I should stay there until he who commanded me to depart should give me leave to return. While I was sailing along with my sons, I was shipwrecked in the night by the violence of the winds, and, wretch that I am, was driven to this place; and when all had perished, a powerful wave caught me, and cast me upon a rock. And while I sat there with this only hope, that haply I might be able to find my sons, I did not throw myself into the deep, although then my soul, disturbed and drunk with grief, had both the courage and the power to do it.
Chapter XVII.-The Woman's Story Continued.
"But when the day dawned, and I with shouting and howling was looking around, if I could even see the corpses of my unhappy sons anywhere washed ashore, some of those who saw me were moved with compassion, and searched, first over the sea, and then also along the shores, if they could find either of my children. But when neither of them was anywhere found, the women of the place, taking pity on me, began to comfort me, every one telling her own griefs, that I might take consolation from the likeness of their calamities to my own. But this saddened me all the more; for my disposition was not such that I could regard the misfortunes of others as comforts to me. And when many desired to receive me hospitably, a certain poor I woman who dwells here constrained me to enter into her hut, saying that she had had a husband who was a sailor, and that he had died at sea while a young man, and that, although many afterwards asked her in marriage, she preferred widowhood through love of h er husband. `Therefore, 'said she. `we shall share whatever we can gain by the labour of our hands.'
Chapter XVIII.-The Woman's Story Continued.
"And, not to detain you with a long and profitless story, I willingly dwelt with her on account of the faithful affection which she retained for her husband. But not long after, my hands (unhappy woman that I was!), long torn with gnawing, became powerless, and she who had taken me in fell into palsy, and now lies at home in her bed; also the affection of those women who had formerly pitied me grew cold. We are both helpless. I, as you see, sit begging; and when I get anything, one meal serves two wretches. Behold, now you have heard enough of my affairs; why do you delay the fulfilment of your promise, to give me a remedy, by which both of us may end our miserable life without torment? "
Chapter XIX.-Peter's Reflections on the Story.
While she was speaking, Peter, being distracted with much thought, stood like one thunder-struck; and I Clement coming up, said: "I have been seeking you everywhere, and now what are we to do? "But he commanded me to go before him to the ship, and there to wait for him; and because he must not be gainsayed, I did as he commanded me. But he, as he afterwards told me the whole, being struck with a sort of suspicion, asked of the woman her family, and her country, and the names of her sons; "and straightway," he said, "if you tell me these things, I shall give you the remedy." But she, like one suffering violence, because she would not confess these things, and yet was desirous of the remedy, reigned one thing after another, saying that she was an Ephesian, and her husband a Sicilian, and giving false names to her sons. Then Peter, supposing that she had answered truly, said: "Alas! O woman, I thought that some great joy should spring up to us to-day; for I suspected that you wer e a certain woman, concerning whom I lately learned certain like things." But she adjured him, saying: "I entreat you to tell me what they are, that I may know if amongst women there be one more unfortunate than myself."
Chapter XX.-Peter's Statement to the Woman.
Then Peter, incapable of deception, and moved with compassion, began to say: "There is a certain young man among those who follow me for the sake of religion and sect, a Roman citizen, who told me that he had a father and two twin brothers, of whom not one is left to him. `My mother, 'he said, `as I learned from my father, saw a vision, that she should depart from the Roman city for a time with her twin sons, else they should perish by a dreadful death; and when she had departed, she was nevermore seen.' And afterwards his father set out to search for his wife and sons, and was also lost."
Chapter XXI.-A Discovery.
When Peter had thus spoken, the woman, struck with astonishment, fainted. Then Peter began to hold her rip, and to comfort her, and to ask what was the matter, or what she suffered. But she at length, with difficulty recovering her breath, and nerving herself up to the greatness of the joy which she hoped for, and at the same time wiping her face, said: "Is he here, the youth of whom you speak? "But Peter, when he understood the matter, said: "Tell me first, or else you shall not see him." Then she said: "I am the mother of the youth." Then says Peter: "What is his name? "And she answered: "Clement." Then said Peter: "It is himself; and he it was that spoke with me a little while ago, and whom I ordered to go before me to the ship." Then she fell down at Peter's feet and began to entreat him that he would hasten to the ship. Then Peter said: "Yes if you will promise me that you will do as I say." Then she said: "I will do anything; only show me my only son, for I think that in him I shall see my twins also." Then Peter said: "When you have seen him, dissemble for a little time, until we leave the island." "I will do so," she said.
Chapter XXII.-A Happy Meeting.
Then Peter, holding her hand, led her to the ship. And when I saw him giving his hand to the woman, I began to laugh; yet, approaching to do him honour, I tried to substitute my hand for his, and to support the woman. But as soon as I touched her hand, she uttered a loud scream, and rushed into my embrace, and began to devour me with a mother's kisses. But I, being ignorant of the whole matter, pushed her off as a mad woman; and at the same time, though with reverence, I was somewhat angry with Peter.
Chapter XXIII.-A Miracle.
But he said: "Cease: what mean you, O Clement, my son? Do not push away your mother." But I as soon as I heard these words, immediately bathed in tears, fell upon my mother, who had fallen down, and began to kiss her, For as soon as I heard, by degrees I recalled her countenance to my memory; and the longer I gazed, the more familiar it grew to me. Mean time a great multitude assembled, hearing that the woman who used to sit and beg was recognised by her son, who was a good man.4 And when we wished to sail hastily away from the island, my mother said to me: "My darling son, it is right that I should bid farewell to the woman who took me in; for she is poor, and paralytic, and bedridden." When Peter and all who were present heard this, they admired the goodness and prudence of the woman; and immediately Peter ordered some to go and to bring the woman in her bed as she lay. And when she had been brought, and placed in the m idst of the crowd, Peter said, in the presence of all: "If I am a preacher of truth, for confirming the faith of all those who stand by, that they may know and believe that there is one God, who made heaven and earth, in the name of Jesus Christ, His Son, let this woman rise." And as soon as he had said this, she arose whole, and fell down at Peter's feet; and greeting her friend and acquaintance with kisses asked of her was the meaning of it all. But she shortly related to her the whole proceeding of the Recognition,5 so that the crowds standing around wondered.
Chapter XXIV-Departure from Aradus.
Then Peter, so far as he could, and as time permitted, addressed the crowds on the faith of God, and the ordinances of religion; and then added, that if any one wished to know more accurately about these things, he should come to Antioch, "where," said he, "we have resolved to stay three months, and to teach fully the things which pertain to salvation. For if," said he, "men leave their country and their parents for commercial or military purposes, and do not fear to undertake long voyages, why should it be thought burdensome or difficult to leave home for three months for the sake of eternal life? "When he had said these things, and more to the same purpose, I presented a thousand drachmas to the woman who had entertained my mother, and who bad recovered her health by means of Peter, and in the presence of all committed her to the charge of a certain good man, the chief person in that town, who promised that he would gladly do what we demanded of him. I also distributed a lit tle money among some others, and among those women who were said formerly to have comforted my mother in her miseries, to whom I also expressed my thanks. And after this we sailed, along with my mother, to Antaradus.
Chapter XXV.-Journeyings.
And when we had come to our lodging,6 my mother began to ask of me what had become of my father; and I told her that he had gone to seek her, and never returned. But she, hearing this, only sighed; for her great joy on my account lightened her other sorrows. And the next clay she journeyed with us, sitting with Peter's wife; and we came to Balaneae, where we stayed three days, and then went on to Pathos, and afterwards to Gabala; and so we arrived at Laodicea, where Niceta and Aquila met us before the gates, and kissing us, conducted us to a lodging. But Peter, seeing that it was a large and splendid city, said that it was worthy that we should stay in it ten days, or even longer. Then Niceta and Aquila asked of me who was this unknown woman; and I answered: "It is my mother, whom God has given back to me by means of my lord Peter."
Chapter XXVI.-Recapitulation.
And when I had said this, Peter began to relate the whole matter to them in order,7 and said. "When we had come to Aradus,8 and I had ordered you to go on before us, the same day after you had gone, Clement was led in the course of conversation to tell me of his extraction and his family, and how he had been deprived of his parents, and had had twin brothers older than himself, and that, as his father told him, his mother once saw a vision, by which she was ordered to depart from the city of Rome with her twin sons, else she and they should suddenly perish. And when she had told his father the dream, he, loving his sons with tender affection, and afraid of any evil befalling them, put his wife and sons on board a ship with all necessaries, and sent them to Athens to be educated. Afterwards he sent once and again persons to inquire after them, but nowhere found even a trace of them. At last the father himself went on the search, and until now he is nowhere to be found. When Clement had given me this narrative, there came one to us, asking us to go to the neighbouring island of Aradus, to see vine-wood columns of wonderful size. I consented; and when we came to the place, all the rest went into the interior of the temple; but I-for what reason I know not-had no mind to go farther.
Chapter XXVII.-Recapitulation Continued.
"But while I was waiting outside for them, I began to notice this woman, and to wonder in what part of her body she was disabled, that she did not seek her living by the labour of her hands, but submitted to the shame of beggary. I therefore asked of her the reason of it. She confessed that she was sprung of a noble race, and was married to a no less noble husband, `whose brother, 'said she, `being inflamed by unlawful love towards me, desired to defile his brother's bed. This I abhorring, and yet not daring to tell my husband of so great wickedness, lest I should stir up war between the brothers. and bring disgrace upon the family, judged it better to depart from my country with my two twin sons, leaving the younger boy to be a comfort to his father. And that this might be done with an honourable appearance, I thought good to feign a dream, and to tell my husband that there stood by me in a vision a certain deity, who told me to set out from the city immediately with my two t wins, and remain until he should instruct me to return.' She told me that her husband, when he heard this, believed her, and sent her to Athens, with the twin children to be educated there; but that they were driven by a terrible tempest upon that island, where, when the ship had gone to pieces, she was lifted by a wave upon a rock, and delayed killing herself only for this, `until, 'said she, `I could embrace at least the dead limbs of my unfortunate sons, and commit them to burial. But when the day dawned, and crowds had assembled, they took pity upon me, and threw a garment over me. But I, miserable, entreated them with many tears, to search if they could find anywhere the booties of my unfortunate sons. And I, tearing all my body with my teeth, with wailing and howlings cried out constantly, Unhappy woman that I am, where is my Faustus? where my Faustinus? '"
Chapter XXVIII.-More Recognitions.
And when Peter said this,9 Niceta and Aquila suddenly started up, and being astonished, began to be greatly agitated, saying: "O Lord, Thou Ruler and God of all, are these things true, or are we in a dream? "Then Peter said: "Unless we be mad, these things are true." But they, after a short pause, and wiping their faces, said: "We are Faustinus and Faustus: and even at the first, when you began this narrative, we immediately fell into a suspicion that the matters that you spoke of might perhaps relate to us; yet again considering that many like things happen in men's lives, we kept silence, although our hearts were struck by some hope. Therefore we waited for the end of your story, that, if it were entirely manifest that it related to us, we might then confess it." And when they had thus spoken, they went in weeping to our mother. And when they found her asleep, and wished to embrace her, Peter prevented them, saying: "Pe rmit me first to prepare your mother's mind, lest haply by the great and sudden joy she lose her reason, and her understanding he disturbed, especially as she is now stupefied with sleep."
Chapter XXIX.-"Nothing Common or Unclean."
Therefore, when our mother had risen from her sleep, Peter began to address her, saying: "I wish you to know, O woman an observance of our religion. We worship one God, who made the world, and we keep His law, in which He commands us first of all to worship Him, and to reverence His name, to honour our parents, and to preserve chastity and uprightness. But this also we observe, not to have a common table with Gentiles, unless when they believe, and on the reception of the truth are baptized, and consecrated by a certain threefold invocation of the blessed name; and then we eat with them.10 Otherwise, even if it were a father or a mother, or wife, or sons, or brothers, we cannot have a common table with them. Since, therefore, we do this for the special cause of religion, let it not seem hard to you that your son cannot eat with you, until you have the same judgment of the faith that he has."
Chapter XXX.-"Who Can Forbid Water? "
Then she, when she heard this, said: "And what hinders me to be baptized to-day? For even before I saw you I was wholly alienated t from those whom they call gods because they were not able to do anything for me, although I frequently, and almost daily, sacrificed to them. And as to chastity, what shall I say, when neither in former times did pleasures deceive me, nor afterwards did poverty compel me to sin? But I think you know well enough how great was my love of chastity, when I pretended that dream that I might escape the snares of unhallowed love, and that I might go abroad with my two twins. and when I left this my son Clement alone to be a comfort to his father. For if two were scarcely enough for me, how much more it would have saddened their father, if he had had none at all? For he was wretched through his great affection towards our sons, so that even the authority of the dream could scarce prevail upon him to give up to me Faustinus and Faustus, the brothers of thi s Clement, and that himself should be content with Clement alone. "
Chapter XXXI.-Too Much Joy.
While she was yet speaking, my brothers could contain themselves no longer, but rushed into their mother's embrace with many tears, and kissed her. But she said: "What is the meaning of this "Then said Peter: "Be not disturbed, O woman; be firm. These are your sons Faustinus and Faustus, whom you supposed to have perished in the deep; but how they are alive, and how they escaped in that horrible night, and how the one of them is called Niceta and the other Aquila, they will be able to explain to you themselves, and we also shall hear it along with you." When Peter had said this, our mother fainted, being overcome with excess of joy; and after some time, being restored and come to herself, she said; "I beseech you, darling sons, tell me what has befallen you since that dismal and cruel night."
Chapter XXXII.-"He Bringeth Them Unto Their Desired Haven."
Then Niceta began to say: "On that night, O mother, when the ship was broken up, and we were being tossed upon the sea, supported on a fragment of the wreck, certain men, whose business it was to rob by sea, found us, and placed us in their boat, and overcoming the power of the waves by rowing, by various stretches brought us to Caesarea Stratonis. There they starved us, and heat us, and terrified us, that we might not disclose the truth; and having changed our names, they sold us to a certain widow, a very honourable women, named Justa. She, having bought us, treated us as sons, so that she carefully educated us in Greek literature and liberal arts. And when we grew up, we also attended to philosophic studies, that we night be able to confute the Gentiles, by supporting the doctrines of the divine religion by philosophic disputations.
Chapter XXXIII.-Another Wreck Prevented.
"But we adhered, for friendship's sake and boyish companionship, to one Simon, a magician, who was educated along with us, so that we were almost deceived by him. For there is mention made in our religion of a certain Prophet, whose coming was hoped for by all who observe that religion, through whom immortal and happy life is promised to be given to those who believe in Him. Now we thought that this Simon was he. But these things shall be explained to you, O mother, at a more convenient season. Meanwhile, when we were almost deceived by Simon, a certain colleague of my lord Peter, Zacchaeus by name, warned us that we should not be duped by the magician, but presented us to Peter on his arrival, that by him we might be taught the things which were sound and perfect. And this we hope will happen to you also, even as God has vouchsafed it to us, that we may be able to eat and have a common table with you. Thus therefore it was, O mother, that you believed that we were drowned in the sea, while we were stolen by pirates."
Chapter XXXIV.-Baptism Must Be Preceded by Fasting.
When Niceta had spoken thus, our mother fell down at Peter's feet, entreating and beseeching him that both herself and her hostess might be baptized without delay; "that," said she, "I may not even for a single clay suffer the loss of the company and society of my sons." In like manner, we her sons also entreated Peter. But he said: "What! Do you think that I alone am unpitiful, and that I do not wish you to enjoy your mother's society at meals? But she must fast at least one day first, and so be baptized; and this because I have heard from her a certain declaration, by which her faith has been made manifest to me, and which has given evidence of her belief; otherwise she must have been instructed and taught many days before she could have been baptized."
Chapter XXXV.-Desiring the Salvation or Others.
Then said I: "I pray you, my lord Peter, tell us what is that declaration which you say afforded you evidence of her faith? "Then Peter: "It is her asking that her hostess, whose kindnesses she wishes to requite, may be baptized along with her. Now she would not ask that this grace be bestowed upon her whom she loves, unless she believed that there is some great boon in baptism. Whence, also, I find fault with very many, who, when they are themselves baptized and believe, yet do nothing worthy of faith with those whom they love, such as wives, or children, or friends, whom they do not exhort to that which they themselves have attained, as they would do if indeed they believed that eternal life is thereby bestowed. In short, if they see them to be sick, or to be subject to any danger bodily, they grieve and mourn, because they are sure that in this destruction threatens them. So, then, if they were sure of this, that the punishment of eternal fire awaits those who do not worship God, when would they cease warning and exhorting? Or, if they refused, how would they not mourn and bewail them, being sure that eternal torments awaited them? Now, therefore, we shall send for that woman at once, and see if she loves the faith of our religion; and as we find, so shall we act. But since your mother has judged so faithfully concerning baptism, let her fast only one day before baptism."
Chapter XXXVI.-The Sons' Pleading.
But she declared with an oath, in presence of my lord Peter's wife, that from the time she recognised her son, she had been unable to take any food from excess of joy, excepting only that yesterday she drank a cup of water. Peter's wife also bore witness, saying that it was even so. Then Aquila said: "What, then, hinders her being baptized? "Then Peter, smiling, said: "But this is not the fast of baptism, for it was not done in order to baptism." Then Niceta said: "But perhaps God, wishing that our mother, on our recognition, should not be separated even for one day from participation of our table, pre-ordained this fasting. For as in her ignorance she preserved her chastity, that it might profit her in order to the grace of baptism; so she fasted before she knew the reason of fasting, that it might profit her in order to baptism, and that immediately, from the beginning of our acquaintance, she might enjoy communion of the table with us."
Chapter XXXVII.-Peter Inexorable.
Then said Peter:11 "Let not the wicked one prevail against us, taking occasion from a mother's love; but let you, and me with you, fast this day along with her, and to-morrow she shall be baptized: for it is not right that the precepts of truth be relaxed and weakened in favour of any person or friendship. Let us not shrink, then, from suffering along with her, for it is a sin to transgress any commandment. But let us teach our bodily senses, which are without us, to be in subjection to our inner senses; and not compel our inner senses, which savour the things that be of God, to follow the outer senses, which savour the things that be of the flesh. For to this end also the Lord commanded, saying: `Whosoever shall look upon a woman to lust after her, hath committed adultery with her already in his heart.' And to this He added: `If thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members perish, rather than thy whole body be cast into hell-fire.'12 He does not say, has offended thee, that you should then east away the cause of sin after you have sinned; but if it offend you, that is, that before you sin you should cut off the cause of the sin that provokes and irritates you. But let none of you think, brethren, that the Lord commended the cutting off of the members. His meaning is, that the purpose should be cut off, not the members, and the causes which allure to sin, in order that our thought, borne up on the chariot of sight, may push towards the love of God, supported by the bodily senses;13 and not give loose reins to the eyes of the flesh as to wanton horses, eager to turn their running outside the way of the commandments, but may subject the bodily sight to the judgment of the mind, and not suffer those eyes of o urs, which God intended to be viewers and witnesses of His work, to become panders of evil desire. And therefore let the bodily senses as well as the internal thought be subject to the law of God, and let them serve His will, whose work they acknowledge themselves to be."
Chapter XXXVIII.-Reward of Chastity.
Therefore, as the order and reason of the mystery demanded, on the following day she was baptized in the sea,14 and returning to the lodging, was initiated in all the mysteries of religion in their order. And we her sons, Niceta and Aquila, and I Clement, were present. And after this we dined with her, and glorified God with her, thankfully acknowledging the zeal and teaching of Peter, who showed us, by the example of our mother, that the good of chastity is not lost with God;15 "as, on the other hand," said he, "unchastity does not escape punishment, though it may not be punished immediately, but slowly. But so well pleasing," said he, "is chastity to God, that it confers some grace in the present life even upon those who are in error; for future blessedness is laid up for those only who preserve chastity and righteousness by the grace of baptism. In short, that w hich has befallen your mother is an example of this, for all this welfare has been restored to her in reward of her chastity, for the guarding and preserving of which continence alone is not sufficient; but when any one perceives that snares and deceptions are being prepared, he must straightway flee as from the violence of fire or the attack of a mad dog, and not trust that he can easily frustrate snares of this kind by philosophizing or by humouring them; but, as I have said, he must flee and withdraw to a distance, as your mother also did through her true and entire love of chastity. And on this account she has been preserved to you, and you to her; and in addition, she has been endowed with the knowledge of eternal life" When he had said this, and much more to the same effect, the evening having come, we went to sleep.
Book VIII.
Chapter I.-The Old Workman.
Now the next morning Peter took my brothers and me with him, and we went down to the harbour to bathe in the sea, and thereafter we retired to a certain secret place for prayer. But a certain poor old man, a workman, as he appeared by his dress, began to observe us eagerly, without our seeing him, that he might see what we were doing in secret.1 And when he saw us praying, he waited till we came out, and then saluted us, and said: "If you do not take it amiss, and regard me as an inquisitive and importunate person, I should wish to converse with you; for I take pity on you, and would not have you err under the appearance of truth, and be afraid of things that have no existence; or if you think that there is any truth in them, then declare it to me. If, therefore, you take it patiently, I can in a few words instruct you in what is right; but if it be unpleasant to you, I shall go on, and do my business." To him Peter answe red: "Speak what you think good, and we will gladly hear, whether it be true or false; for you are to be welcomed, because, like a father anxious on behalf of his children, you wish to put us in possession of what you regard as good."
Chapter II.-Genesis.
Then the old man proceeded to say: "I saw you bathe in the sea, and afterwards retire into a secret place; wherefore observing, without your noticing me, what you were doing, I saw you praying. Therefore, pitying your error, I waited till you came out, that I might speak to you, and instruct you not to err in an observance of this sort; because there is neither any God, nor any worship, neither is there any providence in the world, but all things are done by fortuitous chance and genesis, as I have discovered most clearly for thyself, being accomplished beyond others in the discipline of learning.2 Do not err, therefore: for whether you pray, or whether you do not pray, whatever your genesis contains, that shall befall you." Then I Clement was affected, I know not how, in my heart, recollecting many things in him that seemed familiar to me; for some one says well, that that which is sprung from any one, alth ough it may be long absent, yet a spark of relationship is never extinguished.3 Therefore I began to ask of him who and whence he was, and how descended. But he, not wishing to answer these questions, said: "What has that to do with what I have told you? But first, if you please, let us converse of those matters which we have pro-pounded; and afterwards, if circumstances require, we can disclose to one another, as friends to friends, our names, and families, and country, and other things connected with these." Yet we all admired the eloquence of the man, and the gravity of his manners, and the calmness of his speech.
Chapter III.-A Friendly Conference.
But Peter, walking along leisurely while conversing, was looking out for a suitable place for a conference. And when he saw a quiet recess near the harbour, he made us sit down; and so he himself first began. Nor did he hold the old man in any contempt, nor did he look down upon him because his dress was poor and mean. He said, therefore: "Since you seem to me to be a learned man, and a compassionate, inasmuch as you have come to us, and wish that to be known to us which you consider to be good, we also wish to expound to you what things we believe to be good and right; and if you do not think them true, you will take in good part our good intentions towards you, as we do yours towards us." While Peter was thus speaking, a great multitude assembled. Then said the old man: "Perhaps the presence of a multitude disconcerts you." Peter replied: "Not at all, except only on this account, that I am afraid lest haply, when the truth is made manifest in the course of our discussion, yo u be ashamed in presence of the multitude to yield and assent to the things which you may have understood to be spoken truly." To this the old man answered: "I am not such a fool in my old age, that, understanding what is true, I should deny it for the favour of the rabble."
Chapter IV.-The Question Stated.
Then Peter began to say: "Those who speak the word of truth, and who enlighten the souls of men, seem to me to be like the rays of the sun, which, when once they have come forth and appeared to the world, can no longer be concealed or hidden, while they are not so much seen by men, as they afford sight to all. There fore it was well said by One to the heralds of the truth, `Ye are the light of the world, and a city set upon a hill cannot be hid; neither do men light a candle and put it tinder a bushel, but upon a candlestick, that it may enlighten all who are in the house.'4 "Then said the old man: "He said well, whoever he is. But let one of you state what, according to his opinion, ought to be followed, that we may direct our speech to a definite aim. For, in order to find the truth, it is Dot sufficient to overthrow the things that are spoken on the other side, but also that one should himself bring forward what he who is on the other side may oppose. Therefore, in order that both parties may be on an equal footing, it seems to me to be right that each of us should first enunciate what opinion he holds. And, if you please, I shall begin first. I say, then, that the world is not governed according to the providence of God, because we see that many things in it are done unjustly and disorderly; but I say that it is genesis that does and regulates all things."
Chapter V.-Freedom of Discussion Allowed.
When Peter was about to reply to this, Niceta, anticipating him, said:5 "Would my lord Peter allow me to answer to this; and let it not be thought forward that I, a young man, should have an encounter with an old man, but rather let me converse as a son with a father." Then said the old man: "Not only do I wish, my son, that you should set forth your opinions; but also if any one of your associates, if any one even of the bystanders, thinks that he knows anything, let him unhesitatingly state it: we shall gladly hear it; for it is by the contribution of many that the things that are unknown are more easily found out." Then Niceta therefore answered: "Do not deem me to have done rashly, my father, because I have interrupted the speech of my lord Peter; but rather I meant to honour him by doing this. For he is a man of God, full of all knowledge, who is not ignorant even of Greek learning, because he is filled with the Spir it of God, to whom nothing is unknown. But because it is suitable to him to speak of heavenly things, I shall answer concerning those things which pertain to the babbling of the Greeks. But after we have disputed in the Grecian manner, and we have come to that point where no issue appears, then he himself, as filled with the knowledge of God, shall openly and clearly disclose to us the truth on all matters, so that not we only, but also all who are around us as hearers, shall learn the way of truth. And therefore now let him sit as umpire; and when either of us shall yield, then let him, taking up the matter, give an unquestionable judgment."
Chapter VI.-The Other Side of the Question Stated.
When Niceta had thus spoken, those who had assembled conversed among themselves: "Is this that Peter of whom we heard, the most approved disciple of Him who appeared in Judaea, and wrought many signs and miracles? "And they stood gazing upon him with great fear and veneration, as conferring upon the Lord the honour of His good servant. Which when Peter observed, he said to them: "Let us hear with all attention, holding an impartial judgment of what shall be said by each; and after their encounter we also shall add what may seem necessary." And when Peter had said this, the crowds rejoiced. Then Niceta began to speak as follows: "You have laid down, my father, that the world is not governed by the providence of God, but that all things are subject to genesis, whether the things which relate to the dispositions, or those which relate to the doings of every one. This I could answer immediately; but because it is right to observe order, we also lay down what we hold, as you yourself requested should be done. I say that the world is governed by the providence of God, at least in those things which need His government. For He it is alone who holds all things in His hand, who also made the world; the just God, who shall at some time render to every one according to his deeds. Now, then, you have our position; go on as you please, either overthrowing mine or establishing your own, that I may meet your statements. Or if you wish me to speak first, I shall not hesitate."
Chapter VII.-The Way Cleared.
Then the old man answered: "Whether it pleases you, my son, to speak first, or whether you prefer that I should speak, makes no difference, especially with those who discuss in a friendly spirit. However, speak you first, and I will gladly hear; and I wish you may be able even to follow out those things that are to be spoken by me, and to put in opposition to them those things that are contrary to them, and from the comparison of both to show the truth." Niceta answered: "If you wish it, I can even state your side of the argument, and then answer it." Then the old man: "Show me first how you can know what I have not yet spoken, and so I shall believe that you can follow out my side of the argument." Then Niceta: "Your sect is manifest, even by the proposition which you have laid down, to those who are skilled in doctrines of this sort; and its consequence is certain. And because I am not ignorant what are the propositions of the philosophers, I know what follows from those thi ngs which you have propounded; especially because I have frequented the schools of Epicurus in preference to the other philosophers. But my brother Aquila has attended more to the Pyrrhonists, and our other brother to the Platonists and Aristotelians; therefore you have to do with learned hearers."6 Then said the old man: "You have well and logically informed us how you perceived the things that follow from the statements which have been enunciated. But I professed something more than the tenet of Epicurus; for I introduced the genesis, and asserted that it is the cause of all the doings of men."
Chapter VIII-Instincts.
When the old man had said this, I Clement said to him: "Hear, my father: if my brother Niceta bring you to acknowledge that the world is not governed without the providence of God, I shall be able to answer you in that part which remains concerning the genesis; for I am well acquainted with this doctrine." And when I had thus spoken, my brother Aquila said: "What is the use of our calling him father, when we are commanded to call no man father upon earth? "7 Then, looking to the old man, he said, "Do not take it amiss, my father, that I have found fault with my brother for calling you father, for we have a precept not to call any one by that name." When Aquila said that, all the assembly of the bystanders, as well as the old man and Peter, laughed. And when Aquila asked the reason of their all laughing, I said to him: "Because you yourself do the very thing which you find fault with in another; for you calle d the old man father." But he denied it, saying: "I am not aware that I called him father." Meantime Peter was moved with certain suspicions,8 as he told us afterwards; and looking to Niceta, he said, "Go on with what you have proposed."
Chapter IX.-Simple and Compound.
Then Niceta began as follows:9 "Everything that is, is either simple or compound. That which is simple is without number, division, colour, difference, roughness, smoothness, weight, lightness, quality, quantity, and therefore without end. But that which is compound is either compounded of two, or of three, or even of four elements, or at all events of several; and things which are compounded can also of necessity be divided." The old man, hearing this, said: "You speak most excellently and learnedly, my son." Then Niceta went on: "Therefore that which is simple, and which is without any of those things by which that which subsists can be dissolved, is without doubt incomprehensible and infinite, knowing neither beginning nor end, and therefore is one and alone, and subsisting without an author. But that which is compound is subject to number, and diversity, and division,-is necessarily compounded by some, author, and is a diversity collected into one species. That which is infinite is therefore, in respect of goodness, a Father; in respect of power, a Creator. Nor can the power of creating cease in the Infinite, nor the goodness be quiescent; but He is impelled by goodness to change existing things, and by power to arrange and strengthen them. Therefore some things, as we have said, are changed, and composed of two or three, some of four, others of more elements. But since our inquiry at present is concerning the method of the world and its substance, which, it is agreed, is compounded of four elements, to which all those ten differences belong which we have mentioned above, let us begin at these lower steps, and come to the higher. For a way is afforded us to intellectual and invisible things from those which we see and handle; as is contained in arithmetical instructions, where, when inquiry is made concerning divine things, we rise from the lower to the higher numbers; but when the method r especting present and visible things is expounded, the order is directed from the higher to the lower numbers. Is it not so? "
Chapter X.-Creation Implies Providence.
Then the old man said: "You are following it out exceedingly well." Then Niceta: "Now, then, we must inquire concerning the method of the world; of which the first inquiry is divided into two parts. For it is asked whether it has been made or not? And if it has not been made, itself must be that Unbegotten from which all things are. But if it has been made, concerning this again the question is divided into two parts, whether it was made by itself, or by another. And if indeed it was made by itself, then without doubt providence is excluded. If providence is not admitted, in vain is the mind incited to virtue. in vain justice is maintained, if there be no one to render to the just man according to his merits. But even the soul itself will not appear to be immortal, if there be no dispensation of providence to receive it after its escape from the body.
Chapter XI.-General or Special Providence.
"Now, if it be taught that there is a providence, and that the world was made by it, other questions meet us which must be discussed. For it will be asked, In what way providence acts, whether generally towards the whole, or specially towards the parts, or generally also towards the parts, or both generally towards the whole, and specially towards the parts? But by general providence we mean this: as if God, at first making the world, has given an order and appointed a course to things, and has ceased to take any further care of what is done. But special providence towards the parts is of this sort, that He exercises providence over some men or places, but not over others. But general over all, and at the same time special over the parts, is in this wise: if God made all things at first, and exercises providence over each individual even to the end, and renders to every one according to his deeds.
Chapter XII.-Prayer Inconsistent with Genesis.
"Therefore that first proposition, which declares that God made all things in the beginning, and having imposed a course and order upon things, takes no further account of them, affirms that all things are done according to, genesis. To this, therefore, we shall first reply; and especially to those who worship the gods and defend genesis. Assuredly, these men, when they sacrifice to the gods and pray to them, hope that they shall obtain something in opposition to genesis, and so they annul genesis. But when they laugh at those who incite to virtue and exhort to continence, and say that nobody can do or suffer anything unless what is decreed to him by fate, they assuredly Cut up by the roots all worship of the Divinity. For why should you worship those from whom you can obtain nothing which the method of what is decreed does not allow? Let this suffice in the meantime, in opposition to these men. But I say that the world is made by God, and that it i s at some time to be destroyed by Him, that hat world may appear which is eternal, and which is made for this end, that it may be always, and that it may receive those who, in the judgment of God, are worthy of it. But that there is another and invisible world, which contains this visible world within itself,-after we have finished our discussion concerning the visible world, we shall come to it also.
Chapter XIII.-A Creator Necessary.
"Now, in the meantime, that this visible world has been made, very many wise men among the philosophers do testify. But that we may not seem to make use of assertions as witnesses, as though we needed them, let us inquire, if you please, concerning its principles. That this visible world is material, is sufficiently evident from the fact that it is visible. But every body receives one of two Differentiae; for it is either compact and solid, or divided and separate. And if the body of which the world was made was compact and solid, and that body was parted and divided through diverse species and parts according to its differences, there must necessarily be understood to have been some one to separate the body which was compact and solid, and to draw it into many parts and diverse forms; or if all this mass of the world was compounded and compacted from diverse and dispersed parts of bodies, still there must be understood to have been some one to collect into one the disp ersed parts, and to invest these things with their different species.
Chapter XIV.-Mode of Creation.
"And, indeed, I know that several of the philosophers were rather of this opinion, that God the Creator made divisions and distinctions from one body, which they call Matter, which yet consisted of four elements, mingled into one by a certain tempering of divine providence. For I think that what some have said is vain, that the body of the world is simple, that is, without any conjunction; since it is evident that what is simple can neither be a body, nor can be mixed, or propagated, or dissolved; all which, we see, happen to the bodies of the world. For how could it be dissolved if it were simple, and had not within it that from which it might be resolved and divided? But if bodies seem to be composed of two, or three, or even of four elements,-who that has even a small portion of sense does not perceive that there must have been some one who collected several into one, and preserving the measure of tempering, made a solid body out of diverse parts? This some one, ther efore, we call God, the Creator of the world, and acknowledge Him as the author of the universe.
Chapter XV.-Theories of Creation.
"For the Greek philosophers, inquiring into the beginnings of the world, have gone, some in one way and some in another. In short, Pythagoras says that numbers are the elements of its beginnings; Callistratus, that qualities; Alcmaeon, that contrarieties; Anaximander, that immensity; Anaxagoras, that equalities of parts; Epicurus, that atoms; Diodorus, that a0merh=, that is, things in which there are no parts; Asclepius, that o!gkoi, which we may call tumours or swellings; the geometricians, that ends; Democritus, that ideas; Thales, that water; Heraclitus, that fire; Diogenes, that air; Parmenides, that earth; Zeno, Empedocles, Plato, that fire, water, air, and earth. Aristotle also introduces a fifth element, which be called a0katono/maston; that is, that which cannot be named; without doubt indicating Him who made the world, by joining the four elements into one. Whether, therefore, there be two, or three, or four, or more, or innumerable elements, of which the world consists, in every supposition there is shown to be a God, who collected many into one, and again drew them, when collected, into diverse species; and by this it is proved that the machine of the world could not have subsisted without a maker and a disposer.
Chapter XVI.-The World Made of Nothing by a Creator.
"But from this fact also, that in the conjunction of the elements, if one be deficient or in excess, the others are loosened and fall, is shown that they took their beginning from nothing. For if for example, moisture be wanting in any body, neither will the dry stand; for dry is fed by moisture, as also cold by heat; in which, as we have said, if one be defective, the whole are dissolved. And in this they give indications of their origin, that they were made out of nothing. Now if matter itself is proved to have been made, how shall its parts and its species, of which the world consists, be thought to be unmade? But about matter and its qualities this is not the time to speak: only let it suffice to have taught this, that God is the Creator of all things, because neither, if the body of which the world consists was solid and united, could it be separated and distinguished without a Creator; nor, if it was collected into one from diverse and separate parts, could it be collect ed and mixed without a Maker. Therefore, if God is so clearly shown to be the Creator of the world, what room is there for Epicurus to introduce atoms, and to assert that not only sensible bodies, but even intellectual and rational minds, are made of insensible corpuscles?
Chapter XVII.-Doctrine of Atoms Untenable.
"But you will say, according to the opinion of Epicurus, that successions of atoms coming in a ceaseless course, and mixing with one another, and conglomerating through unlimited and endless periods of time, are made solid bodies. I do not treat this opinion as a pure fiction, and that, too, a badly contrived one; but let us examine it, whatever be its character, and see if what is said can stand. For they say that those corpuscles, which they call atoms, are of different qualities: that some are moist, and therefore heavy, and tending downwards; others dry and earthy, and therefore still heavy; but others fiery, and therefore always pushing upwards; others cold and inert, and always remaining in the middle. Since then some, as being fiery, always tend upward, and others, as being moist and dry, always downwards, and others keep a middle and unequal course, how could they meet together and form one booty? For if any one throw down from a height small pieces of straw, for examp le, and pieces of lead of the same size, will the light straws be able to keep up with the pieces of lead, though they be equal in size? Nay; the heavier reach the bottom for more quickly. So also atoms, though they be equal in size, yet, being unequal in weight, the lighter will never be able to keep pace with the heavier; but if they cannot keep pace, certainly neither can they be mixed or form one body.
Chapter XVIII.-The Concourse of Atoms Could Not Make the Word.
"Then, in the next place, if they are ceaselessly borne about, and always coming, and being added to things whose measure is already complete, how can the universe stand, when new weights are always being heaped upon so vast weights? And this also I ask: If this expanse of heaven which we see was constructed by the gradual concurrence of atoms, how did it not collapse while it was in construction, if indeed t the yawning top of the structure was not propped and bound by any stays? For as those who build circular domes, unless they bind the fastening of the central top, the whole falls at once; so also the circle of the world, which we see to be brought together in so graceful a form, if it was not made at once, and under the influence of a single forth-putting of divine energy by the power of a Creator, but by atoms gradually concurring and constructing it, not as reason demanded, but as a fortuitous issue befell, how did it not fall down and crumble to pieces before it could be brought together and fastened? And further, I ask this: What is the pavement on which the foundations of such an immense mass are laid? And again, what you call the pavement, on what does it rest? And again that other, what supports it? And so I go on asking, until the answer comes to nothing and vacuity!
Chapter XIX.-More Difficulties of the Atomic Theory.
"But if any one say that atoms of a fiery quality, being joined together, formed a body, and because the quality of fire does not tend downwards, but upwards, that the nature of fire, always pushing upwards, supports the mass of the world placed upon it; to this we answer: How could atoms of a fiery quality, which always make for the highest place, descend to the lower, and be found in the lowest place of all, so as to form a foundation for all; whereas rather the heavier qualities, that is, the earthy or watery, always come before the lighter, as we have said; hence, also, they assert that the heaven, as the higher structure, is composed of fiery atoms, which are lighter, and always fly upwards? Therefore the world cannot have foundations of fire, or any other: nor can there be any association or compacting of the heavier atoms with the lighter, that is, of those which are always borne downwards, with those that always fly upwards. Thus it is sufficiently shown that the bodie s of the world are consolidated by the union of atoms; and that insensible bodies, even if they could by any means concur and be united, could not give forms and measures to bodies, form limbs, or effect qualities, or express quantities; all which, therefore, by their exactness, attest the hand of a Maker, and show the operation of reason, which reason I call the Word, and God.
Chapter XX.-Plato's Testimony.
"But some one will say that these things are done by nature. Now, in this, the controversy is about a name. For while it is evident that it is a work of mind and reason, what you call nature, I call God the Creator. It is evident that neither the species of bodies, arranged with so necessary distinctions, nor the faculties of minds, could or can be made by irrational and senseless work. But if you regard the philosophers as fit witnesses, Plato testifies concerning these things in the Timoeus, where, in a discussion on the making of the world, he asks, whether it has existed always, or had a beginning, and decides that it was made. `For, 'says he, `it is visible and palpable, and corporeal; but it is evident that all things which are of this sort have been made; but what has been made has doubtless an author, by whom it was made. This Maker and Father of all, however, it is difficult to discover; and when discovered, it is impossible to declare Him to the vulgar.' Such is the declaration of Plato; but though he and the other Greek philosophers had chosen to be silent about the making of the world, would it not be manifest to all who have any understanding? For what man is there, having even a particle of sense, who, when he sees a house having all things necessary for useful purposes, its roof fashioned into the form of a globe, painted with various splendour and diverse figures, adorned with large and splendid lights; who is there, I say, that, seeing such a structure, would not immediately pronounce that it was constructed by a most wise and powerful artificer? And so, who can be found so foolish, as, when he gazes upon the fabric of the heaven, perceives the splendour of the sun and moon, sees the courses and beauty of the stars, and their paths assigned to them by fixed laws and periods, will not cry out that these things are made, not so much by a wise and rational artificer, as by wisdom and reason itself?
Chapter XXI.-Mechanical Theory.
"But if you would rather have the opinions of others of the Greek philosophers,-and you are acquainted with mechanical science,-you are of course familiar with what is their deliverance concerning the heavens. For they suppose a sphere, equally rounded in every direction, and looking indifferently to all points, and at equal distances in all directions from the centre of the earth, and so stable buy its own symmetry, that its perfect equality does not permit it to fall off to any side; and so the sphere is sustained, although supported by no prop. Now if the fabric of the world really has this form, the divine work is evident in it. But if, as others think, the sphere is placed upon the waters, and is supported by them, or floating in them, even so the work of a great contriver is shown in it.
Chapter XXII.-Motions of the Stars.
"But lest the assertion may seem doubtful respecting things which are not manifest to all, let us come to those things of which nobody is ignorant. Who disposed the courses of the stars with so great reason, ordained their risings and settings, and appointed to each one to accomplish the circuit of the heavens in certain and regular times? Who assigned to some to be always approaching to the setting, and others to be returning to the rising? Who put a measure upon the courses of the sun, that he might mark out, by his diverse motions, hours, and days, and months, and changes of seasons?-that he might distinguish, by the sure measurement of his course, now winter, then spring, summer, and afterwards autumn, and always, by the same changes of the year, complete the circle with variety, without confusion? Who, I say, will not pronounce that the director of such order is the very wisdom of God? And these things we have spoken according to the relations given us by the Greeks respe cting the science of the heavenly bodies.
Chapter XXIII.-Providence in Earthly Things.
"But what of those things also which we see on the earth, or in the sea? Are we not plainly taught, that not only the work, but also the providence, of God is in them? For whereas there are on the earth lofty mountains in certain places, the object of this is, that the air, being compressed and confined by them through the appointment of God, may be forced and pressed out into winds, by which fruits may germinate, and the summer heat may be moderated when the Pleiades glow, fired with the blaze of the sun. But you still say, Why that blaze of the sun, that moderating should be required? How, then, should fruits be ripened which are necessary for the uses of men? But observe this also, that at the meridian axis,10 where the heat is greatest, there is no great collection of clouds, nor an abundant fall of rain, lest disease should be produced among the inhabitants; for watery clouds, if they are acted on by rapid hea t, render the air impure and pestilential. And the earth also, receiving the warm rain, does not afford nourishment to the crops, but destruction. In this who can doubt that there is the working of divine providence? In short, Egypt, which is scorched with the heat of Aethiopia, in its neighbourhood, lest its air should be incurably vitiated by the effects of showers, its plains do not receive rain furnished to them from the clouds, but, as it were, an earthly shower from the overflow of the Nile.
Chapter XXIV.-Rivers and Seas.
"What shall we say of fountains and rivers, which flow with perpetual motion into the sea? And, by the divine providence, neither does their abundant supply fail, nor does the sea, though it receives so great quantities of water, experience any increase, but both those elements which contribute to it and those which are thus contributed remain in the same proportion. But you will say to me: The salt water naturally consumes the fresh water which is poured into it. Well, in this is manifest the work of providence, that it made that element salt into Which it turned the courses of all the waters which it had provided for the use of men. So that through so great spaces of time the channel of the sea has not been filled, and produced a deluge destructive to the earth and to men. Nor will any one be so foolish as to think that this so great reason and so great providence has been arranged by irrational nature.
Chapter XXV.-Plants and Animals.
"But what shall I say of plants, and what of animals? Is it not providence that has ordained that plants, when they decay by old age, should be reproduced by the suckers or the seeds which they have themselves produced, and animals by propagation? And by a certain wonderful dispensation of providence, milk is prepared in the udders of the dams for the animals before they are born; and as soon as they are born, with no one to guide them, they seek out the store of nourishment provided for them. And not only males are produced, but females also, that by means of both the race may be perpetuated. But lest this should seem, as some think, to be done by a certain order of nature, and not by the appointment of the Creator, He has, as a proof and indication of His providence, ordained a few animals to preserve their stock on the earth in an exceptional way: for example, the crow conceives through the mouth, and the weasel brings forth through the ear; and some birds, such as hens, so metimes produce eggs conceived of wind or dust; other animals convert the male into the female, and change their sex every year, as hares and hyaenas, which they call monsters; others spring from the earth, and get their bodies from it, as moles; others from ashes, as vipers; others from putrifying flesh, as wasps from horseflesh, bees from ox-flesh; others from cow-dung, as beetles; others from herbs, as the scorpion from the basil; and again, herbs from animals, as parsley and asparagus from the horn of the stag or the she goat.
Chapter XXVI.-Germination of Seeds.
"And what occasion is there to mention more instances in which divine providence has ordained the production of animals to be effected in various ways, that order being superseded which is thought to be assigned by nature, from which not an irrational course of things, but one arranged by his own reason, might be evinced? And in this also is there not a full work of providence shown, when seeds sown are prepared by means of earth and water for the sustenance of men? For when these seeds are committed to the earth, the soil milks upon the seeds, as from its teats, the moisture which it has received into itself by the will of God. For there is in water a certain power of the spirit given by God from the beginning, by whose operation the structure of the body that is to be begins to be formed in the seed itself, and to he developed by means of the blade and the car; for the grain of seed being swelled by the moisture, that power of the spirit which has been made to reside in wate r, running as an incorporeal substance through certain strait passages of veins, excites the seeds to growth, and forms the species of the growing plants. By means, therefore, of the moist element in which that vital spirit is contained and inborn, it is caused that not only is it revived, but also that an appearance and form in all respects like to the seeds that had been sown is reproduced. Now, who that has even a particle of sense will think that this method depends upon irrational nature, and not upon divine wisdom? Lastly, also these things are done in a resemblance of the birth of men; for the earth seems to take the place of the womb, into which the seed being east, is both formed and nourished by the power of water and spirit, as we have said above.
Chapter XXVII.-Power of Water.
"But in this also the divine providence is to be admired, that it permits us to see and know the things that are made, but has placed in secrecy and concealment the way and manner in which they are done, that they may not be competent to the knowledge of the unworthy, but may be laid open to the worthy and faithful, when they shall have deserved it. But to prove by facts and examples that nothing is imparted to seeds of the substance of the earth, but that all depends upon the element of water, and the power of the spirit which is in it,-suppose, for example, that a hundred talents' weight of earth are placed in a very large trough, and that there are sown in it several kinds of seeds, either of herbs or of shrubs, and that water enough is supplied for watering them, and that that care is taken for several years, and that the seeds which are gathered are stored up, for example of corn or barley and other sorts separately from year to year, until the seeds of each sort amount t o a hundred talents' weight, then also let the stalks be pulled up by the roots and weighed; and after all these have been taken from the trough, let the earth be weighed, it will still give back its hundred talents' weight undiminished.11 Whence, then, shall we say that all that weight, and all the quantity of different seeds and stalks, has come? Does it not appear manifestly that it has come from the water? For the earth retains entire what is its own, but the water which has been poured in all through is nowhere, on account of the powerful virtue of the divine condition, which by the one species of water both prepares the substances of so many seeds and shrubs, and forms their species, and preserves the kind while multiplying the increase.
Chapter XXVIII.-The Human Body.
"From all these things I think it is sufficiently and abundantly evident that all things are produced; and the universe consists by a designing sense, and not by the irrational operation of nature. But let us come now, if you please, to our own substance, that is, the substance of man, who is a small world, a microcosm, in the great world; and let us consider with what reason it is compounded: and from this especially you will understand the wisdom of the Creator. For although man consists of different substances, one mortal and the other immortal, yet, by the skilful contrivance of the Creator, their diversity does not prevent their union, and that although the substances be diverse and alien the one from the other. For the one is taken from the earth and formed by the Creator, but the other is given from immortal substances; and yet the honour of its immortality is not violated by this union. Nor does it, as some think, consist of reason, and concupiscence, and passio n, but rather such affections seem to be in it, by which it may be moved in each of these directions. For the body, which consists of bones and flesh, takes its beginning from the seed of a than, which is extracted from the marrow by warmth, and conveyed into the womb as into a soil, to which it adheres, and is gradually moistened from the fountain of the blood, and so is changed into flesh and bones, and is formed into the likeness of him who injected the seed.
Chapter XXIX.-Symmetry of the Body.
"And mark in this the work of the Designer, how He has inserted the bones like pillars, on which the flesh might be sustained and carried. Then, again, how an equal measure is preserved on either side, that is, the right and the left, so that foot answers to foot, hand to hand, and even finger to finger, so that each agrees in perfect equality with each; and also eye to eye, and ear to ear, which not only are suitable to and matched with each other, but also are formed fit for necessary uses. The hands, for instance, are so made as to be fit for work; the feet for walking; the eyes, protected with sentinel eyebrows, to serve the purpose of sight; the ears so formed for hearing, that, like a cymbal, they vibrate the sound of the word that falls upon them, and send it inward, and transmit it even in the understanding of the heart; whereas the tongue, striking against the teeth in speaking, performs the part of a fiddle-bow. The teeth also are formed, some for cutting and dividin g the food, and handing it over to the inner ones; and these, in their turn, bruise and grind it like a mill, that it may be more conveniently digested when it is conveyed into the stomach; whence also they are called grinders.
Chapter XXX.-Breath and Blood.
"The nostrils also are made for the purpose of collecting, inspiring, and expiring air, that by the renewal of the breath, the natural heat which is in the heart may, by means of the lungs, be either warmed or cooled, as the occasion may require; while the lungs are made to abide in the breast, that by their softness they may soothe and cherish the vigour of the heart, in which the life seems to abide;-the life, I say, not the soul. And what shall I say of the substance of the blood, which, proceeding as a river from a fountain, and first borne along in one channel, and then spreading through innumerable veins, as through canals, irrigates the whole territory of the human body with vital streams, being supplied by the agency of the liver, which is placed in the right side, for effecting the digestion of food and turning it into blood? But in the left side is placed the spleen, which draws to itself, and in some way cleanses, the impurities of the blood.
Chapter XXXI.-The Intestines.
"What reason also is employed in the intestines, which are arranged in long circular windings, that they may gradually carry off the refuse of the food, so as neither to render places suddenly empty, and so as not to be hindered by the food that is taken afterwards! But they are made like a membrane, that the parts that are outside of them may gradually receive moisture, which if it were poured out suddenly would empty the internal parts; and not hindered by a thick skin, which would render the outside dry, and disturb the whole fabric of man with distressing thirst.
Chapter XXXII.-Generation.
"Moreover, the female form, and the cavity of the womb, most suitable for receiving, and cherishing, and vivifying the germ, who does not believe that it has been made as it is by reason and foresight?-because in that part alone of her body the female differs from the male, in which the foetus being placed, is kept and cherished. And again the male differs from the female only in that part of his body in which is the power of injecting seed and propagating mankind. And in this there is a great proof of providence, from the necessary difference of members; but more in this, where, under a likeness of form there is found to be diversity of use and variety of office. For males and females equally have teats, but only those of the female are filled with milk; that, as soon as they have brought forth, the infant may find nourishment suited to him. But if we see the members in man arranged with such method, that in all the rest there is seen to be similarity of form, and a differenc e only in those in which their use requires a difference, and we neither see anything superfluous nor anything wanting in man, nor in woman anything deficient or in excess, who will not, from all these things, acknowledge the operation of reason, and the wisdom of the Creator?
Chapter XXXIII.-Correspondences in Creation.
"With this agrees also the reasonable difference of other animals, and each one being suited to its own use and service. This also is testified by the variety of trees and the diversity of herbs, varying both in form and in juices. This also is asserted by the change of seasons, distinguished into four periods, and the circle closing the year with certain hours, days, months, and not deviating from the appointed reckoning by a single hour. Hence, in short, the age of the world itself is reckoned by a certain and fixed account, and a definite number of years.
Chapter XXXIV.-Time of Making the World.
"But you will say, When was the world made? And why so late? This you might have objected, though it had been made sooner. For you might say, Why not also before this? And so, going back through unmeasured ages, you might still ask, And why not sooner? But we are not now discussing this, why it was not made sooner; but whether it was made at all. For if it is manifest that it was made, it is necessarily the work of a powerful and supreme Artificer; and if this is evident, it must be left to the choice and judgment of the wise Artificer when He should please to make it; unless indeed you think that all this wisdom, which has constructed the immense fabric of the world, and has given to the several objects their forms and kinds, assigning to them a habit not only in accordance with beauty, but also most convenient and necessary for their future uses,-unless, I say, you think that this alone has escaped it, that it should choose a convenient season for so magnificent a work of cr eation. He has doubtless a certain reason and evident causes why, and when, and how He made the world; but it were not proper that these should be disclosed to those who are reluctant to inquire into and understand the things which are placed before their eyes, and which testify of His providence. For those things which are kept in secret, and are hidden within the senses of Wisdom, as in a royal treasury, are laid open to none but those who have learned of Him, with whom these things are sealed and laid up. It is God, therefore, who made all things, and Himself was made by none. But those who speak of nature instead of God, and declare that all things were made by nature, do not perceive the mistake of the name which they use. For if they think that nature is irrational, it is most foolish to suppose that a rational creature can proceed from an irrational creator. But if it is Reason-that is, Logos12 -by which it appears that al l things were made, they change the name without purpose, when they make statements concerning the reason of the Creator. If you have anything to say to these things, my father, say on."
Chapter XXXV.-A Contest of Hospitality.
When Niceta had thus spoken, the old man answered: "You indeed, my son, have conducted your argument wisely and vigorously; so much so, that I do not think the subject of providence could be better treated. But as it is now late, I wish to say some things to-morrow in answer to what you have argued; and if on these you can satisfy me, I shall confess myself a debtor to your favour." And when tile old man said this, Peter rose up. Then one of those present, a chief man of the Laodiceans, requested of Peter and us that he might give the old man other clothes instead of the mean and torn ones that he wore.13 This man Peter and we embraced; and praising him for his honourable and excellent intention, said: "We are not so foolish and impious as not to bestow the things which are necessary for bodily uses upon him to whom we have committed so precious words; and we hope that he will willingly receive them, as a father from his sons, and also we trust that he will share with us our house and our living." While we said this, and that chief man of the city strove to take the old man away from us with the greatest urgency and with many blandishments, while we the more eagerly strove to keep him with us, all the people cried out that it should rather be done as the old man himself pleased; and when silence was obtained, the old man, with an oath, said: "To-day I shall stay with no one, nor take anything from any one, lest the choice of the one should prove the sorrow of the other; afterwards these things may be, if so it seem right."
Chapter XXXVI.-Arrangements for To-Morrow.
And when the old man had said this, Peter said to the chief man of the city: "Since you have shown your good-will in our presence, it is not right that you should go away sorrowful; but we will accept from you favour for favour. Show us your house, and make it ready, so that the discussion which is to be to-morrow may be held there, and that any who wish to be present to hear it may be admitted." When the chief man of the city heard this, he rejoiced greatly; and all the people also heard it gladly. And when the crowds had dispersed, he pointed out his house; and the old man also was preparing to depart. But I commanded one of my attendants to follow the old man secretly, and find out where he stayed. And when we returned to our lodging, we told our brethren all our dealings with the old man; and so, as usual, we supped and went to sleep.
Chapter XXXVII.-"The Form of Sound Words, Which Ye Have Heard of Me."
But on the following day Peter arose early and called us, and we went together to the secret place in which we had been on the previous day, for the purpose of prayer. And when, after prayer, we were coming thence to the appointed place, he exhorted us by the way, saying:14 "Hear me, most beloved fellow-servants: It is good that every one of you, according to his ability, contribute to the advantage of those who are approaching to the faith of our religion; and therefore do not shrink from instructing the ignorant, and teaching according to the wisdom which has been bestowed upon you by the providence of God, yet so that you only join the eloquence of your discourse with those things which you have heard from me, and which have been committed to you. But do not speak anything which is your own, and which has not been committed to you, though it may seem to yourselves to be true; but hold forth those things, as I have said , which I myself have received from the true Prophet, and have delivered to you, although they may seem to be less full of authority. For thus it often happens that men turn away from the truth, while they believe that they have found out, by their own thoughts, a form of truth more true and powerful."
Chapter XXXVLII.-The Chief Man's House.
To these counsels of Peter we willingly assented, saying to him that we should do nothing but what was pleasing to him. Then said he: "That you may therefore be exercised without danger, each of you conduct the discussion in my presence, one succeeding another, and each one elucidating his own questions. Now, then, as Niceta discoursed sufficiently yesterday, let Aquila conduct the discussion to-day; and after Aquila, Clement; and then I, if the case shall require it, will add something." Meantime, while we were talking in this way, we came to the house; and the master of the house welcomed us, and led us to a certain apartment, arranged after the manner of a theatre, and beautifully built. There we found great crowds waiting for us, who had come during the night, and amongst them the old than who had argued with us yesterday. Therefore we entered, having Peter in the midst of us, looking about if we could see the old man anywhere; and when Peter saw him hiding in the midst of the crowd, he called him to him, saying: "Since you possess a soul more enlightened than most, why do you hide yourself, and conceal yourself in modesty? Rather come hither, and propound your sentiments."
Chapter XXXIX.-Recapitulation of Yesterday's Argument.
When Peter had thus spoken, immediately the crowd began to make room for the old man.15 And when he had come forward, he thus began: "Although I do not remember the words of the discourse which the young man delivered yesterday, yet I recollect the purport and the order of it; and therefore I think it necessary, for the sake of those who were not present yesterday, to call up what was said, and to repeat everything shortly, that, although something may have escaped me, I may he reminded of it by him who delivered the discourse, who is now present. This, then, was the purport of yesterday's discussion: that all things that we see, inasmuch as they consist in a certain proportion, and art, and form, and species, must be believed to have been made by intelligent power; but if it be mind and reason that has formed them, it follows that the world is governed by the providence of the same reason, although the things which are d one in the world may seem to us to be not quite rightly done. But it follows, that if God and mind is the creator of all things, He must also be just; but if He is just, He necessarily judges. If He judges, it is of necessity that men be judged with respect to their doings; and if every one is judged in respect of his doings, there shall at some time be a righteous separation between righteous men and sinners. This, I think, was the substance of the whole discourse.
Chapter XL.-Genesis.
"If, therefore, it can be shown that mind and reason created all things, it follows that those things which come after are also managed by reason and providence. But if unintelligent and blind nature produces all things, the reason of judgment is undoubtedly overthrown; and there is no ground to expect either punishment of sin or reward of well-doing where there is no judge. Since, then, the whole matter depends upon this, and hangs by this head, do not take it amiss, if I wish this to be discussed and handled somewhat more fully. For in this the first gate, as it were, is shut towards all things which are propounded, and therefore I wish first of all to have it opened to me. Now therefore hear what my doctrine is; and if any one of you pleases, let him reply to me: for I shall not be ashamed to learn, if I hear that which is true, and to assent to him who speaks rightly. The discourse, then, which you delivered yesterday, which asserted that all things consist by art, and mea sure, and reason, does not fully persuade me that it is mind and reason that has made the world; for I have many things which I can show to consist by competent measure, and form, and species, and which yet were not made by mind and reason. Then, besides, I see that many things are done in the world without arrangement, consequence, or justice, and that nothing can be done without the course of Genesis. This I shall in the sequel prove most clearly from my own case."
Chapter XLI.-The Rainbow.
When the old man had thus spoken, Aquila answered: "As you yourself proposed that any one who pleased should have an opportunity of answering to what you might say, my brother Niceta permits me to conduct the argument today." Then the old man: "Go on, my son, as you please." And Aquila answered: "You promised that you would show that there are many things in the world which have a form and species arranged by equal reason, which vet it is evident were not effected by God as their Creator. Now, then, as you have promised, point out these things." Then said the old man: "Behold, we see the bow in the heaven assume a circular shape, completed in all proportion, and have an appearance of reality, which perhaps neither mind could have constructed nor reason described; and yet it is not made by any mind. Behold, I have set forth the whole in a word: now answer me."
Chapter XLII.-Types and Forms.
Then said Aquila: "If anything is expressed from a type and form, it is at once understood that it is from reason, and that it could not be made without mind; since the type itself, which expresses figures and forms, was not made without mind. For example, if wax be applied to an engraved ring, it takes the stamp and figure from the ring, which undoubtedly is without sense; but then the ring, which expresses the figure, was engraven by the hand of a workman, and it was mind and reason that gave the type to the ring. So then the bow also is expressed in the air; for the sun, impressing its rays on the clouds in the process of rarefaction, and affixing the type of its circularity to the cloudy moisture, as it were to soft wax, produces the appearance of a bow; and this, as I have said, is effected by the reflection of the sun's brightness upon the clouds, and reproducing the brightness of its circle from them. Now this does not always take place, but only when the opportunity is presented by the rarefaction of moistened clouds. And consequently, when the clouds again are condensed and unite, the form of the bow is dissolved and vanishes. Finally, the bow never is seen without sun and clouds, just as the image is not produced, unless there be the type, and wax, or some other material. Nor is it wonderful if God the Creator in the beginning made types, from which forms and species may now be expressed. But this is similar to that, that in the beginning God created insensible elements, which He might use for forming and developing all other things. But even those who form statues, first make a mould of clay or wax, and from it the figure of the statue is produced. And then afterwards a shadow is also produced from the statue, which shadow always bears the form and likeness of the statue. What shall we say then? That the insensible statue forms a shadow finished with as diligent care as the statue itself? Or shall the finishing of the shadow be unhesitatingly as cribed to him who has also fashioned the statue?
Chapter XLIII.-Things Apparently Useless and Vile Made by God.
"If, then, it seems to you that this is so, and what has been said on this subject is enough, let us come to inquire into other matters; or if you think that something is still wanting, let us go over it again." And the old man said: "I wish you would go over this again, since there are many other things which I see to be made in like manner: for both the fruits of trees are produced in like manner, beautifully formed and wonderfully rounded; and the appearance of the leaves is formed with immense gracefulness, and the green membrane is woven with exquisite art: then, moreover, fleas, mice, lizards, and such like, shall we say that these are made by God? Hence, from these vile objects a conjecture is derived concerning the superior, that they are by no means formed by the art of mind." "You infer well," said Aquila, "concerning the texture of leaves, and concerning small animals, that from these belief is withdrawn from the superior creatures; but let not these things deceive you, that you should think that God, working as it were only with two hands, could not complete all things that are made; but remember how my brother Niceta answered you yesterday, and truly disclosed the mystery before the time, as a son speaking with his father, and explained why and how things are made which seem to be useless."
Chapter XLIV.-Ordinate and Inordinate.
Then the old man: "I should like to hear from you why those useless things are made by the will of that supreme mind? ""If," said he, "it is fully manifest to you that there is in them the work of mind and reason, then you will not hesitate to say also why they were made, and to declare that they have been rightly made." To this the old man answered: "I am not able, my son, to say that those things which seem formed by art are made by mind, by reason of other things which we see to be done unjustly and disorderly in the world." "If," says Aquila, "those things which are done disorderly do not allow you say that they are done by the providence of God, why do not those things which are done orderly compel you to say that they are done by God, and that irrational nature cannot produce a rational work? For it is certain, nor do we at all deny, that in this world some things are done orderly, and some disorderly. Those things, therefore, that are done rationally, believe that they are done by providence; but those that are done irrationally and inordinately, that they befall naturally, and happen accidentally. But I wonder that men do not perceive, that where there is sense things may be done ordinately and inordinately, but where there is no sense neither the one nor the other can be done; for reason makes order, and the course of order necessarily produces something inordinate, if anything contrary happen to disturb order." Then the old man: "This very thing I wish you to show me."
Chapter XLV.-Motions of the Sun and Moon.
Says Aquila: "I shall do so without delay. Two visible signs are shown in heaven-one of the sun, the other of the moon; and these are followed by five other stars, each describing its own separate orbit. These, therefore, God has placed in the heaven, by which the temperature of the air may be regulated according to the seasons, and the order of vicissitudes and alternations may be kept. But by means of the very same signs, if at any time plague and corruption is sent upon the earth for the sins of men, the air is disturbed, pestilence is brought upon animals, blight upon crops, and a destructive year in every way upon men; and thus it is that by one and the same means order is both kept and destroyed. For it is manifest even to the unbelieving and unskilful, that the course of the sun, which is useful and necessary to the world, and which is assigned by providence, is always kept orderly; but the courses of the moon, in comparison of the course of the sun, seem to the unskilful to be inordinate and unsettled in her waxings and wanings. For the sun moves in fixed and orderly periods: for from him are hours, from him the day when he rises, from him also the night when he sets; from him months and years are reckoned, from him the variations of seasons are produced; while, rising to the higher regions, he tempers the spring; but when he reaches the top of the heaven, he kindles the summer's heats: again, sinking, he produces the temper of autumn; and when he returns to his lowest circle, he bequeaths to us the rigour of winter's cold from the icy binding of heaven.
Chapter XLVI.-Sun and Moon Ministers Both of Good and Evil.
"But we shall discourse at greater length on these subjects at another time. Now, meantime, we remark that though he is that good servant for regulating the changes of the seasons, yet, when chastisement is inflicted upon men according to the will of God, he glows more fiercely, and burns up the world with more vehement fires. In like manner also the course of the moon, and that changing which seems to the unskilful to be disorderly, is adapted to the growth of crops, and cattle, and all living creatures; for by her waxings and wanings, by a certain wonderful contrivance of providence, everything that is born is nourished and grows; concerning which we could speak more at length and unfold the matter in detail, but that the method of the question proposed recalls us. Yet, by the very same appliances by which they are produced, all things are nourished and increased; but when, from any just cause, the regulation of the appointed order is changed, corruption and distemper arise, so that chastisement may come upon men by the will of God, as we have said above.
Chapter XLVII.-Chastisements on the Righteous and the Wicked.
"But perhaps you will say, What of the fact that, in that common chastisement, like things befall the pious and the impious? It is true, and we confess it; but the chastisement turns to the advantage of the pious, that, being afflicted in the present life, they may come more purified to the future, in which perpetual rest is prepared for them, and that at the same time even the impious may somewhat profit from their chastisement, or else that the just sentence of the future judgment may be passed upon them; since in the same chastisements the righteous give thanks to God, while the unrighteous blaspheme. Therefore, since the opinion of things is divided into two parts, that some things are done by order and others against order, it ought, from those things which are done according to order, to be believed that there is a providence; but with respect to those things which are done against order, we should inquire their causes from those who have learned them by prophetic teachi ng: for those who have become acquainted with prophetic discourse know when, and for what reason, blight, hail, and pestilence, and such like, have occurred in every generation, and for what sins these have been sent as a punishment; whence causes of sadness, lamentations, and griefs have befallen the human race; whence also trembling sickness has ensued, and that this has been from the beginning the punishment of parricide.16
Chapter XLVIII.-Chastisements for Sins.
"For in the beginning of the world there were none of these evils, but they took their: rise from the impiety of men; and thence, with the constant increase of iniquities, the number of evils has also increased. But for this reason divine providence has decreed a judgment with respect to all men, because the present life was not such that every one could be dealt with according to his deservings. Those things, therefore, which were well and orderly appointed from the beginning, when no causes of evil existed, are not to be judged of from the evils which have befallen the world by reason of the sins of men. In short, as an indication of the things which were from the beginning, some nations are found which are strangers to these evils. For the Seres, because they live chastely, are kept free from them all; for with them it is unlawful to come at a woman after she has conceived, or while she is being purified. No one there eats unclean flesh, no one knows aught of sacrifices; al l are judges to themselves according to justice. For this reason they are not chastened with those plagues which we have spoken of; they live to extreme old age, and die without sickness. But we, miserable as we are, dwelling as it were with deadly serpents17 -I mean with wicked men-necessarily suffer with them the plagues of afflictions in this world, but we cherish hope from the comfort of good things to come."
Chapter XLIX.-God's Precepts Despised.
"If," said the old man, "even the righteous are tormented on account of the iniquities of others, God ought, as foreseeing this, to have commanded men not to do those things from which it should be necessary that the righteous be afflicted with the unrighteous; or if they did them, He ought to have applied some correction or purification to the world."18 "God," said Aquila, "did so command, and gave precepts by the prophets how men ought to live; but even these precepts they despised: yea, if any desired to observe them, them they afflicted with various injuries, until they drove them from their purposed observance, and turned them to the rabble of infidelity, and made them like unto themselves.
Chapter L.-The Flood.
"Wherefore, in short, at the first, when all the earth had been stained with sins, God brought a I flood upon the world, which you say happened trader Deucalion; and at that time He saved a certain righteous man, with his sons, in an ark, and with him the race of all plants and animals.19 And yet even those who sprang from them, after a time. again did deeds like to those of their predecessors; for those things that had befallen them were forgotten, so that their descendants did not even believe that the flood had taken place. Wherefore God also decreed that there should not be another flood in the present world, else there should have been one in every generation, according to the account of their sins by reason of their unbelief; but He rather granted that certain angels who delight in evil should bear sway over the several nations-and to them was given power over individual men, yet only on this condition, if any one f irst had made himself subject to them by sinning-until He should come who delights in good, and by Him the number of the righteous should be completed, and by the increase of the number of pious men all over the world impiety should be in some measure repressed, and it should be known to all that all that is good is done by God.
Chapter LI.-Evils Brought in by Sin.
"But by the freedom of the will, every man, while he is unbelieving in regard to things to come, by evil deeds runs into evils. And these are the things in the world which seem to be done contrary to order, which owe their existence to unbelief. Therefore the dispensation of divine providence is withal to be admired, which Ranted to those men in the beginning, walking in the good way of life, to enjoy incorruptible good things; but when they sinned, they gave birth to evil by sin. And to every good thing evil is joined as by a certain covenant of alliance on the part of sin, since indeed the earth has been polluted with human blood, and altars have been lighted to demons, and they have polluted the very air by the filthy smoke of sacrifices; and so at length the elements, being first corrupted, have handed over to men the fault of their corruption, as rooty communicate their qualities to the branches and the fruit.
Chapter LII.-"No Rose Without Its Thorn."
"Observe therefore in this, as I have said, how justly divine providence comes to the help of things vitiated; that, inasmuch as evils which had derived their origin from sin were associated with the good things of God, He should assign rive chiefs to these two departments.20 And accordingly, to Him who rejoices in good He has appointed the ordering of good things, that He might bring those who believe in Him to the faith of His providence; but to him who rejoices in evil, He has given over those things which are done without order and uselessly, from which of course the faith of His providence comes into doubt; and thus a just division has been made by a just God. Hence therefore it is, that whereas the orderly course of the stars produces faith that the world was made by the hand of a designer, on the other hand, the disturbance of the air, the pestilent breeze, the uncontrolled fire of the lightning, cast doubt upon the work of providence. For, as we have said, every good thing has its corresponding contrary evil thing joined with it; as hail is opposite to the fertilizing showers, the corruption of mildew is associated with the gentle dew, the whirlwinds of storms are joined with the soft winds, unfruitful trees with fruitful, noxious herbs with useful, wild and destructive animals with gentle ones. But all these things are arranged by God, because that the choice of men's will has departed from the purpose of good, and fallen away to evil.
Chapter LIII.-Everything Has Its Corresponding Contrary.
"Therefore this division holds in all the things of the world; and as there are pious men, so there are also impious; as there are prophets, so also there are false prophets; and amongst the Gentiles there are philosophers and false philosophers. Also the Arabian nations, and many others, have imitated the circumcision of the Jews for the service of their impiety. So also the worship of demons is contrary to the divine worship, baptism to baptism, laws to the law, false apostles to apostles, and false teachers to teachers. And hence it is that among the philosophers some assert providence, others deny it; some maintain that there is one God, others that there are more than one: in short, the matter has come to this, that whereas demons are expelled by the word of God, by which it is declared that there is a providence, the magical art, for the confirmation of infidelity, has found out ways of imitating this by contraries. Thus has been discovered the method of counteracting th e poison of serpents by incantations, and the effecting of cures contrary to the word and power of God. The magic art has also found out ministries contrary to the angels of God, placing the calling up of souls and the figments of demons in opposition to these. And, not to prolong the discourse by a further enumeration, there is nothing whatever that makes for the belief of providence, which has not something, on the other hand, prepared for unbelief; and therefore they who do not know that division of things, think that there is no providence, by reason of those things in the world which are discordant from themselves. But do you, my father, as a wise man, choose from that division the part which preserves order and makes for the belief of providence, and do not only follow that part which runs against order and neutralizes the belief of providence."
Chapter LIV.-An Illustration.
To this the old man answered: "Show me a way, my son, by which I may establish in my mind one or other of these two orders. the one of which asserts, and the other denies, providence." "To one having a right judgment," says Aquila, "the decision is easy. For this very thing that you say, order and disorder, may be produced by a contriver, but not by insensible nature. For let us suppose, by way of illustration, that a great mass were torn from a high rock, and cast down headlong, and when clashed upon the ground were broken into many pieces, could it in any way happen that, amongst that multitude of fragments, there should be found even one which should have any perfect figure and shape? "The old man answered: "`It is impossible." "But," said Aquila, "if there be present a statuary, he can by his skilful hand and reasonable mind form the stone cut from the mountain into whatever figure he pleases." The old man said: "That is true." "Therefore," says Aquila, "when there is not a rational mind, no figure can be formed out of the mass; but when there is a designing mind, there may be both form and deformity: for example, if a workman cuts from the mountain a block to which he wishes to give a form, he must first cut it out unformed and rough; then, by degrees hammering and hewing it by the rule of his art, he expresses the form which he has conceived in his mind. Thus, therefore, from informity or deformity, by the hand of the workman form is attained, and both proceed from the workman. In like manner, therefore, the things which are done in the world are accomplished by the providence of a contriver, although they may seem not quite orderly. And therefore, because these two ways have been, made known to you, and you have heard the divisions of them, flee from the way of unbelief, lest haply it lead you to that prince who delights in evils; but follow the way of faith, that you may come to that King who delighteth in good men."
Chapter LV.-The Two Kingdoms.
To this the old man answered: "But why was that prince made who delights in evil?21 And from what was he made? Or was he not made? "Aquila said: "The treatment of that subject belongs to another time; but that you may not go away altogether without an answer to this, I shall give a few hints on this subject also. God, foreseeing all things before the creation of the world, knowing that the men who were to be would some of them indeed incline to good, but others to the opposite, assigned those who should choose the good to His own government and His own cure, and called them His peculiar inheritance;22 but He gave over the government of those who should turn to evil to those angels who, not by their substance, but by opposition, were unwilling to remain with God, being corrupted by the vice of envy and pride. Those, therefore, he made worthy princes of worthy subjects ; yet he so delivered them over to those angels, that they have not the power of doing what they will against them, unless they transgress the bounds assigned to them from the beginning. And this is the bound assigned, that unless one first do the will of the demons, the demons have no power over him."
Chapter LVI.-Origin of Evil.
Then the old man said: "You have stated it excellently, my son. It now remains only that you tell me whence is the substance of evil: for if it was made by God, the evil fruit shows that the root is in fault; for it appears that it also is of an evil nature. But if this substance was co-eternal with God, how can that which was equally unproduced and co-eternal be subject to the other? ""It was not always," said Aquila; "but neither does it necessarily follow, if it was made by God, that its Creator should be thought to be such as is that which has been made by Him. For indeed God made the substance of all things; but if a reasonable mind, which has been made by God, do not acquiesce in the laws of its Creator, and go beyond the bounds of the temperance prescribed to it, how does this reflect on the Creator? Or if there is any reason higher than this, we do not know it; for we cannot know anything perfectly, and especially concerning those things for our ignorance of which we a re not to be judged. But those things for which we are to be judged are most easy to be understood, and arc despatched almost in a word. For almost the whole rule of our actions is summed up in this, that what we are unwilling to suffer we should not do to others. For as you would not be killed, you must beware of killing another; and as you would not have your own marriage violated, you must not defile another's bed; you would not be stolen from, neither must you steal; and every matter of men's actions is comprehended within this rule."
Chapter LVII.-The Old Man Unconvinced.
Then the old man: "Do not take amiss, my son, what I am going to say. Though your words are powerful, yet they cannot lead me to believe that anything can be done apart from Genesis. For I know that all things have happened to me by the necessity of Genesis,23 and therefore I cannot be persuaded that either to do well or to do ill is in our power; and if we have not our actions in our power, it cannot be believed that there is a judgment to come, by which either punishments may be inflicted on the evil, or rewards bestowed on the good. In short, since I see that you are initiated in this sort of learning, I shall lay before you a few things from the art itself." "If," says Aquila, "you wish to add anything from that science, my brother Clement will answer you with all care, since he has attended more fully to the science of mathematics. For I can maintain in other ways that our actions are in our own power; but I ought no t to presume upon those things which I have not learned."
Chapter LVIII.-Sitting in Judgment Upon God.
When Aquila had thus spoken, then I Clement said: "To-morrow, my father, you shall speak as you please, and we will gladly hear you; for I suppose it will also be gratifying to you that you have to do with those who are not ignorant of the science which you profess." When, therefore, it had been settled between the old man and me, that on the following day we should hold a discussion on the subject of Genesis-whether all things are done under its influence, or there be anything in us which is not done by Genesis, but by the judgment of the mind-Peter rose up, and began to speak to the following effect:24 "To me it is exceedingly wonderful, that things which can easily be found out men make difficult by recondite thoughts and words; and those especially who think themselves wise, and who, wishing to comprehend the will of God, treat God as if He were a man, yea, as if He were something less than a man: for no one can know the purpose or mind of a man unless he himself reveal his thoughts; and neither can any one learn a profession unless he be for a long time instructed by a master. How much more must it be, that no one can know the mind or the work of the invisible and incomprehensible God, unless He Himself send a prophet to declare His purpose, and expound the way of His creation, so far as it is lawful for men to learn it! Hence I think it ridiculous when men judge of the power of God in natural ways, and think that this is possible and that impossible to Him, or this greater and that less, while they are ignorant of everything; who, being unrighteous men, judge the righteous God; unskilled, judge the contriver; corrupt, judge the incorruptible; creatures, judge the Creator.
Chapter LIX.-The True Prophet.
But I would not have you think, that in saying this I take away the power of judging concerning things; but I give counsel that no one walk through devious places, and rush into errors without end. And therefore I advise not only wise men, but indeed all men who have a desire of knowing what is advantageous to them, that they seek after the true Prophet; for it is He alone who knoweth all things, and who knoweth what and how every man is seeking.25 For He is within the mind of every one of us, but in those who have no desire of the knowledge of God and His righteousness, He is inoperative; but He works in those who seek after that which is profitable to their souls, and kindles in them the light of knowledge. Wherefore seek Him first of all; and if you do not find Him, expect not that you shall learn anything from any other. But He is soon found by those who diligently seek Him through love of the truth, and whose souls a re not taken possession of by wickedness. For He is present with those who desire Him in the innocency of their spirits, who bear patiently, and draw sighs from the bottom of their hearts through love of the truth; but He deserts malevolent minds,26 because as a prophet He knows the thoughts of every one. And therefore let no one think that he can find Him by his own wisdom, unless, as we have said, he empty his mind of all wickedness, and conceive a pure and faithful desire to know Him. For when any one has so prepared himself, He Himself as a prophet, seeing a mind prepared for Him, of His own accord offers Himself to his knowledge.
Chapter LX.-His Deliverances Not to Be Questioned.
"Therefore, if any one wishes to learn all things, he cannot do it by discussing them one by one; for, being mortal, he shall not be able to trace the counsel of God, and to scan immensity itself. But if, as we have said, he desires to learn all things, let him seek after the true Prophet; and when he has found Him, let him not treat with Him by questions and disputations and arguments; but if He has given any response, or pronounced any judgment, it cannot be doubted that this is certain. And therefore, before all things, let the true Prophet be sought, and His words be laid hold of. In respect to these this only should be discussed by every one, that he may satisfy himself if they are truly His prophetic words; that is, if they contain undoubted faith of things to come, if they mark out definite times, if they preserve the order of things, if they do not relate as last those things which are first, nor as first those things which were done last, if they contain nothin g subtle, nothing composed by magic art to deceive, or if they have not transferred to themselves things which were revealed to others, and have mixed them with falsehoods. And when, all these things having been discussed by fight judgment, it is established that they are prophetic words, so they ought to be at once believed concerning all things on which they have spoken and answered.
Chapter LXI.-Ignorance of the Philosophers.
"For let us consider carefully the work of divine providence.27 For whereas the philosophers have introduced certain subtile and difficult words, so that not even the terms that they use in their discourses can be known and understood by all, God has shown that those who thought themselves word-framers are altogether unskilful as respects the knowledge of the truth. For the knowledge of things which is imparted by the true Prophet is simple, and plain, and brief; which those men walking through devious places, and through the stony difficulties of words, are wholly ignorant of. Therefore, to modest and simple minds, when they see things come to pass which have been foretold, it is enough, and more, than enough, that they may receive most certain knowledge from most certain prescience; and for the rest may be at peace, having received evident knowledge of the truth. For all other things are treated by opinion, in which the re can be nothing firm. For what speech is there which may not be contradicted? And what argument is there that may not be overthrown by another argument? And hence it is, that by disputation of this sort men can never come to any end of knowledge and learning, but find the end of their life sooner than the end of their questions.
Chapter LXII.-End of the Conference.
"And, therefore, since amongst these philosophers are things uncertain, we must come to the true Prophet. Him God the Father wished to be loved by all, and accordingly He has been pleased wholly to extinguish those opinions which have originated with men, and in regard to which there is nothing like certainty-that He the true Prophet might be the more sought after, and that He whom28 they had obscured should show to men the way of truth. For on this account also God made the world, and by Him the world is filled; whence also He is everywhere near to them who seek Him, though He be sought in the remotest ends of the earth. But if any one seek Him not purely, nor holily, nor faithfully, He is indeed within him, because He is everywhere, and is found within the minds of all men; but, as we have said before, He is dormant to the unbelieving, and is held to be absent from those by whom His existence is not believed." And when Peter had said this, and more to the same effect, concerning the true Prophet, he dismissed the crowds; and when he very earnestly entreated the old man to remain with us, he could prevail nothing; but he also departed, to return next day, as had been agreed upon. A nd after this, we also, with Peter, went to our lodging, and enjoyed our accustomed food and rest.
Book IX.
Chapter I.-An Explanation.
On the following day, Peter, along with us, hastened early to the place in which the discussion had been held the day before; and when he saw that great crowds had assembled there to hear, and saw the old man with them, he said to him:1 "Old man, it was agreed yesterday that yon should confer to-day with Clement; and that you should either show that nothing takes place apart from genesis, or that Clement should prove that there is no such thing as genesis, but that what we do is in our own power." To this the old man answered: "I both remember what was agreed upon, and I keep in memory the words which you spoke after the agreement was made, in which you taught that it is impossible for man to know any thing, unless he learn from the true Prophet." Then Peter said: "You do not know what I meant; but I shall now explain to you. I spoke of the will and purpose of God, which He had before the world was, and by w hich purpose He made the world, appointed times, gave the law, promised a world to come to the righteous for the rewarding of their good deeds, and decreed punishments to the unjust according to a judicial sentence. I said that this counsel and this will of God cannot be found out by men, because no man can gather the mind of God from conjectures and opinion, unless a prophet sent by Him declare it. I did not therefore speak of any doctrines or studies, that they cannot be found out or known without a prophet; for I know that both arts and sciences can be known and practised by men, which they have learned, not froth the true Prophet, but from human instructors.
Chapter II.-Preliminaries.
"Since, therefore, you profess to be conversant with the position of the stars and the courses of the heavenly bodies, and that from these you can convince Clement that all things are subject to Genesis, or that you will learn from him that all things are governed by providence, and that we have something in our own power, it is now time for you two to set about this." To this the old man answered: "Now indeed it was not necessary to raise questions of this kind, if it were possible for us to learn from the true Prophet, and to hear in a definite proposition, that anything depends on is and on the freedom of our will; for your yesterday's discourse affected me greatly, in which you disputed concerning the prophetic power.2 Whence also I assent to and confirm your judgment, that nothing can be known by man with certainty, and without doubt, seeing that he has but a short period of life, and a brief and slender breath, by w hich he seems to be kept in life. However, since I am understood to have promised to Clement, before I heard anything of the prophetic power, that I should show that all things are subject to Genesis, or that I should learn from him that there is something in ourselves, let him do me this favour, that he first begin, and propound and explain what may be objected: for I, ever since I heard from you a few words concerning the power of prophecy, have, I confess, been confounded, considering the greatness of prescience; nor do I think that anything ought to be received which is collected from conjectures and opinion."
Chapter III.-Beginning of the Discussion.
When the old man had said this, I Clement began to speak as follows: "God by His Son created the world as a double house, separated by the interposition of this firmament, which is called heaven; and appointed angelic powers to dwell in the higher, and a multitude of men to be born in this visible world, from amongst whom He might choose friends for His Son, with whom He might rejoice, and who might be prepared for Him as a beloved bride for a bridegroom. But even till the time of the marriage, which is the manifestation of the world to come, He has appointed a certain power, to choose out and watch over the good ones of those who are born in this world, and to preserve them for His Son, set apart in a certain place of the world, which is without sin; in which there are already some, who are there being prepared, as I said, as a bride adorned for the coming of the bridegroom. For the prince of this world and of the present age is like an adulterer, who corrupts and violates th e minds of men, and, seducing them from the love of the true bride groom, allures them to strange lovers.
Chapter IV.-Why the Evil Prince Was Made.
But some one will say, How then was it necessary that that prince should be made, who was to turn away the minds of men from the true prince?3 Because God, who, as I have said, wished to prepare friends for His Son, did not wish them to be such as by necessity of nature could not be aught else, but such as should desire of their own choice and will to be good; because neither is that praiseworthy which is not desirable, nor is that judged to be good which is not sought for with purpose. For there is no credit in being that from which the necessity of your nature does not admit of your changing. Therefore the providence of God has willed that a multitude of men should be born in this world, that those who should choose a good life might be selected from many. And because He foresaw that the present world could not consist except by variety and inequality, He gave to each mind freedom of motions,4 according to the diversities of present things, and appointed this prince, through his suggestion of those things which run contrary, that the choice of better things might depend upon the exercise of virtue?
Chapter V.-Necessity of Inequality.
"But to make our meaning plainer, we shall explain it by particulars. Was it proper, for example, that all men in this world should be kings, or princes, or lords, or teachers, or lawyers, or geometers, or goldsmiths, or bakers, or smiths, or grammarians, or rich men, or farmers, or perfumers, or fishermen, or poor men? It is certain that all could not be these. Yet all these professions, and many more, the life of men requires, and without these it cannot be passed; therefore inequality is necessary in this world. For there cannot be a king, unless he has subjects over whom he may rule and reign; nor can there be a master, unless he has one over whom he may bear sway; and in like manner of the rest.
Chapter VI.-Arrangements of the World for the Exercise of Virtue.
"Therefore the Creator, knowing that no one would come to the contest of his own accord, while labour is shunned,-that is, to the practice of those professions which we have mentioned, by means of which either the justice or the mercy of every one can be manifested,-made for men a body susceptible of hunger, and thirst, and cold, in order that men, being compelled for the sake of supporting their bodies, might come down to all the professions which we have mentioned, by the necessity of livelihood. For we are taught to cultivate every one of these arts, for the sake of food, and drink, and clothing. And in this the purpose of each one's mind is shown, whether he will supply the demands of hunger and cold by means of thefts, and murders, and perjuries, and other crimes of that sort; or whether, keeping justice and mercy and continence, he will fulfil the service of imminent necessity by the practice of a profession and the labour of his hands. For if he supply his bodily wants with justice, and piety, and mercy, he comes forth as a victor in the contest set before him, and is chosen as a friend of the Son of God. But if he serve carnal lusts, by frauds, iniquities, and crimes, he becomes a friend of the prince of this world, and of all demons; by whom he is also taught this, to ascribe to the courses of the stars the errors of his own evil doings, although he chose them of purpose, and willingly. For arts are learned and practised, as we have said, under the compulsion of the desire of food and drink; which desire, when the knowledge of the truth comes to any one, becomes weaker, and frugality takes its place. For what expense have those who use water and bread, and only expect it from God?
Chapter VII.-The Old and the New Birth.
"There is therefore, as we have said, a certain necessary inequality in the dispensation of the world. Since indeed all men cannot know all things, and accomplish all works, yet all need t the use and service of almost all. And on this t account it is necessary that one work, and another pay him for his work; that one be servant, and another be master; that one be subject, another be king. But this inequality, which is a necessary provision for the life of men, divine providence has turned into an occasion of justice, mercy, and humanity: that while these things are transacted between man and man, every one may have an opportunity of acting justly with him to whom he has to pay wages for his work; and of acting mercifully, to him who, perhaps through sickness or poverty, cannot pay his debt; and of acting humanely towards those who by their creation seem to be subject to him; also of maintaining gentleness towards subjects, and of doing all things according to the law of God. For He has given a law, thereby aiding the minds of men, that they may the more easily perceive how they ought to act with respect to everything, in what way they may escape evil, and in what way tend to future blessings; and how, being regenerate in water, they may by good works extinguish the fire of their old birth. For our first birth descends through the fire of lust, and therefore, by the divine appointment, this second birth is introduced by water, which may extinguish the nature of fire;5 and that the soul, enlightened by the heavenly Spirit, may cast away the fear of the first birth: provided, however, it so live for the time to come, that it do not at all seek after any of the pleasures of this world, but be, as it were, a pilgrim and a stranger,6 and a citizen of another city.
Chapter VIII.-Uses of Evils.
"But perhaps you will say, that in those things indeed in which the necessity of nature demands the service of arts and works, any one may have it in his power to maintain justice, and to put what restraint he pleases either upon his desires or his actions; but what shall we say of the sicknesses and infirmities which befall men, and of some being harassed with demons, and fevers, and cold fits, and some being attacked with madness, or losing their reason, and all those things which overwhelm the race of man with innumerable misfortunes? To this we say, that if any one consider the reason of the whole mystery, he will pronounce these things to be more just than those that we have already explained. For God has given a nature to men, by which they may be taught concerning what is good, and to resist evil; that is, they may learn arts, and to resist pleasures, and to set the law of God before them in all things. And for this end He has permitted certain contrary powers to wander up and down in the world, and to strive against us,7 for the reasons which have been stated before, that by striving with them the palm of victory and the merit of rewards may accrue to the righteous.
Chapter IX.-"Conceived in Sin."
"From this, therefore, it sometimes happens, that if any persons have acted incontinently, and have been willing not so much to resist as to yield, and to give harbour to these demons in themselves, by their noxious breath an intemperate, ill-conditioned, and diseased progeny is begotten. For while lust is wholly gratified, and no care is taken in the copulation, undoubtedly a weak generation is affected with the defects and frailties of those demons by whose instigation these things are done. And therefore parents are responsible for their children's defects of this sort, because they have not observed the law of intercourse. Though there are also more secret causes, by which souls are made subject to these evils, which it is not to our present purpose to state, yet it behoves every one to acknowledge the law of God, that he may learn from it the observance of generation, and avoid causes of impurity, that that which is begotten may be pure. For it is not right, while in the planting of shrubs and the sowing of crops a suitable season is sought for, and the land is cleaned, and all things are suitably prepared, lest haply the seed which is sown be injured and perish, that in the case of man only, who is over all these things, there should be no attention or caution in sowing his seed.
Chapter X.-Tow Smeared with Pitch.
"But what, it is said, of the fact that some who in their childhood are free from any bodily defect, yet in process of time fall into those evils, so that some are even violently hurried on to death? Concerning these also the account is at hand, and is almost the same: for those powers which we have said to be contrary to the human race, are in some way invited into the heart of every one by many and diverse lusts, and find a way of entrance; and they have in them such influence and power as can only encourage and incite, but cannot compel or accomplish. If, therefore, any one consents to them, so as to do those things which he wickedly desires, his consent and deed shall find the reward of destruction and the worst kind of death. But if, thinking of the future judgment, he be checked by fear, and reclaim himself, so that he do not accomplish in action what he has conceived in his evil thought, he shall not only escape present destruction, but also future punishments. For ever y cause of sin seems to be like tow smeared over with pitch, which immediately breaks into flame as soon as it receives the heat of fire; and the kindling of this fire is understood to be the work of demons. If, therefore, any one be found smeared with sins and lusts as with pitch, the fire easily gets the mastery of him. But if the tow be not steeped in the pitch of sin, but in the water of purification and regeneration, the fire of the demons shall not be able to be kindled in it.
Chapter XI.-Fear.
"But some one will say, And what shall we do now, whom it has already happened to us to be smeared with sins as with pitch? I answer: Nothing; but hasten to be washed, that the fuel of the fire may be cleansed out of you by the invocation of the holy name, and that for the future you may bridle your lusts by fear of the judgment to come, and with all constancy beat back the hostile powers whenever they approach your senses. But you say, If any one fall into love, how shall he be able to contain himself, though he see before his eyes even that river of fire which they call Pyriphlegethon? This is the excuse of those who will not be converted to repentance. But now I would not have you talk of Pyriphlegethon. Place before you human punishments, and see what influence fear has. When any one is brought to punishment for the crime of love, and is bound to the stake to be burned, can he at that time conceive any desire of her whom he loved, or place her image before his eyes? By no means, you will say. You see, then, that present fear cuts off unrighteous desires. But if those who believe in God, and who confess the judgment to come, and the penalty of eternal fire,-if they do not refrain from sin, it is certain that they do not believe with full faith: for if faith is certain, fear also becomes certain; but if there be any detect in faith, fear also is weakened, and then the contrary powers find opportunity of entering. And when they have consented to their persuasions, they necessarily become subject also to their power, and by their instigation are driven to the precipices of sin.
Chapter XII.-Astrologers.
"Therefore the astrologers,8 being ignorant of such mysteries, think that these things happen by the courses of the heavenly bodies: hence also, in their answers to those who go to them to consult them as to future things, they are deceived in very many instances. Nor is it to be wondered at, for they are not prophets; but, by long practice, the authors of errors find a sort of refuge in those things by which they were deceived, and introduce certain Climacteric Periods, that they may pretend a knowledge of uncertain things. For they represent these Climacterics as times of danger, in which one sometimes is destroyed, sometimes is not destroyed, not knowing that it is not the course of the stars, but the operation of demons, that regulates these things; and those demons, being anxious to confirm the error of astrology, deceive men to sin by mathematical calculations, so that when they suffer the punishment of sin, either by the permission of God or by legal sentence, the astrologer may seem to have spoken truth. And yet they are deceived even in this; for if men be quickly turned to repentance, and remember and fear the future judgment, the punishment of death is remitted to those who are converted to God by the grace of baptism.
Chapter XIII.-Retribution Here or Hereafter.
"But some one will say, Many have committed even murder, and adultery, and other crimes, and have suffered no evil. This indeed rarely happens to men, but to those who know not the counsel of God it frequently seems to happen. But God, who knows all things, knows how and why he who sins does sin, and what cause leads each one to sin. This, however, is in general to be noticed, that if any are evil, not so much in their mind as in their doings, and are not borne to sin under the incitement of purpose, upon them punishment is inflicted more speedily, and more in the present life; for everywhere and always God renders to every one according to his deeds, as He judges to be expedient. But those who practise wickedness of purpose, so that they sometimes even rage against those from whom they have received benefits, and who take no thought for repentance-their punishment He defers to the future. For these men do not, like those of whom we spoke before, deserve to end the punishment of their crimes in the present life; but it is allowed them to occupy the present time as they will, because their correction is not such as to need temporal chastisements, but such as to demand the punishment of eternal fire in heir; and there their souls shall seek repentance, where they shall not be able to find it.
Chapter XIV.-Knowledge Deadens Lusts.
"But if, while in this life, they had placed before their eyes the punishments which they shall then suffer, they would certainly have bridled their lusts, and would in nowise have fallen into sin. For the understanding in the soul has much power for cutting off all its desires, especially when it has acquired the knowledge of heavenly things, by means of which, having received the light of truth, it will turn away from all darkness of evil actions. For as the sun obscures and conceals all the stars by the brightness of his shining, so also the mind, by the light of knowledge, renders all the lusts of the soul ineffective and inactive, sending out upon them the thought of the judgment to come as its rays, so that they can no longer appear in the soul.
Chapter XV.-Fear of Men and of God.
"But as a proof that the fear of God has much efficacy for the repressing of lusts, take the example of human fear. Who is there among men that does not covet his neighbour's goods? And yet they are restrained, and act honestly, through fear of the punishment which is prescribed by the laws. Through fear, nations are subject to their kings, and armies obey with arms in their hands. Slaves, although they are stronger than their masters, yet through fear submit to their masters' rule. Even wild beasts are tamed by fear; the strongest bulls submit their necks to the yoke, and huge elephants obey their masters, through fear. But why do we use human examples, when even divine are not wanting? Does not the earth itself remain under the fear of precept, which it testifies by its motion and quaking? The sea keeps its prescribed bounds; the angels maintain peace; the stars keep their order, and the rivers their channels: it is certain also that demons are put to flight by fear. And not to lengthen the discourse by too many particulars, see how the fear of God, restraining everything, keeps all things in proper harmony, and in their fixed order. How much more, then, may you be sure that the lusts of demons which arise in your hearts may be extinguished and wholly abolished by the admonition of the fear of God, when even the inciters of lust are themselves put to flight by the influence of fear? You know that these things are so; but if you have anything to answer, proceed."
Chapter XVI.-Imperfect Conviction.
Then said the old man: "My son Clement has wisely framed his argument, so that he has left us nothing to say to these things; but all his discourse which he has delivered on the nature of men has this bearing, that along with the fact that freedom of will is in man, there is also some cause of evil without him, whereby men are indeed incited by various lusts, yet are not compelled to sin; and that for this reason, be said, because fear is much more powerful than they, and it resists and checks the violence of desires, so that, although natural emotions may arise, yet sin may not be committed, those demons being put to flight who incite and inflame these emotions. But these things do not convince me; for I am conscious of certain things from which I know well, that by the arrangement of the heavenly bodies men become murderers or adulterers, and perpetrate other evils; and in like manner honourable and modest women are compelled to act well.
Chapter XVII.-Astrological Lore.9
"In short, when Mars, holding the centre in his house, regards Saturn quarterly, with Mercury towards the centre, the full moon coming upon him, in the daily Genesis, he produces murderers, and those who are to fall by the sword,10 bloody, drunken, lustful, devilish men, inquirers into secrets,11 malefactors, sacrilegious persons, and such like; especially when there was no one of the good stars looking on. But again Mars himself, having a quarterly position with respect to Venus, in a direction toward the centre, while no good star looks on, produces adulterers and incestuous persons. Venus with the Moon, in the borders and houses of Saturn, if she was with Saturn, and Mars looking on, produces women that are viragos, ready for agriculture, building, and every manly work, to commit adultery with whom they please, and not to be convicted by their husbands, to use no delicacy, no ointments, nor feminine robes and shoes, but to live after the fashion of men. But the unpropitious Venus makes men to be as women, and not to act in any respect as men, if she is with Mars in Aries; on the contrary, she produces women if she is in Capricorn or Aquarius."
Chapter XVIII.-The Reply.
And when the old man had pursued this subject at great length, and had enumerated every kind of mathematical figure, and also the position of the heavenly bodies, wishing thereby to show that fear is not sufficient to restrain lusts, I answered again: "Truly, my father, you have argued most learnedly and skilfully; and reason herself invites me to say something in answer to your discourse, since indeed I am acquainted with the science of mathematics, and gladly hold a conference with so learned a man. Listen therefore, while I reply to what you have said that you may learn distinctly that Genesis is not at all from the stars, and that it is possible for those to resist the assault of demons who have recourse to God; and, as I said before, that not only by the fear of God can natural lusts be restrained, but even by the fear of men, as we shall now instruct you.
Chapter XIX.-Refutation of Astrology.
"There are, in every country or kingdom, laws imposed by men, enduring either by writing or simply through custom, which no one easily transgresses. In short, the first Seres, who dwell at the beginning of the world,12 have a law not to know murder, nor adultery, nor whoredom, and not to commit theft, and not to worship idols; and in all that country, which is very large, there is neither temple, nor image, nor harlot, nor adulteress, nor is any thief brought to trial. But neither is any man ever slain there; and no man's liberty of will is compelled, according to your doctrine, by the fiery star of Mars, to use the sword for the murder of man; nor does Venus in conjunction with Mars compel to adultery, although of course with them Mars occupies the middle circle of heaven every day. But amongst the Seres the fear of laws is more powerful than the configuration of Genesis.
Chapter XX.-Brahmans.
"There are likewise amongst the Bactrians, in the Indian countries, immense multitudes of Brahmans, who also themselves, from the tradition of their ancestors, and peaceful customs and laws, neither commit murder nor adultery, nor worship idols, nor have the practice of eating animal food, arc never drunk, never do anything maliciously, but always fear God. And these things indeed they do, though the rest of the Indians commit both murders and adulteries, and worship idols, and are drunken, and practise other wickednesses of this sort. Yea, in the western parts of India itself there is a certain country, where strangers, when they enter it, are taken and slaughtered and eaten; and neither have good stars prevented these men from such wickednesses and from accursed food, nor have malign stars compelled the Brahmans to do any evil. Again, there is a custom among the Persians to marry mothers, and sisters, and daughters. In all that district the Persians contract incestuous marri ages.
Chapter XXI.-Districts of Heaven.
"And that those who study mathematics may not have it in their power to use that subterfuge by which they say that there arc certain districts of heaven to which it is granted to have some things peculiar to themselves, some of that nation of Persians have gone to foreign countries, who arc called Magusaei, of whom there are some to this day in Media, others in Parthia, some also in Egypt, and a considerable number in Galatia and Phrygia, all of whom maintain the form of this incestuous tradition without variation, and hand it down to their posterity to be observed, even although they have changed their district of heaven; nor has Venus with the Moon in the confines and houses of Saturn, with Saturn also and Mars looking on, compelled them to have a Genesis among other men.13
Chapter XXII.-Customs of the Gelones.
"Amongst the Geli also there is a custom, that women cultivate the fields, build, and do every manly work; and they are also allowed to have intercourse with whom they please, and are not found fault with by their husbands, or called adulteresses: for they have promiscuous intercourse everywhere, and especially with strangers; they do not use ointments; they do not wear dyed garments, nor shoes. On the other hand, the men of the Gelones are adorned, combed, clothed in soft and various-coloured garments, decked with gold, and besmeared with ointments, and that not through lack of manliness, for they are most warlike, and most keen hunters. Yet the whole women of the Gelones had not at their birth the unfavourable Venus in Capricornus or Aquarius; nor had all their men Venus placed with Mars in Aries, by which configuration the Chaldean science asserts that men are born effeminate and dissolute.
Chapter XXIII.-Manners of the Susidae.
"But, further, in Susae the women use ointments, and indeed of the best sort, being decked with ornaments and precious stones; also they go abroad supported by the aid of their maidservants, with much greater ambition than the men. They do not, however, cultivate modesty, but have intercourse indifferently with whomsoever they please, with slaves and guests, such liberty being allowed them by their husbands; and not only are they not blamed for this, but they also rule over their husbands. And yet the Genesis of all the Susian women has not Venus, with Jupiter and Mars in the middle of the heaven in the houses of Jupiter. In the remoter parts of the East, if a boy be treated unnaturally, when it is discovered, he is killed by his brothers, or his parents, or any of his relations, and is left unburied. And again, among the Gauls, an old law allows boys to be thus treated publicly; and no disgrace is thought to attach to it. And is it possible, that all those who are so basely t reated among the Gauls, have had Lucifer with Mercury in the houses of Saturn and the confines of Mars?
Chapter XXIV.-Different Customs of Different Countries.
"In the regions of Britain several men have one wife; in Parthia many women have one husband; and each part of the world adheres to its own manners and institutions. None of the Amazons have husbands, but, like animals, they go out from their own territories once a year about the vernal equinox, and live with the men of the neighbouring nation, observing a sort of solemnity the while, and when they have conceived by them they return; and it they bring forth a male child, they cast him away, and rear only females. Now, since the birth of all is at one season, it is absurd to suppose that in the case of males Mars is at the time in equal portions with Saturn, but never in the Genesis of females; and that they have not Mercury placed with Venus in his own houses, so as to produce either painters, or sculptors, or money-changers; or in the houses of Venus, so that perfumers, or singers, or poets might be produced. Among the Saracens, and Upper Libyans, and Moors, and the dwellers about the mouths of the ocean, and also in the remote districts of Germany, and among the Sarmatians and Scythians, and all the nations who dwell in the regions of the Pontic shore, and in the island Chrysea, there is never found a money-changer, nor a sculptor, nor a painter, nor an architect, nor a geometrician, nor a tragedian, nor a poet. Therefore the influence of Mercury and Venus must be wanting among them.
Chapter XXV.-Not Genesis, But Free-Will.
"The Medes alone in all the world, with the greatest care, throw men still breathing to be devoured by dogs; yet they have not Mars with the Moon placed in Cancer all through their daily Gensis. The Indians burn their dead, and the wives of the dead voluntarily offer themselves, and are burned with them. But all the Indian women who are burned alive have not the Sun under the earth in nightly Genesis, with Mars in the regions of Mars. Very many of the Germans end their lives by the halter; but all have not therefore the Moon with Hora begirt by Saturn and Mars. From all this it appears that the fear of the laws bears sway in every country, and the freedom of will which is implanted in man by the Spirit complies with the laws; and Genesis Can neither compel the Seres to commit murder, nor the Brahmans to eat flesh, nor the Persians to shun incest, nor the Indians to refrain from burning, nor the Medes from being devoured by dogs, nor the Parthians from having many wives, nor th e women of Mesopotamia from preserving their chastity, nor the Greeks from athletic exercises, nor the Gallic boys from being abused; nor can it compel the barbarious nations to be instructed in the studies of the Greeks; but, as wet have said, each nation observes its own laws according to free-will, and annuls the decrees of Genesis by the strictness of laws.
Chapter XXVI-Climates.
"But some one skilled in the science of mathematics will say that Genesis is divided into seven parts, which they call climates, and that over each climate one of the seven heavenly bodies bears rule; and that those diverse laws to which we have referred are not given by men, but by those dominant stars according to their will, and that that which pleases the star is observed by men as a law. To this we shall answer, in the first place, that tile world is not divided into seven parts; and in the second place, that if it were so, we find many different laws in one part and one country; and therefore there are neither seven laws according to the number of the heavenly bodies, nor twelve according to the number of the signs, nor thirty-six according to that of the divisions of ten degrees; but they are innumerable.
Chapter XXVII.-Doctrine of "Climates" Untenable.
"Moreover, we ought to remember the things which have been mentioned, that in the one country of India there are both persons who feed on human flesh, and persons who abstain even from the flesh of sheep, and birds, and all living creatures; and that the Magusaei marry their mothers and daughters not only in Persia, but that in every nation where they dwell they keep up their incestuous customs.14 Then, besides, we have mentioned also innumerable nations, which are wholly ignorant of the studies of literature, and also some wise men have changed the laws themselves in several places; and some laws have been voluntarily abandoned, on account of the impossibility of observing them, or on account of their baseness. Assuredly we can easily ascertain how many rulers have changed the laws and customs of nations which they have conquered, and subjected them to their own laws. This is manifestly done by the Romans, who have broug ht under the Roman law and the civil decrees almost the whole world, and all nations who formerly lived under various laws and customs of their own. It follows, therefore, that the stars of the nations which have been conquered by the Romans have lost their climates and their portions.
Chapter XXVII.-Jewish Customs.
"I shall add another thing which may satisfy even the most incredulous. All the Jews who live under the law of Moses circumcise their sons on the eighth day without fail, and shed the blood of the tender infant. But no one of the Gentiles has ever submitted to this on the eighth day; and, on the other hand, no one of the Jews has ever omitted it. How then shall the account of Genesis stand with this, since Jews live in all parts of the world, mixed with Gentiles, and on the eighth day suffer the cutting of a member? And no one of the Gentiles, but only they themselves, as I have said, do this, induced to it not by the compulsion of any star, nor by the perfusion15 of blood, but by the law of their religion; and in whatever part of the world they are, this sign is familiar to them. But also the fact that one name is among, them all, wheresoever they are, does this also come through Gensis? And also that no child born among them is ever exposed, and that on every seventh day they all rest, wherever they may be, and do not go upon a journey, and do not use fire?16 Why is it, then, that no one of the Jews is compelled by Genesis to go on a journey, or to build, or to sell or buy anything on that day?
Chapter XXIX.-The Gospel More Powerful Than "Genesis."
"But I shall give a still stronger proof of the matters in hand. For, behold, scarcely seven years have yet passed since the advent of the righteous and true Prophet; and in the course of these, inert of all nations coming to Judaea, and moved both by the signs and miracles Which they saw, and by the grandeur of His doctrine, received His faith; and then going back to their own countries, they rejected the lawless rites of the Gentiles, and their incestuous marriages. In short, among the Parthians-as Thomas, who is preaching the Gospel amongst them, has written to us-not many now are addicted to polygamy; nor among the Medes do many throw their dead to dogs; nor are the Persians pleased with intercourse with their mothers, or incestuous marriages with their daughters; nor do the Susian women practise the adulteries that were allowed them; nor has Genesis been able to force those into crimes whom the teaching of religion restrained.
Chapter XXX.-"Genesis" Inconsistent with God's Justice.
"Behold, from the very matter in which we are now engaged17 draw an inference, and from the circumstances in which we are now placed deduce a conclusion, how, through a rumour only reaching the ears of men that a Prophet had appeared in Judaea to teach men with signs and miracles to worship one God, all were expecting with prepared and eager minds, even before the coming of my lord Peter, that some one would announce to them what He taught who had appeared. But lest I should seem to carry the enumeration too far, I shall tell you what conclusion ought to be drawn from the whole. Since God is righteous, and since He Himself made the nature of men, how could it be that He should place Genesis in opposition to us, which should compel us to sin, and then that He should punish us when we do sin? Whence it is certain that God punishes no sinner either in the present life or in that to come, except because He knows that he could have conquered, but neglected victory. For even in the present world He takes vengeance upon men, as He did upon those who perished in the deluge, who were all destroyed in one day, yea, in one hour, although it is certain that they were not all born in one hour according to the order of genesis. But it is most absurd to say that it befalls us by nature to suffer evils, if sins had not gone before.
Chapter XXXI.-Value of Knowledge.
"And therefore, if we desire salvation, we ought above all to seek after knowledge, being sure that if our mind remain in ignorance, we shall endure not only the evils of genesis, but also whatever other evils from without the demons may please, unless fear of laws and of the judgment to come resist all our desires, and check the violence of sinning. For even human fear does much good, and also much evil, unknown to Genesis, as we have shown above. Therefore our mind is subject to errors in a threefold manner: from those things which come to us through evil custom; or from those lusts which the body naturally stirs up in us; or from those which hostile powers compel us to. But the mind has it in its own nature to oppose and fight against these, when the knowledge of truth shines upon it, by which knowledge is imparted fear of the judgment to come, which is a fit governor of the mind, and which can recall it from the precipices of lusts. That these things, therefore, are in our power, has been sufficiently stated.
Chapter XXXII.-Stubborn Facts.
"Now, old man, if you have any thing to say in answer to these things, say on." Then said the old man:18 "You have most fully argued, my son; but I, as I said at first, am prevented by my own consciousness from according assent to all this incomparable statement of yours. For I know both my own Gensis and that of my wife, and I know that those things have happened which our Gensis prescribed to each of us; and I cannot now be withdrawn by words from those things which I have ascertained by facts and deeds. In short, since I perceive that you are excellently skilled in this sort of learning, hear the horoscope of my wife, and you shall find the configuration whose issue has occurred. For she had Mars with Venus above the centre, and the Moon setting in the houses of Mars and the confines of Saturn. Now this configuration leads women to be adulteresses, and to love their own slaves, and to end their days in foreign travel a nd in waters. And this has so come to pass. For she fell in love with her slave, and fearing at once danger and reproach, she fled with him, and going abroad, where she satisfied her love, she perished in the sea."
Chapter XXXIII.-An Approaching Recognition.
Then I answered: "How know you that she cohabited with her slave abroad, and died in his society? "Then the old man said: "I know it with perfect certainty; not indeed that she was married to the slave, as indeed I had not even discovered that she loved him. But after she was gone, my brother gave me the whole story, telling me that first she had loved himself; but he, being honourable as a brother, would not pollute his brother's bed with the stain of incest. But she, being both afraid of me, and unable to bear the unhappy reproaches (and yet she should not be blamed for that to which her Gensis compelled her), pretended a dream, and said to me: `Some one stood by me in a vision, who ordered me to leave the city without delay with my two twins.' When I heard this, being anxious for her safety and that of my sons, I immediately sent away her and the children, retaining with myself one who was younger. For this she said that he had permitted who had given her warning in her sle ep."
Chapter XXXIV.-The Other Side of the Story.
Then I Clement, understanding that he perchance was my father, was drowned in tears, and my brothers also were ready to rush forward and to disclose the matter; but Peter restrained them, saying: "Be quiet, until I give you permission." Therefore Peter, answering, said to the old man: "What was the name of your younger son? "And he said: "Clement." Then Peter: "If I shall this day restore to you your most chaste wife and your three sons, will you believe that a modest mind can overcome unreasonable impulses, and that all things that have been spoken by us are true, and that Genesis is nothing? "Then said the old man: "As it is impossible for you to perform what you have promised, so it is impossible that anything can take place apart from Gensis." Then says Peter: "I wish to have all who are here present as witnesses that I shall this day hand over to you your wife, who is living most chastely, with your three sons. And now take a token of these things from this, that I know t he whole story much more accurately than you do; and I shall relate the whole occurrences in order, both that you may know them, and that those who are present may learn."
Chapter XXXV.-Revelations.
When he had said this, he turned to the crowds, and thus began: "This person whom you see, O men, in this poor garb, is a citizen of the city Rome, descended of the stock of Caesar himself. His name is Faustinianus. He obtained as his wife a woman of the highest rank, Matthidia by name. By her he had three sons, two of whom were twins; and the one who was the younger, whose name was Clement, is this man!" When he said this, he pointed to me with his finger. "And his twin sons are these men, Niceta and Aquila, the one of whom was formerly called Faustinus and the other Faustus."19 But as soon as Peter pronounced our names, all the old man's limbs were weakened, and he fell down in a swoon. But we his sons rushed to him, and embraced and kissed him, fearing that we might not be able to recall his spirit. And while these things were going on, the people were confounded with very wonder.
Chapter XXXVI.-New Revelations.
But Peter ordered us to rise from embracing our father, lest we should kill him; and he himself, laying hold of his hand, and lifting him up as from a deep sleep, and gradually reviving him, began to set forth to him the whole transactions as they had really happened:20 how his brother had fallen in love with Matthidia, and how she, being very modest, had been unwilling to inform her husband of his brother's lawless love, lest she should stir up hostility between the brothers, and bring disgrace upon the family; and how she had wisely pretended a dream, by which she was ordered to depart from the city with her twin sons, leaving the younger one with his father; and how on their voyage they had suffered shipwreck through the violence of a storm; and how, when they were cast upon an island called Antaradus, Matthidia was thrown by a wave upon a rock, but her twin children were seized by pirates and carried to Caesarea, and there sold to a pious woman, who treated them as sons, and brought them up, and caused them to be educated as gentlemen; and how the pirates had changed their names, and called the one Niceta and the other Aquila; and how afterwards, through common studies and acquaintanceship, they had adhered to Simon; and how they had turned away from him when they saw him to be a magician and a deceiver, and had come to Zacchaeus; and how subsequently they had been associated with himself; and how Clement also, setting out from the city for the sake of learning the truth, had, through his acquaintance with Barnabas, come to Caesarea. and had become known to him, and had adhered to him, and how he had been taught by him the faith of his religion; and also how he had found and recognised his mother begging at Antaradus, and how the whole island rejoiced at his recognition of her; and also concerning her sojourn with her most chaste hostess, and the cure that he bad wrought upon her, and concerning t he liberality of Clement to those who bad been kind to his mother; and how afterwards, when Niceta and Aquila asked who the strange woman was, and had heard the whole story from Clement, they cried out that they were her twin sons Faustinus and Faustus; and how they had unfolded the whole history of what had befallen them; and how afterwards, by the persuasion of Peter himself, they were presented to their sother with caution, lost she should be cut off by the sudden joy.
Chapter XXXVII.-Another Recognition.
But while Peter was detailing these things in the hearing of the old man, in a narrative which was most pleasing to the crowd, so that the hearers wept through wonder at the events, and through compassion for sufferings incident to humanity,21 my mother, hearing (I know not how) of the recognition of my father, rushed into the middle of us in breathless haste, crying out, and saying: "Where is my husband, my lord Faustinianus, who has been so long afflicted, wandering from city to city in search of me? "While she shouted thus like one demented, and gazed around, the old man, running up, began to embrace and hug her with many tears.22 And while these things were going on, Peter requested the crowds to disperse, saying that it was unseemly to remain longer; but that opportunity must be afforded them of seeing one another more privately. "But to-morrow," said he, "if an y of you wish it, let them assemble to hear the word."
Chapter XXXVIII.-"Angels Unawares."
When Peter had said this, the crowds dispersed; and when we also were intending to go to our lodging, the master of the house said to us:23 "It is base and wicked that such and so great men should stay in a hostelry, when I have almost my whole house empty, and very many beds spread, and all necessary things provided." But when Peter refused, the wife of the householder prostrated herself before him with her children, and besought him, saying, "I entreat yon, stay with us." But not even so did Peter consent, until the daughter of those people who asked him, who had been for a long time vexed with an unclean spirit, and bound with chains, who had been shut up in a closet, having had the demon expelled from her, and the door of the closet opened, came with her chains and fell down at Peter's feet, saying: "It is right, my lord, that von keep my deliverance-feast here to-day, and not sadden me or my parents." But when Pete r asked what was the meaning of her chains and of her words, her parents, gladdened beyond hope by the recovery of their daughter, were, as it were, thunderstruck with astonishment, and could not speak; but the servants who were in attendance said: "This girl has been possessed of a demon from her seventh year, and used to cut, and bite, and even to tear in pieces, all who attempted to approach her, and this she has never ceased to do for twenty years till the present time. Nor could any one cure her, or even approach her, for she rendered many helpless, and even destroyed some; for she was stronger than any man, being doubtless strengthened by the power of the demon. But now, as you see, the demon has fled from your presence, and the doors which were shut with the greatest strength have been opened, and she herself stands before you in her sound mind, asking of you to make the clay of her recovery gladsome both to herself and her parents, and to remain with them." When one of the ser vants had made this statement, and the chains of their own accord were loosened from her hands and feet, Peter, being sure that it was by his means that soundness was restored to the girl, consented to remain with them. And he ordered those also who had remained in the lodging, with his wife, to come over; and every one of us having got a separate bed-chamber, we remained; and having taken food in the usual manner, and given praises to God, we went to sleep in our several apartments.
Book X.
Chapter I.-Probation.
But in the morning, after sunrise, I Clement, and Niceta and Aquila, along with Peter, came to the apartment in which my father and mother were sleeping; and finding them still asleep, we sat down before the door, when Peter addressed us in such terms as these:1 "Listen to me, most beloved fellow-servants: I know that you have a great affection for your father; therefore I am afraid that you will urge him too soon to take upon himself the yoke of religion, while he is not yet prepared for it; and to this he may perhaps consent, through his affection for you. Bat this is not to be depended on; for what is done for the sake of men is not worthy of approbation, and soon falls to pieces. Therefore it seems to me, that you should permit him to live for a year according to his own judgment; and during that time he may travel with us, and while we are instructing others he may hear with simplicity; and as he hears, if he has any right purpose of acknowledging the truth, he will himself request that he may take up the yoke of religion; or if he do not please to take it, he may remain a friend. For those who do not take it up heartily, when they begin not to be able to bear it, not only cast off that which they had taken up, but by way of excuse, as it were. for their weakness, they begin to speak evil of the way of religion, and to malign those whom they have not been able to follow or to imitate."
Chapter II.-A Difficulty.
To this Niceta answered: "My lord Peter, I say nothing against your right and good counsels; but I wish to say one thing, that thereby I may learn something that I do not know. What if my father should die within the year during which you recommend that he should be put off? He will go down to hell helpless, and so be tormented for ever." Then said Peter: "I embrace your kindly purpose towards your father, and I forgive you in respect of things of which you are ignorant. For do you suppose that, if any one is thought to have lived righteously, he shall forthwith be saved? Do you not think that he must be examined by Him who knows the secrets of men, as to how he has lived righteously, whether perchance according to the rule of the Gentiles, obeying their institutions and laws; or for the sake of the friendship of men; or merely from custom, or any other cause; or from necessity, and not on account of righteousness itself, and for the sake of God? For those who have lived right eously, for the sake of God alone and His righteousness, they shall come to eternal rest, and shall receive the perpetuity of the heavenly kingdom. For salvation is not attained by force, but by liberty; and not through the favour of men, hut by the faith of God. Then, besides, you ought to consider that God is prescient, and knows whether this man is one of His. But if He knows that he is not, what shall we do with respect to those things which leave been determined by Him from the beginning? But wherein I can, I give counsel: when he is awake, and we sit down together, then do you, as if you wished to learn something, ask a question about those matters which it is titling for him to learn; and while we speak to one another, he will gain instruction. But yet wait first to see if he himself ask anything; for if he do so, the occasion of discourse will be the fitter. But if he do not ask anything, let us by turns put questions to one another, wishing to learn something, as I have said. Such is my judgment, state what is yours."
Chapter III.-A Suggestion.
And when we had commended his right counsel, I Clement said: "In all things, the end for the most part looks back upon the beginning, and the issue of things is similar to their commencement. I hope, therefore, with respect to our father also, since God by your means has given a good beginning, that He will bestow also an ending suitable to the beginning, and worthy of Himself. However, I make this suggestion, that if, as you have said, we begin to speak, in presence of my father, as if for the purpose of discussing some subject, or learning something from one another, you, my lord Peter, ought not to occupy the place of one who has anything to learn; for if he see this, he will rather be offended. For he is convinced that you fully know all things, as indeed you do. How then will it be, if he see you pretending ignorance? This, as I have said, will rather hurt him, being ignorant of your design. But if we brothers, while we converse among ourselves, are in any doubt, let a fi tting solution be given by you to our inquiry. For if he see even you hesitating and doubting, then truly he will think that no one has knowledge of the truth."
Chapter IV.-Free Inquiry.
To this Peter answered: "Let us not concern ourselves about this; and if indeed it is fitting that he enter the gate of life, God will afford a fitting opportunity; and there shall be a beginning from God, and not from man. And therefore, as I have said, let him journey with us, and hear our discussions; but because I saw you in haste, therefore I said that opportunity must be sought; and when God shall give it, do you comply with my advice in what I shall say." While we were thus talking, a boy came to tell us that our father was now awake; and when we were intending to go in to him, he himself came to us, and saluting us with a kiss, after we had sat down again, he said: "Is it permitted to one to ask a question, if he wishes it; or is silence enforced, after the manner of the Pythagoreans? "Then said Peter: "We do not compel those who come to us either to keep silence continually, or to ask questions; but we leave them free to do as they will knowing that he who is anxious about his salvation, if he feels pain in any part of his soul, does not suffer it to be silent. But he who neglects his salvation, no advantage its conferred upon him if he is compelled to ask, excepting this only, that he may seem to be earnest and diligent. Wherefore, if you wish to get any information, ask on."
Chapter V.-Good and Evil.
Then the old man said: "There is a saying very prevalent among the Greek philosophers, to the effect that there is in reality neither good nor evil in the life of man; hut that men call things good or evil as they appear to them, prejudiced by the use and custom of life. For not even murder is really an evil, because it sets the soul free from the bonds of the flesh. Further, they say that even just judges put to death those who commit crimes; but if they knew homicide to be an evil, just men would not do that. Neither do they say that adultery is an evil; for if the husband does not know, or does not care, there is, they say, no evil in it. But neither, say they is theft an evil; for it takes away what one does, not possess from another who has it. And, indeed, it ought to be taken freely and openly; but in that it is done secretly, that is rather a reproof of his inhumanity from whom it is secretly taken. For all men ought to have the common use of all things that are in thi s world; but through injustice one says that this is his, and another that that is his, and so division is caused among men. In short, a certain man, the wisest among the Greeks,2 knowing that these things are so, says that friends should have all things common. Now, in all things unquestionably wives are included. He says also that, as the air and the sunshine cannot be divided, so neither ought other things to be divided, which are given in this world to all to be possessed in common, but should be so possessed. But I wished to say this, because I am desirous to turn to well-doing, and I cannot act well unless I first learn what is good; and if I can understand that, I shall thereby perceive what is evil, that is, opposite to good.
Chapter VI.-Peter's Authority.
"But I should like that one of you, and not Peter, should answer what I have said; for it is not fitting to take words and instruction at his hand, with questions; but when he gives a deliverance on any subject, that should be held without answering again. And therefore let us keep him as an umpire; so that if at any time our discussion does not come to an issue, he may declare what seems good to him, and so give an undoubted end to doubtful matters. And now therefore I could believe, content with his sole opinion, if he expressed any opinion; and this is what I shall do at last. Yet I wish first to see if it is possible by discussion to find what is sought. My wish therefore is, that Clement should begin first, and should show if there is any good or evil in substance or in actions."
Chapter VII.-Clement's Argument.
To this I answered: "Since indeed you wish to learn from me if there is any good or evil in nature or in act, or whether it is not rather that men, prejudiced by custom, think some things to be good, and others to be evil, forasmuch as; they have made a division among themselves of common things, which ought, as you say, to be as common as the air and the sunshine; I think that I ought not to bring before you any statements from any other quarter than from those studies in which you are well versed, and which you support, so that what I say you will receive without hesitation. You assign certain boundaries of all the elements and the heavenly bodies, and these, you say, meet in some without hurt, as in marriages; but in others they are hurtfully united, as in adulteries. And you say that some things are general to all, but other things do not belong to all, and are not general. But not to make a long discussion, I shall speak briefly of the matter. The earth which is dry is in need of the addition and admixture of water, that it may be able to produce fruits, without which man cannot live: this is therefore a legitimate conjunction. On the contrary if the cold of hoar-frost be mixed with the earth, or heat with the water, a conjunction of this sort produces corruption; and this, in such things, is adultery."
Chapter VIII.-Admitted Evils.
Then my father answered: "But as the harmfulness of can inharmonious conjunction of elements or stars is immediately betrayed, so ought also adultery to he immediately shown that it is an evil." Then I: "First tell me this, whether, as you yourself have confessed, evils are produced from incongruous and inharmonious mixture; and then after that we shall inquire into the other matter." Then my father said: "The nature of things is as you say, my son." Then I answered: "Since, then, you wish to learn of these things, see how many things there are which no one doubts to be evils. Do you think that a fever, a fire, sedition, the fall of a house, murder, holds, racks, pains, mournings, and such like, are evils? "Then said my father: "It is true, my son, that these things are evil, and very evil; or, at all events, whoever denies that they are evil, let him suffer them!"
Chapter IX.-Existence of Evil on Astrological Principles.
Then I answered: "Since, therefore, I have to deal with one who is skilled in astrological science,3 I shall treat the matter with you according to that science, that, taking my method from those things with which you are familiar, you may the more readily acquiesce. Listen now, therefore: you confess that those things which we have mentioned are evils, such as fevers, conflagrations, and such like. Now these, according to you, are said to be produced by malignant stars, such as the humid Saturn and the hot Mars; but things contrary to these are produced by benignant stars, such as the temperate Jupiter and the humid Venus. Is it not so? "My father answered: "It is so, my son; and it cannot be otherwise." Then said I: "Since you say, therefore, that good things are produced by good stars-by Jupiter and Venus, for example-let us see what is the product where any one of the evil stars is mixed with the good, and let us unde rstand that that is evil. For you lay it down that Venus makes marriages, and if she have Jupiter in her configuration she makes the marriages chaste; but if Jupiter he not regarding, and Mars be present, then you pronounce that the marriages are corrupted by adultery." Then said my father: "It is even so." Then I answered: "Therefore adultery is an evil, seeing that it is committed through the admixture of evil stars; and, to state it in a word all things that you say that the good stars suffer from the mixture of evil stars, are undoubtedly to be pronounced to be evil. Those stars, therefore, by whose admixture we have said that fevers, configurations, and other such like evils are produced,-those, according to you, work also murders, adulteries, thefts, and also produce haughty and stolid men."
Chapter X.-How to Make Progress.
Then my father said: "Truly you have shown briefly and incomparably that there are evils in actions; but still I should wish to learn this how God justly judges those who sin, as you say, if Genesis compels them to sin? "Then I answered: "I am afraid to speak anything to you, my father, because it becomes me to hold you in all honour, else I have an answer to give you, if it were becoming." Then says my father: "Speak what occurs to you, my son; for it is not you, but the method of inquiry, that does the wrong, as a modest woman to an incontinent man, if she is indignant for her safety and her honour." Then I answered "If we do not hold by the principles that we have acknowledged and confessed, but if those things which have been defined are always loosened by forgetfulness, we shall seem to be weaving Penelope's web, undoing what we have done. And therefore we ought either not to acquiesce too easily, before we have diligently examined the doctrine propounded; or if we have o nce acquiesced, and the proposition has been agreed to, then we ought to keep by what has been once determined, that we may go on with our inquiries respecting other matters." And my father said: "You say well, my son; and I know why yon say this: it is because in the discussion yesterday on natural causes, yon showed that some malignant power, transferring itself into the order of the stars, excites the lusts of men, provoking them in various ways to sin, yet not compelling or producing sins." To this I answered: "It is well that you remember it; and yet, though you to remember it, you have fallen into error." Then said my father: "Pardon me, my son; for I have not yet much practice in these things: for indeed your discourses yesterday, by their truth, shut me up to agree with you; yet in my consciousness there are, as it were, some remains Of fevers, which for a little hold me back from faith, as from health. For I am distracted, because I know that many things, yea, almost all thin gs, have befallen me according to Genesis."
Chapter XI.-Test of Astrology.
Then I answered: "I shall therefore tell you, my father, what is the nature of mathematics, and do you act according to what I tell you. Go to a mathematician,4 and tell him first that such and such evils have befallen you at such a time, and that you wish to learn of him whence, or how, or through what stars they have befallen yon. He will no doubt answer you that a malignant Mars or Saturn has ruled your times, or that some one of them has been periodic; or that some one has regarded yon diametrically, or in conjunction, or centrally; or some such answer will he give, adding that in all these some one was not in harmony with the malignant one, or was invisible, or was in the figure, or was beyond the division, or was eclipsed, or was not in contact. or was among the dark stars; and many other like things will he answer, according to his own reasons, and will condescend upon particulars. After him go to another mathemati cian, and tell him the opposite, that such and such good happened to yon at that time, mentioning to him the same time, and ask him from what parts of your Genesis this good has come to you, and take care, as I said, that the times are the same with those about which you asked concerning evils. And when you have deceived him concerning the times, see what figures he will invent for yon, by which to show that good things ought to have befallen yon at those very times. For it is impossible for those treating of the Genesis of men not to find in every quarter, as they call it, of the heavenly bodies, some stars favourably placed, and some unfavourably; for the circle is equally complete in every part, according to mathematics, admitting of diverse and various causes, from which they can take occasion of saying whatever they please.
Chapter XII.-Astrology Baffled by Free-Will.
"For, as usually happens when Inert see unfavourable dreams, and can make nothing certain out of them, when any event occurs, then they adapt what they saw in the dream to what has occurred; so also is mathematics. For before anything happens, nothing is declared will certainty; but after something has happened. they gather the causes of the event. And thus often, when they have been at fault, and the thing has fallen out otherwise, they take the blame to themselves, saying that it was such and such a star which opposed, and that they did not see it; not knowing that their error does not proceed from their unskilfulness in their art, but from the inconsistency of the whole system. For they do not know what those things are which we indeed desire to do, but in regard to which we do not indulge our desires. But we who have learned the reason of this mystery know the cause, since, having freedoms of will, we sometimes oppose our desires, and sometimes yield to them.5 And therefore the issue of human doings is uncertain, because it depends upon freedom of will. For a mathematician can indeed indicate the desire which a malignant power produces; but whether the acting or the issue of this desire shall be fulfilled or not, no one can know before the accomplishment of the thing, because it depends upon freedom of will. And this is why ignorant astrologers have invented to themselves the talk about climacterics as their refuge in uncertainties, as we showed fully yesterday.
Chapter XIII.-People Admitted.
"If you have anything that you wish to say to this, say on." Then my father: "Nothing can be more true, my son, than what you have stated." And while we were thus speaking among ourselves, some one informed us that a great multitude of people were standing outside, having assembled for the purpose of hearing. Then Peter ordered them to be admitted, for the place was large and convenient. And when they had come in, Peter said to us: "If any one of you wishes, let him address the people, and discourse concerning idolatry." To whom I Clement answered: "Your great benignity and gentleness and patience towards all encourages us, so that we dare speak in your presence, and ask what we please; and therefore, as I said, the gentleness of your disposition invites and encourages all to undertake the precepts of saving doctrine. This I never saw before in any one else, but in you only, with whom there is neither envy nor indignation. Or what do you think?
Chapter XIV.-No Man Has Universal Knowledge.
Then Peter said: "These things come not only from envy or indignation; but sometimes there is a bashfulness in some persons, lest haply (they may not be able to answer fully the questions that may be proposed, and so they avoid the discovery of their want of skill. But no one ought to be ashamed of this, because there is no man who ought to profess that he knows all things; for there is only One who knows all things, even He who also made all things. For if our Master declared that He knew not the day and the hour whose signs even He foretold, and referred the whole to the Father, how shall we account it disgraceful to confess that we are ignorant of some things, since in this we have the example of our Master? But this only we profess, that we know those things which we have learned from the true Prophet; and that those things have been delivered to us by the true Prophet, which He judged to be sufficient for human knowledge."
Chapter XV.-Clement's Disclosure.
Then I Clement went on to speak thus: "At Tripolis, when you were disputing against the Gentiles, my lord Peter, I greatly wondered at you, that although you were instructed by your father according to the fashion of the Hebrews and in observances of your own law, and were never polluted by the studies of Greek learning, you argued so magnificently and so incomparably; and that you even touched upon some things concerning the histories of the gods, which are usually declaimed in the theatres. But as I perceived that their fables and blasphemies are not so well known to you, I shall discourse upon these in your hearing, repeating them from the very beginning, if it please you." Then says Peter: Say on; you do well to assist my preaching." Then said I: "I shall speak, therefore, because you order me, not by way of teaching you, but of making public what foolish opinions the Gentiles entertain of the gods."
Chapter XVI.-World that All God's People Were Prophets."
But when I was about to speak, Niceta, biting his lip, beckoned to me to be silent. And when Peter saw him, he said: "Why would you repress his liberal disposition and noble nature, that you would have him be silent for my honour, which is nothing? Or do you not know, that if all nations, after they have heard from me the preaching of the truth, and have believed, would betake themselves to teaching, they would gain the greater glory for me, if indeed you think me desirous of glory? For what so glorious as to prepare disciples for Christ, not who shall be silent, and shall be saved alone, but who shall speak what they have learned, and shall do good to others? I wish indeed that both you, Niceta, and you, beloved Aquila, would aid me in preaching the word of God, and the rather because those things in which the Gentiles err are well known to you; and not you only, but all who hear me, I wish, as I have said, so to hear and to learn, that they may be able also to teach: for the world needs many helpers, by whom men may be recalled from error." When he had spoken thus, he said to me: "Go on then, Clement, with what you have begun."
Chapter XVII.-Gentile Cosmogony.
And I immediately rejoined: "Seeing that when you were disputing at Tripolis, as I said, you discoursed much concerning the gods of the Gentiles profitably and convincingly, I desire to set forth in your presence the ridiculous legends concerning their origin, both that you may not be unacquainted with the falsehood of this vain superstition, and that the hearers who are present may know the disgraceful character of their error. The wise men, then, who are among the Gentiles, say that first of all things was chaos;6 that this, through a long time solidifying its outer parts, made bounds to itself and a sort of foundation, being gathered, as it were, into the manner and form of a huge egg, within which, in the course of a long time, as within the shell of the egg, there was cherished and vivified a certain animal; and that afterwards, that huge globe being broken, there came forth a certain kind of man of double sex, which they call masculo-feminine. This they called Phanetas, from appearing, because when it appeared, they say, then also light shone forth. And from this, they say that there were produced substance, prudence, motion, and coition, and from these the heavens and the earth were made. From the heaven they say that six males were produced, whom they call Titans; and in like manner, from the earth six females, whom they called Titanides. And these are the names of the males who sprang from the heaven: Oceanus, Coeus, Crios, Hyperion, Iapetus, Chronos, who amongst us is called Saturn. In like manner, the names of the females who sprang from the earth are these: Theia, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Tethys, Hebe.7
Chapter XVIII.-Family of Saturn.
"Of all these, the first-born of the heaven took to wife the first-born of earth; the second the second, and in like manner all the rest. The first male, therefore, who had married the first female, was on her account drawn downwards; but the second female rose upwards, by reason of him to whom she was married; and so each doing in their order, remained in those places which fell to their share by the nuptial lot. From their intercourse they assert that innumerable others sprang. But of these six males, the one who is called Saturn received in marriage Rhea, and having been warned by a certain oracle that he who should be born of her should be more powerful than himself, and should drive him from his kingdom, he determined to devour all the sons that should be born to him. First, then, there is born to him a son called Aides, who amongst us is called Orcus; and him, for the reason we have just stated, he took and devoured. After him he begot a second son, called Neptune; and h im he devoured in like manner. Last of all, he begot him whom they call Jupiter; but him his mother Rhea pitying, by stratagem withdrew from his father when he was about to devour him. And first, indeed, that the crying of the child might not be noticed, she made certain Corybantes strike cymbals and drums, that by the deafening sound the crying of the infant might not be heard.
Chapter XIX.-Their Destinies.
"But when he understood from the lessening of her belly that her child was born, he demanded it, that he might devour it; then Rhea presented him with a large stone, and told him that that was what she had brought forth. And he took it, and swallowed it; and the stone, when it was devoured, pushed and drove forth those sons whom he had formerly swallowed. Therefore Orcus, coming forth first, descended, and occupies the lower, that is, the infernal regions. The second, being above him-he whom they call Neptune-is thrust forth upon the waters. The third, who survived by the artifice of his mother Rhea, she put upon a she-goat and sent into heaven.
Chapter XX.-Doings of Jupiter.
"But enough of the old wife's fables and genealogy of the Gentiles; for it were endless if I should set forth all the generations of those whom they call gods, and their wicked doings. But by way of example, omitting the rest, I shall detail the wicked deeds of him only whom they hold to be the greatest and the chief, and whom they call Jupiter.8 For they say that he possesses heaven, as being superior to the rest; and he, as soon as he grew up, married his own sister, whom they call Juno, in which truly he at once becomes like a beast. Juno bears Vulcan; but, as they relate, Jupiter was not his father. However, by Jupiter himself she became mother of Medea; and Jupiter having received a response that one who should be born of her should be more powerful than himself, and should expel him from his kingdom, took her and devoured her. Again Jupiter produced Minerva from his brain, and Bacchus from his thigh. After this, whe n he had fallen in love with Thetis, they say that Prometheus informed him that, if he lay with her, he who should be born of her should be more powerful than his father; and for fear of this, he gave her in marriage to one Peleus. Subsequently he had intercourse with Persephone, who was his own daughter by Ceres and by her be begot Dionysius,9 who was torn in pieces by the Titans. But calling to mind, it is said, that perhaps his own father Saturn might beget another son, who might be more powerful than himself, and might expel him from the kingdom, he went to war with his father, along with his brothers the Titans; and having beaten them, he at last threw his father into prison, and cut off his genitals, and threw them into the sea. But the blood which flowed from the wound, being mixed with the waves, and turned into foam by the constant churning, produced her whom they call Aphrodite, and whom with us they call Venus. From hi s intercourse with her who was thus his own sister, they say that this same Jupiter begot Cypris, who, they say, was the mother of Cupid.
Chapter XXI.-A Black Catalogue.
"Thus much of his incests; I shall now speak of his adulteries. He defiled Europa, the wife of Oceanus, of whom was born Dodonaeus; Helen, the wife of Pandion, of whom Musaeus; Eurynome, the wife of Asopus, of whom Ogygias; Hermione, the wife of Oceanus, of whom the Graces, Thalia, Euphrosyne, Aglaia; Themis, his own sister, of whom the Hours, Eurynomia, Dice, Irene; Themisto, the daughter of Inachus, of whom Arcas; Idaea, the daughter of Minos, of whom Asterion; Phoenissa, the daughter of Alphion, of whom Eudymion; Io, the daughter of Inachus, of whom Epaphus; Hippodamia and Isione, daughters of Danaus, of whom Hippodamia was the wife of Olenus, and Isione of Orchomenus or Chryses; Carme, the daughter of Phoenix, of whom was born Britomartis, who was an attendant of Diana; Callisto, the daughter of Lycaon, of whom Orcas; Lybee, the daughter of Munantius, of whom Belus; Latona, of whom Apollo and Diana; Leandia, the daughter of Enrymedon, of whom Coron; Lysithea, the daughter of Evenus, of whom Helenus; Hippodamia, the daughter of Bellerophon, of whom Sarpedon; Megaclite, the daughter of Macarius, of whom Thebe and Locrus; Niobe, the daughter of Phoronens, of whom Argus and Pelasgus; Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus, of whom Alexander; Pyrrha, the daughter of Prometheus, of whom Helmetheus; Protogenia and Pandora, daughters of Deucalion, of whom he begot Aethelius, and Dorus, and Melera, and Pandorus; Thaicrucia, the daughter of Proteus, of whom was born Nympheus; Salamis, the daughter of Asopus, of whom Saracon; Taygete, Electra, Maia, Plutide, daughters of Atlas, of whom respectively he begot Lacedaemon, Dardanus. Mercury, and Tantalus; Phthia, the daughter of Phoroneus, of whom be begot Achaeus; Chonia, the daughter of Aramnus, of whom he begot Lacon; Chalcea, a nymph, of whom was born Olympus; Charidia, a nymph, of whom Alcanus; Chloris, who was the wife of Ampycus, of whom Mopsus was born; Cotonia, the daughter of Lesbus, of whom Polymedes; Hippo damia, the daughter of Anicetus; Chrysogenia, the daughter of Peneus, of whom was born Thissaeus.
Chapter XXII.-Vile Transformation of Jupiter.
"There are also innumerable adulteries of his, of which no offspring was the result, which it were tedious to enumerate. But amongst those whom we have mentioned, he violated some being transformed, like a magician. In short, he seduced Antiope, the daughter of Nycteus, when turned into a satyr, and of her were born Amphion and Zethus; Alemene, when changed into her husband Amphitryon, and of her was born Hercules; Aegina, the daughter of Asopus, when changed into an eagle, of whom Aeacus was born. So also he defiled Ganymede, the son of Dardanus, being changed into an eagle; Manthea, the daughter of Phocus, when changed into a bear, of whom was born Arctos; Danae, the daughter of Acrisius, being changed into gold, of whom Perseus; Europa, the daughter of Phoenix, changed into a bull, of whom were born Minos, Rhadamanthus, and Sarpedon; Eurymedusa, the daughter of Achelaus, being changed into an ant, of whom Myrmidon; Thalia, the nymph, being changed into a vulture, of whom we re born the Palisci, in Sicily; Imandra, the daughter of Geneanus, at Rhodes, being changed into a shower; Cassiopeia, being changed into her husband Phoenix, and of her was born Anchinos; Leda, the daughter of Thestius, being changed into a swan, of whom was born Helen; and again the same, being changed into a star, and of her were born Castor and Pollux; Lamia, being changed into a lapwing; Mnemosyne, being changed into a shepherd, of whom were born the nine Muses; Nemesis, being changed into a goose; the Cadmian Semele, being changed into fire, and of her was born Dionysius. By his own daughter Ceres he begot Persephone, whom also herself he defiled, being changed into a dragon.
Chapter XXIII.-Why a God?
"He also committed adultery with Europa, the wife of his own uncle Oceanus, and with her sister Eurynome, and punished their father; and he committed adultery with Plute, the daughter of his own son Atlas, and condemned Tantalus, whom she bore to him. Of Larisse, the daughter of Orchomenus, he begot Tityon, whom also he consigned to punishment. He carried off Dia, the wife of his own son Ixion, and subjected him to perpetual punishment; and almost all the sons who sprang from his adulteries he put to violent deaths; and indeed the sepulchres of almost all of them are well known. Yea, the sepulchre of this parricide himself, who destroyed his uncles and defiled their wives, who committed whoredom with his sisters, this magician of many transformations, is shown among the Cretans, who, although they know and acknowledge his horrid and incestuous deeds, and tell them to all, yet are not ashamed to confess him to be a god. Whence it seems to me to be wonderful, yea, exceeding wond erful, how he who exceeds all men in wickedness and crimes, has received that holy and good name which is above every name, being called the father of gods and men; unless perhaps he who rejoices in the evils of men has persuaded unhappy souls to confer honour above all others upon him whom he saw to excel all others in crimes, in order that he might allure all to the imitation of his evil deeds.
Chapter XXIV.-Folly of Polytheism.
"But also the sepulchres of his sons, who are regarded amongst these the Gentiles as gods, are openly pointed out, one in one place, and another in another: that of Mercury at Hermopolis; that of the Cyprian Venus at Cyprus; that of Mars in Thrace; that of Bacchus at Thebes, where he is said to have been torn in pieces; that of Hercules at Tyre, where he was burnt with fire; that of Aesculapius in Epidaurus. And all these are spoken of, not only as men who have died, but as wicked men who have been punished for their crimes; and yet they are adored as gods by foolish men.10
Chapter XXV.-Dead Men Deified.
"But if they choose to argue, and affirm that these are rather the places of their birth than of their burial or death, the former and ancient doings shall be convicted from those at hand and still recent, since we have shown that they worship those whom they themselves confess to have been men, and to have died, or rather to have been punished; as the Syrians worship Adonis, and the Egyptians Osiris; the Trojans, Hector; Achilles is worshipped at Leuconesus, Patroclus at Pontus, Alexander the Macedonian at Rhodes; and many others are worshipped, one in one place and another in another, whom they do not doubt to have been dead men. Whence it follows that their predecessors also, falling into a like error, conferred divine honour upon dead men, who perhaps had had some power or some skill, and especially if they had stupefied stolid men by magical phantasies.11
Chapter XXVI.-Metamorphoses.
"Hence there has now been added, that the poets also adorn the falsehoods of error by elegance of words, and by sweetness of speech persuade that mortals have been made immortal; yea more, they say that men are changed into stars, and trees, and animals, and flowers, and birds, and fountains, and rivers. And but that it might seem to be a waste of words, I could even enumerate almost all the stars, and trees, and fountains, and rivers, which they assert to have been made of men; yet, by way of example, I shall mention at least one of each class. They say that Andromeda, the daughter of Cepheus, was turned into a star; Daphne, the daughter of the river Lado, into a tree; Hyacinthus, beloved of Apollo, into a flower; Callisto into the constellation which they call Arctos; Progne and Philomela, with Tereus, into birds; that Thysbe in Cilicia was dissolved into a fountain; and Pyramus, at the same place, into a river. And they assert that almost all the stars, trees, fountains, an d rivers, flowers, animals, and birds, were at one time human beings."
Chapter XXVII.-Inconsistency of Polytheists.
But Peter, when he heard this, said: "According to them, then, before men were changed into stars, and the other things which you mention, the heaven was without stars, and the earth without trees and animals; and there were neither fountains, nor rivers, nor birds. And without these, how did those men themselves live, who afterwards were changed into them, since it is evident that, without these things, men could not live upon the earth? "Then I answered: "But they are not even able to observe the worship of their own gods consistently; for every one of those whom they worship has something dedicated to himself, from which his worshippers ought to abstain: as they say the olive is dedicated to Minerva, the she-goat to Jupiter, seeds to Ceres, wine to Bacchus, water to Osiris, the ram to Hammon, the stag to Diana, the fish and the dove to the demon of the Syrians, fire to Vulcan; and to each one, as I have said, is there something specially consecrated, from which the worshipp ers are bound to abstain, for the honour of those to whom they are consecrated. But were one abstaining from one thing, and another from another, by doing honor to one of the gods, they incur the anger of all the rest; and therefore, if they would conciliate them all, they must abstain from all things for the honour of all, so that, being self-condemned by a just sentence before the day of judgment, they should perish by a most wretched death through starvation.
Chapter XXVIII.-Buttresses of Gentilism.
"But let us return to our purpose. What reason is there, yea, rather, what madness possesses the minds of men, that they worship and adore as a god, a man whom they not only know to be impious, wicked, profane-I mean Jupiter-incestuous, a parricide, an adulterer, but even proclaim him publicly as such in their songs in the theatres? Or if by means of these deeds he has deserved to be a god, then also, when they hear of any murderers, adulterers, parricides incestuous persons, they ought to worship them also as gods. But I cannot understand why they venerate in him what they execrate in others." Then Peter answered: "Since you say that you cannot understand it, learn of me why they venerate wickedness in him. In the first place, it is that, when they themselves do like deeds, they may know that they shall be acceptable to him, inasmuch as they have but imitated him in his wickedness. In the second place, because the ancients have left these things skilfully composed in their wr itings, and elegantly engrafted in their verses. And now, by the aid of youthful education, since the knowledge of these things adheres to their tender and simple minds, it cannot without difficulty be torn from them and cast away."
Chapter XXIX.-Allegories.
When Peter had said this, Niceta answered: "Do not suppose, my lord Peter, but that the learned men of the Gentiles have certain plausible arguments, by which they support those things which seem to be blameworthy and disgraceful. And this I state, not as wishing to confirm their error (for far be it from me that such a thing should ever come into my thought); but yet I know that there are amongst the more intelligent of them certain defences, by which they are accustomed to support and colour over those things which seem to be absurd. And if it please you that I should state some of them-for I am to some extent acquainted with them-I shall do as you order me." And when Peter had given him leave, Niceta proceeded as follows.
Chapter XXX.-Cosmogony of Orpheus.
"All the literature among the Greeks which is written on the subject of the origin of antiquity, is based upon many authorities, but especially two, Orpheus and Hesiod.12 Now their writings are divided into two parts, in respect of their meaning,-that is the literal and the allegorical; and the vulgar crowd has flocked to the literal, but all the eloquence of the philosophers and learned men is expended in admiration of the allegorical. It is Orpheus, then, who says that at first there was chaos, eternal, unbounded, unproduced, and that from it all things were made. He says that this chaos was neither darkness nor light, neither moist nor dry, neither hot nor cold, but that it was all things mixed together, and was always one unformed mass; yet that at length, as it were after the manner of a huge egg, it brought forth and produced from itself a certain double form, which had been wrought through immense periods of time, and which they call masculo-feminine, a form concrete from the contrary admixture of such diversity; and that this is the principle of all things, which came of pure matter, and which, coming forth, effected a separation of the four elements, and made heaven of the two elements which are first, fire and air, and earth of the others, earth and water; and of these he says that all things now are born and produced by a mutual participation of them. So far Orpheus.
Chapter XXXI.-Hesiod's Cosmogony.
"But to this Hesiod adds, that after chaos the heaven and the earth were made immediately, from which he says that those eleven were produced (and sometimes also he speaks of them as twelve) of whom he makes six males and five females. And these are the names that he gives to the males: Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, Chronos, who is also called Saturn. Also the names of the females are: Theia, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Tethys.13 And these names they thus interpret allegorically. They say that the number is eleven or twelve: that the first is nature itself, which also they would have to be called Rhea, from Flowing; and they say that the other ten are her accidents, which also they call qualities; yet they add a twelfth, namely Chronos, who with us is called Saturn, and him they take to be time.14 Therefore they assert that Saturn and Rhea are time and matte r; and these, when they are mixed with moisture and dryness, heat and cold, produce all things.
Chapter XXXII.-Allegorical Interpretation.
"She therefore (Rhea, or nature), it is said, produced, as it were, a certain bubble which had been collecting for a long time; and it being gradually collected from the spirit which was in the waters, swelled, and being for some time driven over the surface of matter, from which it had come forth as from a womb, and being hardened by the rigour of cold, and always increasing by additions of ice, at length was broken off and sunk into the deep, and drawn by its own weight, went down to the infernal regions; and because it became invisible it was called Aides, and is also named Orcus or Pluto. And since it was sunk from the top to the bottom, it gave place to the moist element to flow together; and the grosser part, which is the earth, was laid bare by the retirement of the waters. They say, therefore, that this freedom of the waters, which was formerly restrained by the presence of the bubble, was called Neptune after the bubble attained the lowest place. After this, when the cold element had been sucked down to the lower regions by the concretion of the icy bubble, and the dry and the moist element had been separated, there being now no hindrance, the warm element rushed by its force and lightness to the upper regions of the air, being borne up by wind and storm. This storm, therefore, which in Greek is called kataigiv, they called AeGis-that is, a she-goat; and the fire which ascended to the upper regions they called Jupiter; wherefore they say that he ascended to Olympus riding on a she-goat.
Chapter XXXIII.-Allegory of Jupiter, Etc.
"Now this Jupiter the Greeks would have to be called from his living, or giving life, but our people from his giving succour. They say, therefore, that this is the living substance, which, placed in the upper regions, and drawing all things to itself by the influence of heat, as by the convolution of tile brain, and arranging them by the moderation of a certain tempering, is said from his head to have produced wisdom, whom they call Minerva, who was called 'Aqh/nh by the Greeks on account of her immortality; who, because the father of all created all things by his wisdom, is also said to have been produced from his head, and from the principal place of all, and is represented as having formed and adorned the whole world by the regulated admixture of the elements. Therefore the forms which were impressed upon matter, that the world might be made, because they are constrained by the force of heat, are said to be held together by the energy of Jupiter. And since there are enough of these, and they do not need anything new to be added to them, but each thing is repaired by the produce of its own seed, the hands of Saturn are said to be bound by Jupiter; because, as I have said, time now produces from matter nothing new: but the warmth of seeds restores all things according to their kinds; and no birth of Rhea-that is, no increase of flowing matter-ascends further. And therefore they call that first division of the elements the mutilation of Saturn, because he cannot any more produce a world.
Chapter XXXIV.-Other Allegories.
"And of Venus they give forth an allegory to this effect. When, say they, the sea was put under the air, and when the brightness of the heavens shone more pleasantly, being reflected from the waters, the loveliness of things, which appeared fairer from the waters, was called Venus; and she, it, being united with the air as with her, its, own brother, so as to produce beauty, which might be the object of desire, is said to have given birth to Cupid. In this way, therefore, as we have said, they teach that Chronos, who is Saturn, is allegorically time; Rhea is matter; Aides-that is, Orcus-is the depth of the infernal regions; Neptune is water; Jupiter is air-that is, the element of heat; Venus is the loveliness of things; Cupid is desire, which is in all things, and by which posterity is propagated, or even the reason of things, which gives delight when wisely looked into. Hera-that is, Juno-is said to be that middle air which descends from heaven to earth. To Dian a, whom they call Proserpine, they hand over the air below. They say that Apollo is tile Sun himself, which goes round the heaven; that Mercury is speech, by which a reason is rendered for everything; that Mars is unrestrained fire, which consumes all things. But not to delay you by enumerating everything, those who have the more abstruse intelligence concerning such things think that they give fair and just reasons, by applying this sort of allegory to every one of their objects of worship."
Chapter XXXV.-Uselessness of These Allegories.
When Niceta had thus spoken, Aquila answered: "Whoever he was that was tile author and inventor of these things, he seems to me to have been very impious, since he covered over those things which seem to be pleasant and seemly, and made the ritual of his superstition to consist in base and shameful observances, since those things which are written according to the letter are manifestly unseemly and base; and the whole observance of their religion consists in these, that by such crimes and impieties they may teach men to imitate their gods whom they worship. For in these allegories what profit can there be to them? For although they are framed so as to be decent, yet no use is derived from them for worship, nor for amendment of morals.
Chapter XXXVI.-The Allegories an Afterthought.
"Whence it is the more evident that prudent men, when they saw that the common superstition was so disgraceful, so base, and yet they had not learned any way of correcting it, or any knowledge, endeavoured with what arguments and interpretations they could to veil unseemly things under seemly speech, and not, as they say, to conceal seemly reasons under unseemly fables. For if this were the case, surely their statues and their pictures would never be made with representations of their vices and crimes. The swan, which committed adultery with Leda, would not be represented, nor the bull which committed adultery with Europa; nor would they turn into a thousand monstrous shapes, him whom they think better than all. And assuredly, if the great and wise men who are amongst them knew that all this is fiction and not truth, would not they charge with impiety and sacrilege those who should exhibit a picture or carve an image of this sort, to the injury of the gods? In short, le t them present a king of their own time in the form of an ox, or a goose, or an ant, or a vulture, and let them write the name of their king upon it, and set up such a statue or figure in a public place, and they will soon be made to feel the wrong of their deed, and the greatness of its punishment.
Chapter XXXVII.-Like Gods, Like Worshippers.
"But since those things rather are true which the public baseness testifies, and concealments have been sought and fabricated by prudent men to excuse them by seemly speeches, therefore are they not only not prohibited, but even in the very mysteries figures are produced of Saturn devouring his sons, and of the boy hidden by the cymbals and drums of the Corybantes; and with respect to the mutilation of Saturn, what better proof of its truth could there be, than that even his worshippers are mutilated, by a like miserable fate, in honour of their god? Since then these things are manifestly seen, who shall be found of so little sense, yea, of such stolidity, that he does not perceive that those things are true concerning the unfortunate gods, which their more unfortunate worshippers attest by the wounding and mutilation of their bodies?
Chapter XXXVIII.-Writings of the Poets.
"But if, as they say, these things, so creditably and piously done, are dispensed by so discreditable and impious a ritual, assuredly he is sacrilegious, whoever either gave forth these things at first, or persists in fulfilling them, now that they have unhappily been given forth. And what shall we say of the books of the poets? Ought not they, if they have debased the honourable and pious deeds of the gods with base fables, to be forthwith cast away and thrown into the fire, that they may not persuade the still tender age of boys that Jupiter himself, the chief of the gods, was a parricide towards his parents, incestuous towards his sisters and his daughters, and even impure towards boys; that Venus and Mars were adulterers, and all those things which have been spoken of above? What do you think of this matter, my lord Peter? "
Chapter XXXIX.-All for the Best.
Then he answered: "Be sure, beloved Aquila, that all things are done by the good providence of God, that the cause which was to be contrary to the truth should not only be infirm and weak, but also base. For if the assertion of error had been stronger and more truth-like, any one who had been deceived by it would not easily return to the path of truth. If even now, when so many wicked and disgraceful things are related concerning the gods of the Gentiles, scarce any one forsakes the base error, how much more if there had been in it anything seemly and truth-like? For the mind is with difficulty transferred from those things with which it has been imbued in early youth; and on this account, as I said, it has been effected by divine providence, that the substance of error should be both weak and base. But all other things also divine providence dispenses filly and advantageously, although the method of the divine dispensation, as good, and the best possible, is not clear to us w ho are ignorant of the causes of things."
Chapter XL.-Further Information Sought.
When Peter had thus said, I Clement asked Niceta that he would explain to us, for the sake of instruction, some things concerning the allegories of the Gentiles, which he had carefully studied; "for," said I, "it is useful that when we dispute with the Gentiles, we should not be unacquainted with these things." Then said Niceta: "If my lord Peter permits me, I can do as you ask me." Then said Peter: "To-day I have given you leave to speak in opposition to the Gentiles, as you know." And Niceta said: "Tell me then, Clement, what you would have me speak about." And I said to him: "Inform us how the Gentiles represent matters concerning the supper of the gods, which they had at the marriage of Peleus and Thetis. What do they make of the shepherd Paris, and what of less Juno, Minerva, and Venus, between whom he acted as judge? What of Mercury? and what of the apple, and the other things which follow in order? "
Chapter XLI.-Explanation of Mythology.
Then Niceta: "The affair of the supper of the gods stands in this wise. They say that the banquet is the world, that the order of the gods sitting at table is the position of the heavenly bodies. Those whom Hesiod calls the first children of heaven and earth, of whom six were males and six females, they refer to the number of the twelve signs, which go round all the world. They say that the dishes of the banquet are the reasons and causes of things, sweet and desirable, which in the shape of inferences from the positions of the signs and the courses of the stars, explain how the world is ruled and governed. Yet they say these things exist after the free manner of a banquet, inasmuch as the mind of every one has the option whether he shall taste aught of this sort of knowledge, or whether he shall refrain; and as in a banquet no one is compelled, but every one is at liberty to eat, so also the manner of philosophizing depends upon the choice of the will. They say that discord is the lust of the flesh, which rises up against the purpose of the mind, and hinders the desire of philosophizing; and therefore they say that the time was that in which the marriage was celebrated. Thus they make Peleus and the nymph Thetis to be the dry and the moist element, by the admixture of which the substance of bodies is composed. They hold that Mercury is speech, by which instruction is conveyed to the mind; that Juno is chastity, Minerva courage, Venus lust, Paris the understanding. If therefore, say they, it happens that there is in a man a barbarous and uncultivated understanding, and ignorant of right judgment, he will despise chastity and courage, and will give the prize, which is the apple, to lust; and thereby, ruin and destruction will come not only upon himself, but also upon his countrymen and the whole race. These things, therefore, it is in their power to compose from whatever matter they please; yet they can be adapted to every man; because if any one has a pastoral and rustic and uncultivated understanding, and does not wish to be instructed, when the heat of his body shall make suggestions concerning the pleasure of lust, straightway he despises the virtues of studies and the blessings of knowledge, and turns his mind to bodily pleasures. And hence it is that implacable wars arise, cities are destroyed, countries fall, even as Paris, by the abduction of Helen, armed the Greeks and the barbarians to their mutual destruction."
Chapter XLII.-Interpretation of Scripture.
Then Peter, commending his statement, said: "Ingenious men, as I perceive, take many verisimilitudes from the things which they read; and therefore great care is to be taken, that when the law of God is read, it be not read according to the understanding of our own mind. For there are many sayings in the divine Scriptures which can be drawn to that sense which every one has preconceived for himself; and this ought not to be done. For you ought not to seek a foreign and extraneous sense, which you have brought from without, which you may confirm from the authority of the Scriptures, but to take the sense of truth from the Scriptures themselves; and therefore it behoves you to learn the meaning of the Scriptures from him who keeps it according to the truth handed down to him from his fathers, so that he can authoritatively declare what he has rightly received. But when one has received an entire and firm rule of truth from the Scriptures, it will not be improper if he contribute to the establishment of true doctrine anything from common education and from lib-oral studies, which, it may be, he has attached himself to in his boyhood; yet so that, when he has learned the truth, he renounce falsehood and pretence."
Chapter XLIII.-A Word of Exhortation.
And when he had said this, he looked to our father, and said: "You therefore, old man, if indeed you care for your soul's safety, that when you desire to be separated from the body, it may, in consequence of tills short conversion, find eternal rest, ask about whatever you please, and seek counsel, that you may be able to cast off any doubt that remains in you. For even to young men the time of life is uncertain; but to old men it is not even uncertain, for there is no doubt that there is but little time remaining to them. And therefore both young and old ought to be very earnest about their conversion and repentance, and to be taken up with the adornment of their souls for the future with the worthiest ornaments, such as the doctrines of truth, the grace of chastity, the splendour of righteousness, the fairness of piety, and all other things with which it becomes a reasonable mind to be adorned. Then, besides, they should break off from unseemly and unbelieving companions, an d keep company with the faithful, and frequent those assemblies in which subjects are handled relating to chastity, righteousness and piety; to pray to God always heartily, and to ask of Him those things which ought to be asked of God; to give thanks to Him; to repent truly of their past doings; in some measure also, if possible, by deeds of mercy towards the poor, to help their penitence: for by these means pardon will be more easily bestowed, and mercy will be sooner shown to the merciful.
Chapter XLIV.-Earnestness.
"But if he who comes to repentance is of more advanced age, he ought the more to give thanks to God, because, having received the knowledge of the truth, after all the violence of carnal lust has been broken, there awaits him no fight of contest, by which to repress the pleasures of the body rising against the mind. It remains, therefore, that he be exercised in the learning of the truth, and in works of mercy, that he may bring forth fruits worthy of repentance; and that he do not suppose that the proof of conversion is shown by length of time, but by strength of devotion and of purpose. For minds are manifest to God; and He does not take account of times, but of hearts. For He approves if any one, on hearing the preaching of the truth, does not delay, nor spend time in negligence, but immediately, and if I may say so, in the same moment, abhorring the past, begins to desire things to come, and burns with love of the heavenly kingdom.
Chapter XLV.-All Ought to Repent.
"Wherefore, let no one of you longer dissemble nor look backwards, but willingly approach to the Gospel of the kingdom of God. Let not the poor man say, When I shall become rich, then I shall be converted. God does not ask money of you, but a merciful heart and a pious mind. Nor let the rich man delay his conversion by reason of worldly care, while he thinks how he may dispose the abundance of his fruits; nor say within himself, `What shall I do? where shall I bestow my fruits? 'Nor say to his soul, `Thou hast much goods laid up for many years; feast and rejoice.' For it shall be said to him, `Thou fool, this night thy soul shall be taken from time, and whose shall those things be which thou hast provided? ' Therefore let every age, every sex, every condition, haste to repentance, that they may obtain eternal life. Let the young be thankful that they put their necks under the yoke of discipline in the very violence of their desires. The old also are themselves praise-worthy, b ecause they change for the fear of God, the custom of a long time in which they have been unhappily occupied.
Chapter XLVI.-The Sure Word of Prophecy.
"Let no one therefore put off. Let no one delay. For what occasion is there for delaying to do well? Or are you afraid, lest, when you have done well, you do not find the reward as you supposed? And what loss will you sustain if you do well without reward? Would not conscience alone be sufficient in this? But if you find as you anticipate, shall you not receive great things for small, and eternal for temporal? But I say this for the sake of the unbelieving. For the things which we preach are as we preach them; because they cannot be otherwise, since they have been promised by the prophetic word.
Chapter XLVII.-"A Faithful Saying, and Worthy of All Acceptation."
"But if any one desires to learn exactly the truth of our preaching, let him come to hear, and let him ascertain what the true Prophet is; and then at length all doubtfulness will cease to him, unless with obstinate mind he resist those things which he finds to be true. For there are some whose only object it is to gain the victory in any way whatever, and who seek praise for this rather than their salvation. These ought not to have a single word addressed to them, lest both the noble word suffer injury, and condemn to eternal death him who is guilty of the wrong done to it. For what is there in respect of which any one ought to oppose our preaching? or in respect of which the word of our preaching is found to be contrary to the belief of what is true and honourable? It says that the God the Father, the Creator of all, is to be honoured, as also His Son, who alone knows Him and His will, and who alone is to be believed concerning all things which He has enjoined. For He alone is the law and the Lawgiver, and the righteous Judge, whose law decrees that God, the Lord of all, is to be honoured by a sober, chaste, just, and merciful life, and that all hope is to be placed in Him alone.
Chapter XLVIII.-Errors of the Philosophers.
"But some one will say that precepts of this sort are given by the philosophers also. Nothing of the kind: for they do indeed give commandments concerning justice and sobriety, but they are ignorant that God is the recompenser of good and evil deeds; and therefore their laws and precepts only shun a public accuser, but cannot purify the conscience. For why should one fear to sin in secret, who does not know that there is a witness and a judge of secret things? Besides, the philosophers in their precepts add that even the gods, who are demons, are to be honoured; and this alone, even if in other respects they seemed worthy of approbation, is sufficient to convict them of the most dreadful impiety , and condemn them by their own sentence, since they declare indeed that there is one God, yet command that many be worshipped, by way of humouring human error. But also the philosophers say that God is not angry, not knowing what they say. For anger is evil, when it disturbs the mind, so that it loses right counsel. But that anger which punishes the wicked does not bring disturbance to the mind; but it is one and the same affection, so to speak, which assigned rewards to the good and punishment to the evil; for if He should bestow blessings upon the good and the evil, and confer equal rewards upon the pious and the impious, He would appear to be unjust rather than good.
Chapter XLIX.-God's Long-Suffering.
"But you say, Neither ought God to do evil. You say truly; nor does He. But those who have been created by Him, while they do not believe that they are to be judged, indulging their pleasures, have fallen away from piety and righteousness. But you will say, If it is right to punish the wicked, they ought to be punished immediately when they do wickedly. You indeed do well to make haste; but He who is eternal, and from whom nothing is secret, inasmuch as He is without end, in the same proportion is His patience extended, and He regards not the swiftness of vengeance, but the causes of salvation. For He is not so much pleased with the death as with the conversion of a sinner. Therefore, in short, He has bestowed upon men holy baptism, to which, if any one makes haste to come, and for the future remains without stain, all his sins are thenceforth blotted out, which were committed in the time of his ignorance.
Chapter L.-Philosophers Not Benefactors of Men.
"For what have the philosophers contributed to the life of man, by saying that God is not angry with men? Only to teach them to have no fear of any punishment or judgment, and thereby to take away all restraint from sinners. Or what have they benefited the human race, who have said that there is no God, but that all things happen by chance and accident? What but that men, hearing this, and thinking that there is no judge, no guardian of things, are driven headlong, without fear of any one, to every deed which either rage, or avarice, or lust may dictate. For they truly have much benefited the life of man who have said that nothing can be done apart from Genesis; that is, that every one, ascribing the cause of his sin to Genesis, might in the midst of his crimes declare himself innocent, while he does not wash out his guilt by repentance, but doubles it by laying the blame upon fate. And what shall I say of those philosophers who have maintained that the gods are to be worshipp ed, and such gods as were described to you a little while ago? What else was this but to decree that vices, crimes, and base deeds should be worshipped? I am ashamed of you, and I pity you, if you have not yet discovered that these things were unworthy of belief, and impious, and execrable, or if, having discovered and ascertained them to be evil, ye have nevertheless worshipped them as if they were good, yea, even the best.
Chapter LI.-Christ the True Prophet.
"Then, besides, of what sort is that which some of the philosophers have presumed to speak even concerning God, though they are mortal, and can only speak by opinion concerning invisible things, or concerning the origin of the world, since they were not present when it was made, or concerning the end of it, or concerning the treatment and judgment of souls in the infernal regions, forgetting that it belongs indeed to a reasonable man to know things present and visible, but that it is the part of prophetic prescience alone to know things past, and things future, and things invisible? These things, therefore, are not to be gathered from conjectures and opinions, in which men are greatly deceived, but from faith in prophetic truth, as this doctrine of ours is. For we speak nothing of ourselves, nor announce things gathered by human judgment; for this were to deceive our hearers. But we preach the things which have been committed and revealed to us by the true Prophet. And concern ing His prophetic prescience and power, if any one, as I have said, wishes to receive clear proofs, let him come instantly and be alert to hear, and we shall give evident proofs by which he shall seem not only to hear the power of prophetic prescience with his ears, but even to see it with his eyes and handle it with his hand; and when he has entertained a sure faith concerning Him, he will without any labour take upon him the yoke of righteousness and piety; and so great sweetness will he perceive in it, that not only will be not find fault with any labour being in it, but will even desire something further to be added and imposed upon him."
Chapter LII.-Appion and Anubion.
And when he had said this, and more to the same purpose, and had cured some who were present who were infirm and possessed of demons , he dismissed the crowds, while they gave thanks and praised God, charging them to come to the same place on the following days also for the sake of hearing. And when we were together at home, and were preparing to eat, one entering told us that Appion Pleistonices, with Anubion, were lately come from Antioch, and were lodging with Simon. Then my father, when he heard this, rejoiced, and said to Peter: "If you permit me, I should like to go and salute Appion and Anubion, for they are great friends of mine; and perhaps I shall be able to persuade Anubion to dispute with Clement on the subject of Genesis." Then Peter said: "I consent; and I commend you, because you respect your friends. But consider how all things occur to you according to your wish by God's providence; for, behold, not only have the objects of proper affection been restore d to you by the appointment of God, but also the presence of your friends is arranged for you." Then said my father: "Truly I consider that it is so as you say." And when he had said this, he went away to Anubion.
Chapter LIII.-A Transformation.
But we, sitting with Peter the whole night, asking questions, and learning of him on many subjects, remained awake through very delight in his teaching and the sweetness of his words; and when it was daybreak, Peter, looking at me and my brothers, said: "I wonder what has befallen your father." And while he was speaking my father came in, and found Peter speaking to us about him. And when he had saluted he began to apologize, and to explain the reason why he had remained abroad. But we, looking at him, were horrified; for we saw on him the face of Simon, yet we heard the voice of our father. And when we shrank from him, and cursed him, my father was astonished at our treating him so harshly and barbarously. Yet Peter was the only one who saw his natural countenance; and he said to us: "Why do you curse your father? "And we, along with our mother, answered him: "He appears to us to be Simon, though he has our father's voice." Then Peter: "You indeed know only his voice, which h as not been changed by the sorceries; but to me also his face, which to others appears changed by Simon's art, is known to be that of your father Faustinianus." And looking at my father, he said: "The cause of the dismay of your wife and your sons is this,-the appearance of your countenance does not seem to be as it was, but the face of the detestable Simon appears in you."
Chapter LIV.-Excitement in Antioch.
And while he was thus speaking, one of those returned who had gone before to Antioch, and said to Peter: "I wish you to know, my lord Peter, that Simon at Antioch, doing many signs and prodigies in public, has inculcated upon the people nothing but what tends to excite hatred against you, calling you a magician, a sorcerer, a murderer; and to such an extent has he stirred up hatred against you, that they greatly desire, if they can find you anywhere, even to devour your flesh. And therefore we who were sent before, seeing the city greatly moved against you, met together in secret, and considered what ought to be done.
Chapter LV.-A Stratagem.
"And when we saw no way of getting out of the difficulty, there came Cornelius the centurion, being sent by Caesar to the president of Caesarea on public business. Him we sent for alone, and told him the reason why we were sorrowful, and entreated him that, if he could do anything, he should help us. Then he most readily promised that he would straightway put him to flight, if only we would aid his plans. And when we promised that we would be active in doing everything, he said, `Caesar has ordered sorcerers to be sought out and destroyed in the city of Rome and through the provinces, and a great number of them have been already destroyed. I shall therefore give out, through my friends, that I am come to apprehend that magician, and that I am sent by Caesar for this purpose, that he may be punished with the rest of his fraternity. Let your people, therefore, who are with him in disguise, intimate to him, as if they had heard it from some quarter, that I am sent to apprehend hi m; and when he hears this, he is sure to take to flight. Or if you think of anything better, tell me. Why need I say more? 'It was so done by those of ours who were with him, disguised for the purpose of acting as spies on him. And when Simon learned that this was come upon him, he received the information as a great kindness conferred upon him by them, and took to flight. He therefore departed from Antioch, and, as we have heard, came hither with Athenodorus.
Chapter LVI.-Simon's Design in the Transformation.
"All we, therefore, who went before you, considered that in the meantime you should not go up to Antioch, till we see if the hatred of you which he has sown among the people be in any degree lessened by his departure." When he who had come from Antioch had imparted this information, Peter, looking to our father, said, "Faustinianus, your countenance has been transformed by Simon Magus, as is evident; for he, thinking that he was being sought for by Caesar for punishment, has fled in terror, and has placed his own countenance upon you, if haply you might be apprehended instead of him, and put to death, that so he might cause sorrow to your sons." But my father, when he heard this, crying out, said with tears: "You have judged rightly, O Peter: for Anubion also, who is very friendly with me, began to inform me in a certain mysterious way of his plots; but unnappily I did not believe him, because I had done him no harm."
Chapter LVII.-Great Grief.
And when all of us, along with my father, were agitated with sorrow and weeping, meantime Anubion came to us, intimating to us that Simon had fled during the night, making for Judaea. But seeing our father lamenting and bewailing himself, and saying, "Wretch that I am, not to believe when I heard that he is a magician! What has befallen wretched me, that on one day, being recognised by my wife and my sons, I have not been able to rejoice with them, but have been rolled back to the former miseries which I endured in my wandering!"-but my mother, tearing her dishevelled hair, bewailed much more bitterly,-we also, confounded at the change of our father's countenance, were, as it were, thunderstruck and beside ourselves, and could not understand what was the matter. But Anubion, seeing us all thus afflicted, stood like one dumb. Then Peter, looking at us his sons, said: "Believe me that this is your very father; wherefore also I charge you that you respect him as your father. For God will afford some opportunity on which he shall be able to put off the countenance of Simon, and to recover the manifest figure of your father-that is, his own."
Chapter LVIII.-How It All Happened.
Then, turning to my father, he said: "I gave you leave to salute Appion and Anubion, who, you said, were your friends from boyhood, but not that you should speak with Simon." Then my father said: "I confess I have sinned." Then said Anubion: "I also with him beg and entreat of you to pardon the old man-good and noble man as he is. He was unhappily seduced and imposed upon by the magician in question; for I will tell you how the thing was done. When he came to salute us, it happened that at that very time we were standing around him, hearing him tell that he intended to flee away that night, for that he had heard that some persons had come even to this city of Laodicea to apprehend him by command of the emperor, but that he wished to turn all their rage against this Faustinianus, who has lately come hither. And he said to us: `Only you make him sup with us, and I shall compound a certain ointment, with which, when he has supped, he shah anoint his face, and from that time he sh all seem to all to have my countenance. But you first anoint your faces with the juice of a certain herb, that you may not be deceived as to the change of his countenance, so that to all except you he shall seem to be Simon.'
Chapter LIX.-A Scene of Mourning.
"And when he said this, I said to him, `And what advantage will you gain from this deed? 'Then Simon said: `In the first place, that those who are seeking me may lay hold on him, and so give over the search for me. But if he be punished by Caesar, that his sons may have much sorrow, who forsook me, and fled to Peter, and are now his assistants.' Now I confess to you, Peter, what is true. I did not dare then tell Faustinianus; but neither did Simon give us opportunity of speaking with him in private, and disclosing to him fully Simon's design. Meantime, about the middle of the night, Simon has fled away, making for Judaea. And Athenodorus and Appion have gone to convoy him; but I pretended bodily indisposition, that I might remain at home, and make him return quickly to you, if haply he may in any way be concealed with you, lest, being seized by those who are inquest of Simon, he be brought before Caesar, and perish without cause. And now, in my anxiety about him, I have come t o see him, and to return before those who have gone to convoy Simon come back." And turning to us, Anubion said: "I, Anubion, indeed see the true countenance of your father, because I was previously anointed by Simon himself, as I have told you, that the real face of Faustinianus might appear to my eyes; whence I am astonished and wonder at the art of Simon Magus, because you standing here do not recognise your father." And while my father and mother, and all of us, wept for the things which had befallen, Anubion, moved with compassion, also wept.
Chapter LX.-A Counterplot.
Then Peter, moved with compassion, promised that he would restore the face of our father, saying to him: "Listen, Faustinianus: As soon as the error of your transformed countenance shall have conferred some advantage on us, and shall have subserved the designs which we have in view, then I shall restore to you the true form of your countenance; on condition, however, that you first despatch what I shall command yon." And when my father promised that he would with all his might fulfil everything that he might charge him with, provided only that he might recover his own countenance, Peter thus began: "You have heard with your own ears, that one of those who had been sent before has returned from Antioch, and told us how Simon, while he was there, stirred up the multitudes against me, and inflamed the whole city into hatred of me, declaring that I am a magician, and a murderer, and a deceiver, so that they are eager, if they see me, even to eat my flesh. Do therefore what I tell you: leave Clement with me, and go before us to Antioch, with your wife, and your sons Faustus and Faustinus. And I shall also send others with you, whom I think fit, who shall observe whatsoever I command them.
Chapter LXI.-A Mine Dug.
"When therefore you come with them to Antioch, as you will be thought to be Simon, stand in a public place, and proclaim your repentance, and say: `I Simon declare to you, and confess that all that I said concerning Peter was false: for he is neither a seducer, nor a magician, nor a murderer, nor any of the things that I spoke against him; but I said all these things under the instigation of madness. I therefore entreat you, even I myself, who erewhile gave you causes of hatred against him, that you think no such thing concerning him. But lay aside your hatred cease from your indignation; because he is truly sent by God for the salvation of the world-a disciple and apostle of the true Prophet. Wherefore I advise, exhort, and charge you that you hear him, and believe him when he preaches to you the truth, lest haply, if you despise him, your very city suddenly perish. But I will tell yon why I now make this confession to you. This night an angel of God rebuked me for my wickedn ess, and scourged me terribly, because was an enemy to the herald of the truth. Therefore I entreat you, that even if I myself should ever again come to you, and attempt to say anything against Peter, you will not receive nor believe me. For I confess to you, I was a magician, a seducer, a deceiver; but I repent, for it is possible by repentance to blot out former evil deeds.'"
Chapter LXII.-A Case of Conscience.
When Peter made this intimation to my father, he answered: "I know what yon wish; do not trouble yourself further: for I understand and know what I am to undertake when I come to the place." And Peter gave him further instruction, saying: "When therefore you come to the place, and see the people turned by your discourse, and laying aside their hatred, and returning to their longing for me, send and tell me, and I shall come immediately; and when I come, I shall without delay set you free from this strange countenance, and restore to you your own, which is known to all your friends." And having said this, he ordered my brothers to go with him, and at the same time our mother Matthidia, and some of our friends. But my mother refused to go along with him, and said: "It seems as if I should be an adulteress if I were to associate with the countenance of Simon; but if I be compelled to go along with him, it is at all events impossible that I can lie in the same bed with him; but I do not know if I can consent even to go with him." And when she stoutly refused. Anubion began to exhort her, saying: "Believe me and Peter. But does not even his voice persuade you that he is your husband Faustinianus, whom truly I love not less than you do? And, in short, I also myself shall come with you." And when Anubion had said this, my mother promised that she would go with him.
Chapter LXIII.-A Pious Fraud.
Then said I: "God arranges our affairs to our liking; for we have with us Anubion an astrologer, with whom, if we come to Antioch, we shall dispute with all earnestness on the subject of Genesis." And when our father had set out, after the middle of the night, with those whom Peter had ordered to accompany him, and with Anubion; in the morning, before Peter went to the discussion, those men returned who had convoyed Simon, namely Appion and Athenodorus, and came to us inquiring after my father. But Peter, when he was informed of their coming, ordered them to enter. And when they were seated, they asked, "Where is Faustinianus? "Peter answered: "We do not know; for since the evening that he went to you, no one of his friends has seen him. But yesterday morning Simon came inquiring for him; and because we gave him no answer, I know not what he meant, but he said that he was Faustinianus. But when nobody believed him, he went and lamented, and threatened that he would destroy him self; and afterwards he went away towards the
Chapter LXIV.-A Competition in Lying.
When Appion heard this, and those who were with him, they raised a great howling, saying: "Why have you done this? Why did you not receive him? "And when Athenodorus was going to tell me that it was my father Faustinianus himself, Appion prevented him, and said: "We have learned from some one that he has gone with Simon, and that at the entreaty of Faustinianus himself, being unwilling to see his sons, because they are Jews. When therefore we heard this, we came to inquire after him here; but since he is not here, it appears that he must have spoken truly who told us that he has gone with Simon. This, therefore, we tell you." But I Clement, when I understood the designs of Peter, that he wished to make them suppose that the old man would be required at their hands, so that they might be afraid and flee away, I began to aid his design, and said to Appion: "Listen, dear Appion: what we believe to be good, we wish to deliver to our father also; but if he will not receive it, but rather, as you say, flees away through abhorrence of us-it may perhaps be harsh to say so-we care nothing about him." And when I had said this, they departed, cursing my cruelty, and followed the track of Simon, as we learned on the following day.
Chapter LXV.-Success of the Plot.
Meantime, while Peter was daily, according to his custom, teaching the people, and working many miracles and cures, after ten days came one of our people from Antioch, sent by my father, informing us how my father stood in public, accusing Simon, whose face indeed he seemed to wear, and extolling Peter with unmeasured praises, and commending him to all the people, and making them long for him, so that all were changed by his speech, and longed to see him; and that many had come to love Peter so much, that they raged against my father in his character of Simon, and thought of laying hands on him, because he had done such wrong to Peter! "Wherefore," said he, "make haste, lest haply he be murdered; for be sent me with speed to you, being in great fear, to ask you to come without delay, that you may find him alive, and also that you may appear at the favourable moment, when the city is growing in affection towards you." He also told us how, as soon as my father entered the city of Antioch, the whole people were gathered to him, supposing him to be Simon; and he began to make public confession to them all, according to what the restoration of the people demanded: for all, as many as came, both noble and common, both rich and poor, hoping that some prodigies would be wrought by him in his usual way, he addressed thus:-
Chapter LXVI.-Truth Told by Lying Lips.
"It is long that the divine patience bears with me, Simon the most unhappy of men; for whatever you have wondered at in me was done, not by means of truth, but by the lies and tricks of demons, that I might subvert your faith and condemn my own soul. I confess that all things that I said about Peter were lies; for he never was either a magician or a murderer, but has been sent by God for the salvation of you all; and if from this hour you think that he is to be despised, be assured that your very city may suddenly be destroyed. But, you will ask, what is the reason that I make this confession to you of my own accord? I was vehemently rebuked by an angel of God this night, and most severely scourged, because I was his enemy. I therefore entreat you, that if from this hour even I myself shall ever open my mouth against him, you will drive me from your sight; for that foul demon, who is an enemy to the salvation of men, speaks against him through my mouth, that you may not attain to life by his means. For what miracle could the magic art show you through me? I made brazen dogs bark, and statues move, men change their appearances, and suddenly vanish from men's sight; and for these things you ought to have cursed the magic art, which bound your souls with devilish fetters, that I might show you a vain miracle, that you might not believe Peter, who cures the sick in the name of Him by whom he is sent, and expels demons, and gives sight to the blind, and restores health to the palsied, and raises the dead."
Chapter LXVII.-Faustinianus is Himself Again.
Whilst he made these and similar statements, the people began to curse him, and to weep and lament because they had sinned against Peter, believing him to be a magician or wicked man. But the same day, at evening, Faustinianus had his own face restored to him, and the appearance of Simon Magus left him. Now Simon, hearing that his face on Faustinianus had contributed to the glory of Peter, came in haste to anticipate Peter, and intending to cause by his art that his likeness should be taken from Faustinianus, when Christ had already accomplished this according to the word of His apostle. But Niceta and Aquila, seeing their father's face restored after the necessary proclamation, gave thanks to God, and would not suffer him to address the people any more.
Chapter LXVIII.-Peter's Entry into Antioch.
But Simon began, though secretly, to go amongst his friends and acquaintances, and to malign Peter more than before. Then all spat in his face, and drove him from the city, saying: "You will be chargeable with your own death, if you think of coming hither again, speaking against Peter." These things being known at Laodicea, Peter ordered the people to meet on the following day; and having ordained one of those who followed him as bishop over them, and others as presbyters, and having baptized multitudes, and restored to health all who were troubled with sicknesses or demons, he stayed there three days longer; and all things being properly arranged, he bade them farewell, and set out from Laodicea, being much longed for by the people of Antioch. And the whole city began to hear, through Niceta and Aquila, that Peter was coming. Then all the people of the city of Antioch, hearing of Peter's arrival, went to meet him, and almost all the old men and the nobles came w ith ashes sprinkled on their heads, in this way testifying their repentance, because they had listened to the magician Simon, in opposition to his preaching.
Chapter LXIX.-Peter's Thanksgiving.
Stating these and such like things, they bring to him those distressed with sicknesses, and tormented with demons, paralytics also, and those suffering diverse perils; and there was an infinite number of sick people collected. And when Peter saw that they not only repented of the evil thoughts they had entertained of him through means of Simon, but also that they showed so entire faith in God, that they believed that all who suffered from every sort of ailment could be healed by him, he spread out his hands towards heaven, pouring out prayers with tears, and gave thanks to God, saying: "I bless thee, O Father, worthy of all praise, who hast deigned to fulfil every word and promise of Thy Son, that every creature may know that Thou alone art God in heaven and in earth."
Chapter LXX.-Miracles.
With such sayings, he went up on a height, and ordered all the multitude of sick people to be ranged before him, and addressed them all in these words: "As you see me to be a man like to yourselves, do not suppose that you can recover your health from me, but through Him who, coming down from heaven, has shown to those who believe in Him a perfect medicine for body and soul. Hence let all this people be witnesses to your declaration, that with your whole heart you believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, that they may know that themselves also may be saved by Him." And when all the multitude of the sick with one voice cried out that He is the true God whom Peter preaches, suddenly an overpowering light of the grace of God appeared in the midst of the people; and the paralytics being cured, began to run to Peter's feet, the blind to shout on the recovery of their sight, the lame to give thanks on regaining the power of walking, the sick to rejoice in restored health; some even who wer e barely alive, being already without consciousness or the power of speech, were raised up; and all the lunatics, and those possessed of demons, were set free.
Chapter LXXI.-Success.
So great grace of His power did the Holy Spirit show on that day, that all, from the least to the greatest, with one voice confessed the Lord; and not to delay you with many words, within seven days, more than ten thousand men, believing in God, were baptized and consecrated by sanctification: so that Theophilus, who was more exalted than all the men of power in that city, with all eagerness of desire consecrated the great palace of his house under the name of a church, and a chair was placed in it for the Apostle Peter by all the people; and the whole multitude assembling daily to hear the word, believed in the healthful doctrine which was avouched by the efficacy of cures.
Chapter LXXII.-Happy Ending.
Then I Clement, with my brothers and our mother, spoke to our father, asking him whether any remnants of unbelief remained in him. And he said: "Come, and you shall see, in the presence of Peter, what an increase of faith has grown in me." Then Faustinianus approached, and fell down at Peter's feet, saying: "The seeds of your word, which the field of my mind has received, are now sprung up, and have so advanced to fruitful maturity, that nothing is wanting but that you separate me from the chaff by that spiritual reaping-hook of yours, and place me in the garner of the Lord, making me partaker of the divine table." Then Peter, with all alacrity grasping his hand, presented him to me Clement, and my brothers, saying: "As God has restored your sons to you, their father, so also your sons restore their father to God." And he proclaimed a fast to all the people, and on the next Lord's day he baptized him; and in the midst of the people, taking occasion from his conversion, he re lated all his fortunes, so that the whole city received him as an angel, and paid him no less honour than they did to the apostle. And these things being known, Peter ordered the people to meet on the following day; and having ordained one of his followers as bishop, and others as presbyters, he baptized also a great number of people, and restored to health all who had been distressed with sicknesses.
The Attack of Shaul / Paul and his men upon Ya’akov haZaddik / James the Just
Book I, Chapter LXX: Tumult Raised by Shaul
“And when matters were at that point that they should come and be immersed, some one of our enemies, entering the Hekel[1] with a few men, began to cry out, and to say, ‘What mean you, O men of Yisrael? Why are you so easily hurried on? Why are you led headlong by most miserable men, who are deceived by Shimon, a magician?’ While he was thus speaking, and adding more to the same effect, and while Ya’akov the Mebakker[2] was refuting him, he began to excite the people and to raise a tumult, so that the people might not be able to hear what was said. Therefore he began to drive all into confusion with shouting, and to undo what had been arranged with much labor, and at the same time to reproach the kohenim,[3] and to enrage them with revilings and abuse, and, like a madman, to excite everyone to murder, saying, ‘What do you? Why do you hesitate? O sluggish and inert, why do we not lay hands upon them, and pull all these fellows to pieces?’ When he had said this, he first, seizing a strong brand from the altar, set the example of smiting. Then others also, seeing him, were carried away with like readiness. Then ensued a tumult on either side - of the beating and the beaten. Much blood is shed; there is a confused flight, in the midst of which that enemy attacked Ya’akov, and threw him headlong from the top of the steps; and supposing him to be dead, he cared not to inflict further violence upon him.”
Book I, Chapter LXXI: Flight to Yericho
“But our friends lifted him up, for they were both more numerous and more powerful than the others; but, from their fear of YHWH,[4] they rather suffered themselves to be killed by an inferior force, than they would kill others. But when the evening came the kohenim shut up the Hekel, and we returned to the house of Ya’akov, and spent the night there in prayer. Then before daylight we went down to Yericho, to the number of 5000 men. Then after three days one of the brethren came to us from Gamali-El, whom we mentioned before, bringing to us secret tidings that that enemy had received a commission from Kayafa, the Kohen haGadol,[5] that he should arrest all who believed in Y’shua,[6] and should go to Dameshek with his letters, and that there also, employing the help of the unbelievers, he should make havoc among the faithful; and that he was hastening to Dameshek chiefly on this account, because he believed that Kefa[7] had fled thither. And about thirty days thereafter he stopped on his way while passing through Yericho going to Dameshek. At that time we were absent, having gone out to the sepulchers of two brethren which were whitened of themselves every year, by which miracle the fury of many against us was restrained, because they saw that our brethren were held in remembrance before YHWH.”
[1] Hekel = the Jewish temple in Jerusalem.
[2] Ya’akov the Mebakker = James, the brother of Jesus. As Mebakker he was the chosen leader of the Assembly of Yahweh in Jerusalem.
[3] Kohenim = Jewish priests.
[4] YHWH = the Tetragrammaton designating the Sacred Name of the Almighty, commonly pronounced Yahweh.
[5] Kayafa, the Kohen haGadol = Caiaphas, the High Priest.
[6] Y’shua = Yahshua, commonly but incorrectly known as Jesus.
[7] Kefa = Shimeon Kefa, commonly known as Simon Peter, who from here on becomes the protagonist of the work.
First Clement
APOSTOLIC FATHERS (trans. and ed., J. B. Lightfoot)
1:2 The Church of God which sojourneth in Rome to the Church of God which sojourneth in Corinth,
1:3 to them which are called and sanctified by the will of God through our Lord Jesus Christ.
1:4 Grace to you and peace from Almighty God through Jesus Christ be multiplied.
1:5 By reason of the sudden and repeated calamities and reverses which are befalling us, brethren, we consider that we have been somewhat tardy in giving heed to the matters of dispute that have arisen among you, dearly beloved,
1:6 and to the detestable and unholy sedition, so alien and strange to the elect of God,
1:7 which a few headstrong and self-willed persons have kindled to such a pitch of madness that your name, once revered and renowned and lovely in the sight of all men, hath been greatly reviled.
1:8 For who that had sojourned among you did not approve your most virtuous and stedfast faith?
1:9 Who did not admire your sober and forbearing piety in Christ?
1:10 Who did not publish abroad your magnificent disposition of hospitality?
1:11 Who did not congratulate you on your perfect and sound knowledge?
1:12 For ye did all things without respect of persons, and ye walked after the ordinances of God, submitting yourselves to your rulers and rendering to the older men among you the honour which is their due.
1:13 On the young too ye enjoined modest and seemly thoughts and the women ye charged to perform all their duties in a blameless and seemly and pure conscience, cherishing their own husbands, as is meet;
1:14 and ye taught them to keep in the rule of obedience, and to manage the affairs of their household in seemliness, with all discretion.
2:1 And ye were all lowly in mind and free from arrogance, yielding rather than claiming submission, {more glad to give than to receive}, and content with the provisions which God supplieth.
2:2 And giving heed unto His words, ye laid them up diligently in your hearts, and His sufferings were before your eyes.
2:3 Thus a profound and rich peace was given to all, and an insatiable desire of doing good.
2:4 An abundant outpouring also of the Holy Spirit fell upon all;
2:5 and, being full of holy counsel, in excellent zeal and with a pious confidence ye stretched out your hands to Almighty God, supplicating Him to be propitious, if unwillingly ye had committed any sin.
2:6 Ye had conflict day and night for all the brotherhood, that the number of His elect might be saved with fearfulness and intentness of mind.
2:7 Ye were sincere and simple and free from malice one towards another.
2:8 Every sedition and every schism was abominable to you.
2:9 Ye mourned over the transgressions of your neighbours ye judged their shortcomings to be your own.
2:10 Ye repented not of any welldoing, but were {ready unto every good work}.
2:11 Being adorned with a most virtuous and honourable life, ye performed all your duties in the fear of Him.
2:12 The commandments and the ordinances of the Lord were {written on the tables of your hearts}.
3:1 All glory and enlargement was given unto you, and that was fulfilled which is written;
3:2 {My beloved ate and drank and was enlarged and waxed fat and kicked}.
3:3 Hence come jealousy and envy, strife and sedition, persecution and tumult, war and captivity.
3:4 So men were stirred up, {the mean against the honourable}, the ill-reputed against the highly-reputed, the foolish against the wise, {the young against the elder}.
3:5 For this cause {righteousness} and {peace stand aloof}, while each man hath forsaken the fear of the Lord and become purblind in the faith of Him,
3:6 neither walketh in the ordinances of His commandments nor liveth according to that which becometh Christ,
3:7 but each goeth after the lusts of his evil heart, seeing that they have conceived an unrighteous and ungodly jealousy, through which also {death entered into the world}.
4:1 For so it is written, {And it came to pass after certain days that Cain brought of the fruits of the earth a sacrifice unto God, and Abel he also brought of the firstlings of the sheep and of their fatness.
4:2 And God looked upon Abel and upon his gifts, but unto Cain and unto his sacrifices He gave no heed.
4:3 And Cain sorrowed exceedingly, and his countenance fell.
4:4 And God said unto Cain, Wherefore art thou very sorrowful?
4:5 and wherefore did thy countenance fall?
4:6 If thou hast offered aright and hast not divided aright, didst thou not sin?
4:7 Hold thy peace.
4:8 Unto thee shall he turn, and thou shalt rule over him.
4:9 And Cain said unto Abel his brother, Let us go over unto the plain.
4:10 And it came to pass, while they were in the plain, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother and slew him}.
4:11 Ye see, brethren, jealousy and envy wrought a brother's murder.
4:12 By reason of jealousy our father Jacob ran away from the face of Esau his brother.
4:13 Jealousy caused Joseph to be persecuted even unto death, and to come even unto bondage.
4:14 Jealousy compelled Moses to flee from the face of Pharaoh king of Egypt while it was said to him by his own countryman, {Who made thee a judge or a decider over us?
4:15 Wouldest thou slay me, even as yesterday thou slewest the Egyptian}?
4:16 By reason of jealousy Aaron and Miriam were lodged outside the camp.
4:17 Jealousy brought Dathan and Abiram down alive to hades, because they made sedition against Moses the servant of God.
4:18 By reason of jealousy David was envied not only by the Philistines, but was persecuted also by Saul [king of Israel].
5:1 But, to pass from the examples of ancient days, let us come to those champions who lived nearest to our time.
5:2 Let us set before us the noble examples which belong to our generation.
5:3 By reason of jealousy and envy the greatest and most righteous pillars of the Church were persecuted, and contended even unto death.
5:4 Let us set before our eyes the good Apostles.
5:5 There was Peter who by reason of unrighteous jealousy endured not one nor two but many labours, and thus having borne his testimony went to his appointed place of glory.
5:6 By reason of jealousy and strife Paul by his example pointed out the prize of patient endurance.
5:7 After that he had been seven times in bonds, had been driven into exile, had been stoned, had preached in the East and in the West,
5:8 he won the noble renown which was the reward of his faith, having taught righteousness unto the whole world and having reached the farthest bounds of the West;
5:9 and when he had borne his testimony before the rulers, so he departed from the world and went unto the holy place, having been found a notable pattern of patient endurance.
6:1 Unto these men of holy lives was gathered a vast multitude of the elect, who through many indignities and tortures, being the victims of jealousy, set a brave example among ourselves.
6:2 By reason of jealousy women being persecuted, after that they had suffered cruel and unholy insults as Danaids and Dircae,
6:3 safely reached the goal in the race of faith, and received a noble reward, feeble though they were in body.
6:4 Jealousy hath estranged wives from their husbands and changed the saying of our father Adam, {This now is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh}.
6:5 Jealousy and strife have overthrown great cities and uprooted great nations.
7:1 These things, dearly beloved, we write, not only as admonishing you, but also as putting ourselves in remembrance.
7:2 For we are in the same lists, and the same contest awaiteth us.
7:3 Wherefore let us forsake idle and vain thoughts;
7:4 and let us conform to the glorious and venerable rule which hath been handed down to us;
7:5 and let us see what is good and what is pleasant and what is acceptable in the sight of Him that made us.
7:6 Let us fix our eyes on the blood of Christ and understand how precious it is unto His Father, because being shed for our salvation it won for the whole world the grace of repentance.
7:7 Let us review all the generations in turn, and learn how from generation to generation the Master hath given a place for repentance unto them that desire to turn to Him.
7:8 Noah preached repentance, and they that obeyed were saved.
7:9 Jonah preached destruction unto the men of Nineveh;
7:10 but they, repenting of their sins, obtained pardon of God by their supplications and received salvation, albeit they were aliens from God.
8:1 The ministers of the grace of God through the Holy Spirit spake concerning repentance.
8:2 Yea and the Master of the universe Himself spake concerning repentance with an oath ;
8:3 {For, as I live, saith the Lord, I desire not the death of the sinner, so much as his repentance};
8:4 and He added also a merciful judgment:
8:5 {Repent ye, O house of Israel, of your iniquity;
8:6 say unto the sons of My people, Though your sins reach from the earth even unto the heaven, and though they be redder than scarlet and blacker than sackcloth,
8:7 and ye turn unto Me with your whole heart and say Father, I will give ear unto you as unto a holy people}.
8:8 And in another place He saith on this wise, {Wash, be ye clean.
8:9 Put away your iniquities from your souls out of My sight.
8:10 Cease from your iniquities;
8:11 learn to do good;
8:12 seek out judgment;
8:13 defend him that is wronged:
8:14 give judgment for the orphan, and execute righteousness for the widow;
8:15 and come and let us reason together, saith He;
8:16 and though your sins be as crimson, I will make them white as snow;
8:17 and though they be as scarlet, I will make them white as wool.
8:18 And if ye be willing and will hearken unto Me, ye shall eat the good things of the earth;
8:19 but if ye be not wiling, neither hearken unto Me, a sword shall devour you;
8:20 for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken these things}.
8:21 Seeing then that He desireth all His beloved to be partakers of repentance, He confirmed it by an act of His almighty will.
9:1 Wherefore let us be obedient unto His excellent and glorious bill;
9:2 and presenting ourselves as suppliants of His mercy and goodness, let us fall down before Him and betake ourselves unto His compassions, forsaking the vain toil and the strife and the jealousy which leadeth unto death.
9:3 Let us fix our eyes on tbem that ministered perfectly unto His excellent glory.
9:4 Let us set before us Enoch, who being found righteous in obedience was translated, and his death was not found.
9:5 Noah, being found faithful, by his ministration preached regeneration unto the world, and through him the Master saved the living creatures that entered into the ark in concord.
10:1 Abraham, who was called the `friend,' was found faithful in that he rendered obedience unto the words of God.
10:2 He through obedience went forth from his land and from his kindred and from his father's house, that leaving a scanty land and a feeble kindred and a mean house he might inherit the promises of God.
10:3 For He saith unto him;
10:4 {Go forth from thy land and from thy kindred and from thy father's house unto the land which I shall show thee, and I will make thee into a great nation, and I will bless thee and will magnify thy name, and thou shalt be blessed.
10:5 And I will bless them that bless thee, and I will curse them that curse thee, and in thee shall all the tribes of the earth be blessed}.
10:6 And again, when he was parted from Lot, God said unto him ;
10:7 {Look up with thine eyes, and behold from the place where thou now art unto the north and the south and the sunrise and the sea;
10:8 for all the land which thou seest, I will give it unto thee and to thy seed for ever, and I will make thy seed as the dust of the earth.
10:9 If any man can count the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also be counted}.
10:10 And again He saith;
10:11 {God led Abraham forth and said unto him, Look up unto the heaven and count the stars, and see whether thou canst number them.
10:12 So shall thy seed be.
10:13 And Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned unto him for righteousness}.
10:14 For his faith and hospitality a son was given unto him in old age, and by obedience he offered him a sacrifice unto God on one of the mountains which He showed him.
11:1 For his hospitality and godliness Lot was saved from Sodom, when all the country round about was judged by fire and brimstone;
11:2 the Master having thus foreshown that He forsaketh not them which set their hope on Him, but appointeth unto punishment and torment them which swerve aside.
11:3 For when his wife had gone forth with him, being otherwise-minded and not in accord,
11:4 she was appointed for a sign hereunto, so that she became a pillar of salt unto this day,
11:5 that it might be known unto all men that they which are double-minded and they which doubt concerning the power of God are set for a judgment and for a token unto all the generations.
12:1 For her faith and hospitality Rahab the harlot was saved.
12:2 For when the spies were sent forth unto Jericho by Joshua the son of Nun, the king of the land perceived that they were come to spy out his country, and sent forth men to seize them, that being seized they might be put to death.
12:3 So the hospitable Rahab received them and hid them in the upper chamber under the flaxstalks.
12:4 And when the messengers of the king came near and said, {The spies of our land entered in unto thee:
12:5 bring them forth, for the king so ordereth}:
12:6 then she answered, {The men truly, whom ye seek, entered in unto me, but they departed forthwith and are journeying on the way;
12:7 and she pointed out to them the opposite road}.
12:8 And she said unto the men, {Of a surety I perceive that the Lord your God delivereth this city unto you;
12:9 for the fear and the dread of you is fallen upon the inhabitants thereof.
12:10 When therefore it shall come to pass that ye take it, save me and the house of my father}.
12:11 And they said unto her, {It shall be even so as thou hast spoken unto us.
12:12 Whensoever therefore thou perceivest that we are coming, thou shalt gather all thy folk beneath thy roof and they shall be saved;
12:13 for as many as shall be found without the house shall perish}.
12:14 And moreover they gave her a sign, that she should hang out from her house a scarlet thread, thereby showing beforehand that through the blood of the Lord there shall be redemption unto all them that believe and hope on God.
12:15 Ye see, dearly beloved, not only faith, but prophecy, is found in the woman.
13:1 Let us therefore be lowly-minded, brethren, laying aside all arrogance and conceit and folly and anger, and let us do that which is written.
13:2 For the Holy Ghost saith, {Let not the wise man boast in his wisdom, nor the strong in his strength, neither the rich in his riches;
13:3 but he that boasteth let hid boast in the Lord that he may seek Him out, and do judgment and righteousness};
13:4 most of all remembering the words of the Lord Jesus which He spake, teaching forbearance and long-suffering:
13:5 for thus He spake;
13:6 {Have mercy, that ye may receive mercy:
13:7 forgive, that it maybe forgiven to you.
13:8 As ye do, so shall it be done to you.
13:9 As ye give, so shall it be given unto you.
13:10 As ye judge, so shall ye be judged.
13:11 As ye show kindness, so shall kindness be showed unto you.
13:12 With what measure ye mete, it shall be measured withal to you}.
13:13 With this commandment and these precepts let us confirm ourselves, that we may walk in obedience to His hallowed words, with lowliness of mind.
13:14 For the holy word saith, {Upon whom shall I look, save upon him that is gentle and quiet and feareth Mine oracles}?
14:1 Therefore it is right and proper, brethren, that we should be obedient unto God, rather than follow those who in arrogance and unruliness have set themselves up as leaders in abominable jealousy.
14:2 For we shall bring upon us no common harm, but rather great peril,
14:3 if we surrender ourselves recklessly to the purposes of men who launch out into strife and seditions, so as to estrange us from that which is right.
14:4 Let us be good one towards another according to the compassion and sweetness of Him that made us.
14:5 For it is written:
14:6 {The good shall be dwellers in the land, and the innocent shall be left on it;
14:7 but they that transgress shall be destroyed utterly from it}.
14:8 And again He saith;
14:9 {I saw the ungodly lifted up on high and exalted as the cedars of Lebanon.
14:10 And I passed by, and behold he was not, and I sought out his place, and I found it not.
14:11 Keep innocence and behold uprightness, for there is a remnant for the peaceful man}.
15:1 Therefore let us cleave unto them that practise peace with godliness, and not unto them that desire peace with dissimulation.
15:2 For He saith in a certain place;
15:3 {This people honoureth Me with their lips, but their heart is far from Me;
15:4 and again, They blessed with their mouth, but they cursed with their heart}.
15:5 And again He saith, {They loved Him with their mouth, and with their tongue they lied unto Him;
15:6 and their heart was not upright with Him, neither were they stedfast in His covenant.
15:7 For this cause let the deceitful lips be made dumb which speak iniquity against the righteous}.
15:8 And again;
15:9 {May the Lord utterly destroy all the deceitful lips, the tongue that speaketh proud things, even them that say, Let us magnify our tongue;
15:10 our lips are our own, who is lord over us?
15:11 For the misery of the needy and for the groaning of the poor I will now arise, saith the Lord.
15:12 I will set him in safety I will deal boldly by him}.
16:1 For Christ is with them that are lowly of mind, not with them that exalt themselves over the flock.
16:2 The sceptre [of the majesty] of God, even our Lord Jesus Christ, came not in the pomp of arrogance or of pride, though He might have done so, but in lowliness of mind, according as the Holy Spirit spake concerning Him.
16:3 For He saith;
16:4 {Lord, who believed our report?
16:5 and to whom was the arm of the Lord revealed?
16:6 We announced Him in His presence.
16:7 As a child was He, as a root in a thirsty ground.
16:8 There is no form in Him, neither glory.
16:9 And we beheld Him, and He had no form nor comeliness, but His form was mean, lacking more than the form of men.
16:10 He was a man of stripes and of toil and knowing how to bear infirmity:
16:11 for His face is turned away.
16:12 He was dishonoured and held of no account.
16:13 He beareth our sins and suffereth pain for our sakes and we accounted Him to be in toil and in stripes and in affliction.
16:14 And He was wounded for our sins and hath been afflicted for our iniquities.
16:15 The chastisement of our peace is upon Him.
16:16 With His bruises we were healed.
16:17 We all went astray like sheep, each man went astray in his own path:
16:18 and the Lord delivered Him over for our sins.
16:19 And He openeth not His mouth, because He is afflicted.
16:20 As a sheep He was led to slaughter;
16:21 and as a lamb before his shearer is dumb, so openeth He not His mouth.
16:22 In His humiliation His judgment was taken away.
16:23 His generation who shall declare?
16:24 For His life is taken away from the earth.
16:25 For the iniquities of my people He is come to death.
16:26 And I will give the wicked for His burial, and the rich for His death;
16:27 for He wrought no iniquity, neither was guile found in His mouth.
16:28 And the Lord desireth to cleanse Him from His stripes.
16:29 If ye offer for sin, your soul shall see a long-lived seed.
16:30 And the Lord desireth to take away from the toil of His soul, to show Him light and to mould Him with understanding, to justify a Fust One that is a good servant unto many.
16:31 And He shall bear their sins.
16:32 Therefore He shall inherit many, and shall divide the spoils of the strong;
16:33 because His soul was delivered unto death, and He was reckoned unto the transgressors;
16:34 and He bare the sins of many, and for their sins was He delivered up}.
16:35 And again He Himself saith;
16:36 {But I am a worm and no man, a reproach of men and an outcast of the people.
16:37 All they that beheld me mocked at me;
16:38 they spake with their lips:
16:39 they wagged their heads, saying, He hoped on the Lord;
16:40 let Him deliver him, or let Him save him, for He desireth him}.
16:41 Ye see, dearly beloved, what is the pattern that hath been given unto us;
16:42 for, if the Lord was thus lowly of mind, what should we do, who through Him have been brought under the yoke of His grace?
17:1 Let us be imitators also of them which went about in goatskins and sheepskins, preaching the coming of Christ.
17:2 We mean Elijah and Elisha and likewise Ezekiel, the prophets, and besides them those men also that obtained a good report.
17:3 Abraham obtained an exceeding good report and was called the friend of God;
17:4 and looking stedfastly on the glory of God, he saith in lowliness of mind, {But I am dust and ashes}.
17:5 Moreover concerning Job also it is thus written;
17:6 {And Fob was righteous and unblameable, one that was true and honoured God and abstained from all evil}.
17:7 Yet he himself accuseth himself saying, {No man is clean from filth;
17:8 no, not though his life be but for a day}.
17:9 Moses was called {faithful in all His house}, and through his ministration God judged Egypt with the plagues and the torments which befel them.
17:10 Howbeit he also, though greatly glorified, yet spake no proud words, but said, when an oracle was given to him at the bush, {Who am I, that Thou sendest me?
17:11 Nay, I am feeble of speech and slow of tongue}.
17:12 And again he saith, {But I am smoke from the pot}.
18:1 But what must we say of David that obtained a good report?
18:2 of whom God said, {I have found a man after My heart, David the son of Jesse:
18:3 with eternal mercy have I anointed him}.
18:4 Yet he too saith unto God;
18:5 {Have mercy upon me, O God, according to Thy great mercy and according to the multitude of Thy compassions, blot out mine iniquity.
18:6 Wash me yet more from mine iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin.
18:7 For I acknowledge mine iniquity, and my sin is ever before me.
18:8 Against Thee only did I sin, and I wrought evil in Thy sight;
18:9 that Thou mayest be justified in Thy words, and mayest conquer in Thy pleading.
18:10 For behold, in iniquities was I conceived, and in sins did my mother bear me.
18:11 For behold Thou hast loved truth the dark and hidden things of Thy wisdom hast Thou showed unto me.
18:12 Thou shalt sprinkle me with hyssop, and I shall be made clean.
18:13 Thou shalt wash me, and I shall become whiter than snow.
18:14 Thou shalt make me to hear of joy and gladness.
18:15 The bones which have been humbled shall rejoice.
18:16 Turn away Thy face from my sins, and blot out all mine iniquities.
18:17 Make a clean heart within me, O God, and renew a right spirit in mine innermost parts.
18:18 Cast me not away from Thy presence, and take not Thy Holy Spirit from me.
18:19 Restore unto me the joy of The salvation, and strengthen me with a princely spirit.
18:20 I will teach sinners Thy ways, and godless men shall be converted unto Thee.
18:21 Deliver me from bloodguiltiness, O God, the God of my salvation.
18:22 My tongue shall rejoice in Thy righteousness.
18:23 Lord, Thou shalt open my mouth, and my lips shall declare Thy praise.
18:24 For, if Thou hadst desired sacrifice, I would have given it:
18:25 in whole burnt offerings Thou wilt have no pleasure.
18:26 A sacrifice unto God is a contrite spirit, a contrite and humbled heart God will not despise}.
19:1 The humility therefore and the submissiveness of so many and so great men,
19:2 who have thus obtained a good report, hath through obedience made better not only us but also the generations which were before us, even them that received His oracles in fear and truth.
19:3 Seeing then that we have been partakers of many great and glorious doings, let us hasten to return unto the goal of peace which hath been handed down to us from the beginning,
19:4 and let us look stedfastly unto the Father and Maker of the whole world, and cleave unto His splendid and excellent gifts of peace and benefits.
19:5 Let us behold Him in our mind, and let us look with the eyes of our soul unto His long-suffering will.
19:6 Let us note how free from anger He is towards all His creatures.
20:1 The heavens are moved by His direction and obey Him in peace.
20:2 Day and night accomplish the course assigned to them by Him, without hindrance one to another.
20:3 The sun and the moon and the dancing stars according to His appointment circle in harmony within the bounds assigned to them, without any swerving aside.
20:4 The earth, bearing fruit in fulfilment of His will at her proper seasons, putteth forth the food that supplieth abundantly both men and beasts and all living things which are thereupon, making no dissension,
20:5 neither altering anything which He hath decreed.
20:6 Moreover, the inscrutable depths of the abysses and the unutterable statutes of the nether regions are constrained by the same ordinances.
20:7 The basin of the boundless sea, gathered together by His workmanship {into its reservoirs}, passeth not the barriers wherewith it is surrounded;
20:8 but even as He ordered it, so it doeth.
20:9 For He said, {So far shalt thou come, and thy waves shall be broken within thee}.
20:10 The ocean which is impassable for men, and the worlds beyond it, are directed by the same ordinances of the Master.
20:11 The seasons of spring and summer and autumn and winter give way in succession one to another in peace.
20:12 The winds in their several quarters at their proper season fulfil their ministry without disturbance;
20:13 and the everflowing fountains, created for enjoyment and health, without fail give their breasts which sustain the life for men.
20:14 Yea, the smallest of living things come together in concord and peace.
20:15 All these things the great Creator and Master of the universe ordered to be in peace and concord, doing good unto all things,
20:16 but far beyond the rest unto us who have taken refuge in His compassionate mercies through our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom be the glory and the majesty for ever and ever.
20:17 Amen.
21:1 Look ye, brethren, lest His benefits, which are many, turn unto judgment to all of us, if we walk not worthily of Him, and do those things which are good and wellpleasing in His sight with concord.
21:2 For He saith in a certain place, {The Spirit of the Lord is a lamp searching the closets of the belly}.
21:3 Let us see how near He is, and how that nothing escapeth Him of our thoughts or our devices which we make.
21:4 It is right therefore that we should not be deserters from His will.
21:5 Let us rather give offence to foolish and senseless men who exalt themselves and boast in the arrogance of their words, than to God.
21:6 Let us fear the Lord Jesus [Christ], whose blood was given for us.
21:7 Let us reverence our rulers;
21:8 let us honour our elders;
21:9 let us instruct our young men in the lesson of the fear of God.
21:10 Let us guide our women toward that which is good let them show forth their lovely disposition of purity ;
21:11 let them prove their sincere affection of gentleness ;
21:12 let them make manifest the moderation of their tongue through their silence;
21:13 let them show their love, not in factious preferences but without partiality towards all them that fear God, in holiness.
21:14 Let our children be partakers of the instruction which is in Christ:
21:15 let them learn how lowliness of mind prevaileth with God, what power chaste love hath with God, how the fear of Him is good and great and saveth all them that walk therein in a pure mind with holiness.
21:16 For He is the searcher out of the intents and desires;
21:17 whose breath is in us, and when He listeth, He shall take it away.
22:1 Now all these things the faith which is in Christ confirmeth :
22:2 for He Himself through the Holy Spirit thus inviteth us:
22:3 {Come, my children, hearken unto Me, I will teach you the fear of the Lord.
22:4 What man is he that desireth life and loveth to see good days?
22:5 Make thy tongue to cease from evil, and thy lips that they speak no guile.
22:6 Turn aside from evil and do good.
22:7 Seek peace and ensue it.
22:8 The eyes of the Lord are over the righteous, and His ears are turned to their prayers.
22:9 But the face of the Lord is upon them that do evil, to destroy their memorial from the earth.
22:10 The righteous cried out, and the Lord heard him, and delivered him from all his troubles.
22:11 Many are the troubles of the righteous, and the Lord shall deliver him from them all}.
22:12 And again, {Many are the stripes of the sinner, but them that set their hope on the Lord mercy shall compass about}.
23:1 The Father, who is pitiful in all things, and ready to do good, hath compassion on them that fear Him,
23:2 and kindly and lovingly bestoweth His favours on them that draw nigh unto Him with a single mind.
23:3 Wherefore let us not be double-minded, neither let our soul indulge in idle humours respecting His exceeding and glorious gifts.
23:4 Let this scripture be far from us where He saith;
23:5 {Wretched are the double-minded, which doubt in their soul and say, These things we did hear in the days of our fathers also, and behold we have grown old, and none of these things hath befallen us.
23:6 Ye fools, compare yourselves unto a tree;
23:7 take a vine.
23:8 First it sheddeth its leaves, then a shoot cometh, then a leaf, then a flower, and after these a sour berry, then a full ripe grape.
23:9 } Ye see that in a little time the fruit of the tree attaineth unto mellowness.
23:10 Of a truth quickly and suddenly shall His will be accomplished, the scripture also bearing witness to it, saying;
23:11 {He shall come quickly and shall not tarry;
23:12 and the Lord shall come suddenly into His temple, even the Holy One, whom ye expect}.
24:1 Let us understand, dearly beloved, how the Master continually showeth unto us the resurrection that shall be hereafter;
24:2 whereof He made the Lord Jesus Christ the firstfruit, when He raised Him from the dead.
24:3 Let us behold, dearly beloved, the resurrection which happeneth at its proper season.
24:4 Day and night show unto us the resurrection.
24:5 The night falleth asleep, and day ariseth;
24:6 the day departeth, and night cometh on.
24:7 Let us mark the fruits, how and in what manner the sowing taketh place.
24:8 {The sower goeth forth} and casteth into the earth each of the seeds ;
24:9 and these falling into the earth dry and bare decay :
24:10 then out of their decay the mightiness of the Master's providence raiseth them up, and from being one they increase manifold and bear fruit.
25:1 Let us consider the marvellous sign which is seen in the regions of the east, that is, in the parts about Arabia.
25:2 There is a bird, which is named the phoenix.
25:3 This, being the only one of its kind, liveth for five hundred years;
25:4 and when it hath now reached the time of its dissolution that it should die, it maketh for itself a coffin of frankincense and myrrh and the other spices, into the which in the fulness of time it entereth, and so it dieth.
25:5 But, as the flesh rotteth, a certain worm is engendered, which is nurtured from the moisture of the dead creature and putteth forth wings.
25:6 Then, when it is grown lusty, it taketh up that coffin where are the bones of its parent, and carrying them journeyeth from the country of Arabia even unto Egypt, to the place called the City of the Sun ;
25:7 and in the day time in the sight of all, flying to the altar of the Sun, it layeth them thereupon;
25:8 and this done, it setteth forth to return.
25:9 So the priests examine the registers of the times, and they find that it hath come when the five hundredth year is completed.
26:1 Do we then think it to be a great and marvellous thing, if the Creator of the universe shall bring about the resurrection of them that have served Him with holiness in the assurance of a good faith,
26:2 seeing that He showeth to us even by a bird the magnificence of His promise?
26:3 For He saith in a certain place;
26:4 {And Thou shalt raise me up, and I will praise Thee};
26:5 and;
26:6 {I went to rest and slept, I was awaked, for Thou art with me}.
26:7 And again Job saith;
26:8 {And Thou shalt raise this my flesh which hath endured all these things}.
2:1 With this hope therefore let our souls be bound unto Him that is faithful in His promises and that is righteous in His judgments.
2:2 He that commanded not to lie, much more shall He Himself not lie:
2:3 for nothing is impossible with God save to lie.
2:4 Therefore let our faith in Him be kindled within us, and let us understand that all things are nigh unto Him.
2:5 By a word of His majesty He compacted the universe;
2:6 and by a word He can destroy it.
2:7 {Who shall say unto Him, What hast thou done?
2:8 or who shall resist the might of His strength?
2:9 When He listeth, and as He listeth, He will do all things;
2:10 and nothing shall pass away of those things that He hath decreed.
2:11 All things are in His sight, and nothing escapeth His counsel, seeing that {The heavens declare the glow' of God, and the firmament proclaimeth His handiwork.
2:12 Day uttereth word unto day, and night proclaimeth knowledge unto night;
2:13 and there are neither words nor speeches, whose voices are not heard}.
28:1 Since therefore all things are seen and heard, let us fear Him and forsake the abominable lusts of evil works, that we may be shielded by His mercy from the coming judgments.
28:2 For where can any of us escape from His strong hand?
28:3 And what world will receive any of them that desert from His service?
28:4 For the holy writing saith in a certain place;
28:5 {Where shall I go, and where shall I be hidden from The face?
28:6 If I ascend into the heaven, Thou art there;
28:7 if I depart into the farthest parts of the earth, there is Thy right hand;
28:8 if I make my bed in the depths, there is The Spirit}.
28:9 Whither then shall one depart, or where shall one flee, from Him that embraceth the universe?
29:1 Let us therefore approach Him in holiness of soul, lifting up pure and undefiled hands unto Him, with love towards our gentle and compassionate Father who made us an elect portion unto Himself.
29:2 For thus it is written:
29:3 {When the Most High divided the nations, when He dispersed the sons of Adam, He fixed the boundaries of the nations according to the number of the angels of God.
29:4 His people Jacob became the portion of the Lord, and Israel the measurement of His inheritance}.
29:5 And in another place He saith;
29:6 {Behold, the Lord taketh for Himself a nation out of the midst of the nations, as a man the firstfruits of his threshing floor;
29:7 and the holy of holies shall come forth from that nation}.
30:1 Seeing then that we are the special portion of a Holy God,
30:2 let us do all things that pertain unto holiness, forsaking evil speakings, abominable and impure embraces, drunkennesses and tumults and hateful lusts, abominable adultery, hateful pride;
30:3 {For God}, He saith, {resisteth the proud, but giveth grace to the lowly}.
30:4 Let us therefore cleave unto those to whom grace is given from God.
30:5 Let us clothe ourselves in concord, being lowly-minded and temperate, holding ourselves aloof from all backbiting and evil speaking, being justified by works and not by words.
30:6 For He saith;
30:7 {He that saith much shall hear also again.
30:8 Doth the ready talker think to be righteous?
30:9 Blessed is the offspring of a woman that liveth but a short time.
30:10 Be not thou abundant in words}.
30:11 Let our praise be with God, and not of ourselves:
30:12 for God hateth them that praise themselves.
30:13 Let the testimony to our welldoing be given by others, as it was given unto our fathers who were righteous.
30:14 Boldness and arrogance and daring are for them that are accursed of God;
30:15 but forbearance and humility and gentleness are with them that are blessed of God.
31:1 Let us therefore cleave unto His blessing, and let us see what are the ways of blessing.
31:2 Let us study the records of the things that have happened from the beginning.
31:3 Wherefore was our father Abraham blessed?
31:4 Was it not because he wrought righteousness and truth through faith?
31:5 Isaac with confidence, as knowing the future, was led a willing sacrifice.
31:6 Jacob with humility departed from his land because of his brother, and went unto Laban and served;
31:7 and the twelve tribes of Israel were given unto him.
32:1 If any man will consider them one by one in sincerity, he shall understand the magnificence of the gifts that are given by Him.
32:2 For of Jacob are all the priests and levites who minister unto the altar of God;
32:3 of him is the Lord Jesus as concerning the flesh;
32:4 of him are kings and rulers and governors in the line of Judah ;
32:5 yea and the rest of his tribes are held in no small honour, seeing that God promised saying, {Thy seed shall be as the stars of heaven}.
32:6 They all therefore were glorified and magnified, not through themselves or their own works or the righteous doing which they wrought, but through His will.
32:7 And so we, having been called through His will in Christ Jesus,
32:8 are not justified through ourselves or through our own wisdom or understanding or piety or works which we wrought in holiness of heart, but through faith, whereby the Almighty God justified all men that have been from the beginning;
32:9 to whom be the glory for ever and ever.
32:10 Amen.
33:1 What then must we do, brethren?
33:2 Must we idly abstain from doing good, and forsake love?
33:3 May the Master never allow this to befal us at least but let us hasten with instancy and zeal to accomplish every good work.
33:4 For the Creator and Master of the universe Himself rejoiceth in His works.
33:5 For by His exceeding great might He established the heavens, and in His incomprehensible wisdom He set them in order.
33:6 And the earth He separated from the water that surroundeth it, and He set it firm on the sure foundation of His own will;
33:7 and the living creatures which walk upon it He commanded to exist by His ordinance.
33:8 Having before created the sea and the living creatures therein, He enclosed it by His own power.
33:9 Above all, as the most excellent and exceeding great work of His intelligence, with His sacred and faultless hands He formed man in the impress of His own image.
33:10 For thus saith God;
33:11 {Let us make man after our image and after our likeness.
33:12 And God made man;
33:13 male and female made He them}.
33:14 So having finished all these things, He praised them and blessed them and said, {Increase and multiply}.
33:15 We have seen that all the righteous were adorned in good works.
33:16 Yea, and the Lord Himself having adorned Himself with works rejoiced.
33:17 Seeing then that we have this pattern, let us conform ourselves with all diligence to His will;
33:18 let us with all our strength work the work of righteousness.
34:1 The good workman receiveth the bread of his work with boldness, but the slothful and careless dareth not look his employer in the face.
34:2 It is therefore needful that we should be zealous unto welldoing, for of Him are all things since He forewarneth us saying, {Behold, the Lord, and His reward is before His face, to recompense each man according to his work}.
34:3 He exhorteth us therefore to believe on Him with our whole heart, and to he not idle nor careless unto every good work.
34:4 Let our boast and our confidence be in Him:
34:5 let us submit ourselves to His will;
34:6 let us mark the whole host of His angels, how they stand by and minister unto His will.
34:7 For the scripture saith;
34:8 {Ten thousands of ten thousands stood by Him, and thousands of thousands ministered unto Him:
34:9 and they, cried aloud, Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of Sabaoth all creation is full of His Glory}.
34:10 Yea, and let us ourselves then, being gathered together in concord with intentness of heart,
34:11 cry unto Him as from one mouth earnestly that we may be made partakers of His great and glorious promises.
34:12 For He saith, {Eye hath not seen and ear hath not heard, and it hath not entered into the heart of man what great things He hath prepared for them that patiently await Him.
35:1 How blessed and marvellous are the gifts of God, dearly beloved, Life in immortality, splendour in righteousness, truth in boldness, faith in confidence, temperance in sanctification! And all these things fall under our apprehension.
35:2 What then, think ye, are the things preparing for them that patiently await Him?
35:3 The Creator and Father of the ages, the All-holy One Himself knoweth their number and their beauty.
35:4 Let us therefore contend, that we may be found in the number of those that patiently await Him, to the end that we may be partakers of His promised gifts.
35:5 But how shall this be, dearly beloved?
35:6 If our mind be fixed through faith towards God;
35:7 if we seek out those things which are well pleasing and acceptable unto Him;
35:8 if we accomplish such things as beseem His faultless will, and follow the way of truth,
35:9 casting off from ourselves all unrighteousness and iniquity, covetousness, strifes, malignities and deceits, whisperings and backbitings, hatred of God, pride and arrogance, vainglory and inhospitality.
35:10 For they that do these things are hateful to God;
35:11 and not only they that do them, but they also that consent unto them.
35:12 For the scripture saith;
35:13 {But unto the sinner said God, Wherefore dost thou declare Mine ordinances, and takest My covenant upon thy lips?
35:14 Yet thou didst hate instruction and didst east away My words behind thee.
35:15 If thou sawest a thief thou didst keep company with him, and with the adulterers thou didst set thy portion.
35:16 The mouth multiplied wickedness, and thy tongue wove deceit.
35:17 Thou sattest and spakest against thy brother, and against the son of thy mother thou didst lay a stumblingblock.
35:18 These things thou hast done, and I kept silence.
35:19 Thou thoughtest, unrighteous man, that I should be like unto thee.
35:20 I will convict thee and will set thee face to face with thyself.
35:21 Now understand ye these things, ye that forget God, lest at any time He seize you as a lion,and there be none to deliver.
35:22 The sacrafice of praise shall glorify Me, and there is the way wherein I will show him the salvation of God}.
36:1 This is the way, dearly beloved, wherein we found our salvation, even Jesus Christ the High Priest of our offerings, the Guardian and Helper of our weakness.
36:2 Through Him let us look stedfastly unto the heights of the heavens;
36:3 through Him we behold as in a mirror His faultless and most excellent visage;
36:4 through Him the eyes of our hearts were opened;
36:5 through Him our foolish and darkened mind springeth up unto the light;
36:6 through Him the Master willed that we should taste of the immortal knowledge;
36:7 {Who being the brightness of His majesty is so much greater than angels, as He hath inherited a more excellent name}.
36:8 For so it is written;
36:9 {Who maketh His angels spirits and His ministers a flame of fire};
36:10 but of His Son the Master said thus;
36:11 {Thou art My Son, I this day have begotten Thee.
36:12 Ask of Me, and I will give Thee the Gentiles for Thine inheritance, and the ends of the earth for Thy possession}.
36:13 And again He saith unto Him;
36:14 "Sit Thou an My right hand, until I make Thine enemies a footstool for The feet}.
36:15 Who then are these enemies?
36:16 They that are wicked and resist His will.
37:1 Let us therefore enlist ourselves, brethren, with all earnestness in His faultless ordinances.
37:2 Let us mark the soldiers that are enlisted under our rulers, how exactly, how readily, how submissively, they execute the orders given them.
37:3 All are not prefects, nor rulers of thousands, nor rulers of hundreds, nor rulers of fifties, and so forth;
37:4 but each man in his own rank executeth the orders given by the king and the governors.
37:5 The great without the small cannot exist, neither the small without the great.
37:6 There is a certain mixture in all things, and therein is uility.
37:7 Let us take our body as an example.
37:8 The head without the feet is nothing;
37:9 so likewise the feet without the head are nothing:
37:10 even the smallest limbs of our body are necessary and useful for the whole body:
37:11 but all the members conspire and unite in subjection, that the whole body may be saved.
38:1 So in our case let the whole body be saved in Christ Jesus, and let each man be subject unto his neighbour, according as also he was appointed with his special grace.
38:2 Let not the strong neglect the weak;
38:3 and let the weak respect the strong.
38:4 Let the rich minister aid to the poor;
38:5 and let the poor give thanks to God, because He hath given him one through whom his wants may be supplied.
38:6 Let the wise display his wisdom, not in words, but in good works.
38:7 He that is lowly in mind, let him not bear testimony to himself, but leave testimony to be borne to him by his neighbour.
38:8 He that is pure in the flesh, let him be so, and not boast, knowing that it is Another who bestoweth his continence upon him.
38:9 Let us consider, brethren, of what matter we were made ;
38:10 who and what manner of beings we were, when we came into the world;
38:11 from what a sepulchre and what darkness He that moulded and created us brought us into His world, having prepared His benefits aforehand ere ever we were born.
38:12 Seeing therefore that we have all these things from Him, we ought in all things to give thanks to Him, to whom be the glory for ever and ever.
38:13 Amen.
39:1 Senseless and stupid and foolish and ignorant men jeer and mock at us, desiring that they themselves should be exalted in their imaginations.
39:2 For what power hath a mortal?
39:3 or what strength hath a child of earth?
39:4 For it is written;
39:5 {There was no form before mine eyes;
39:6 only I heard a breath and a voice.
39:7 What then?
39:8 Shall a mortal be clean in the sight of the Lord;
39:9 or shall a man be unblameable for his works?
39:10 seeing that He is distrustful against His servants and noteth some perversity against His angels.
39:11 Nay, the heaven is not clean in His sight.
39:12 Away then, ye that dwell in houses of clay, whereof, even of the same clay, we ourselves are made.
39:13 He smote them like a moth, and from morn to even they are no more.
39:14 Because they could not succour themselves, they perished.
39:15 He breathed upon them and they died, because they had no wisdom.
39:16 But call thou, if perchance one shall obey thee, or if thou shalt see one of the holy angels.
39:17 For wrath killeth the foolish man, and envy slayeth him that is gone astray.
39:18 And I have seen fools throwing out roots, but forthwith their habitation was eaten up.
39:19 Far be their sons from safety.
39:20 May they be mocked at the gates of inferiors, and there shall be none to deliver them.
39:21 For the things which are prepared for them, the righteous shall eat;
39:22 but they themselves shall not be delivered from evils.
40:1 Forasmuch then as these things are manifest beforehand, and have searched into the depths of the Divine knowledge, we ought to do all things in order, as many as the Master hath commanded us to perform at their appointed seasons.
40:2 Now the offerings and ministrations He commanded to be performed with care, and not to be done rashly or in disorder, but at fixed times and seasons.
40:3 And where and by whom He would have them performed, He Himself fixed by His supreme will:
40:4 that all things being done with piety according to His good pleasure might be acceptable to His will.
40:5 They therefore that make their offerings at the appointed seasons are acceptable and blessed :
40:6 for while they follow the institutions of the Master they cannot go wrong.
40:7 For unto the high priest his proper services have been assigned, and to the priests their proper office is appointed, and upon the levites their proper ministrations are laid.
40:8 The layman is bound by the layman's ordinances.
41:1 Let each of you, brethren, in his own order give thanks unto God, maintaining a good conscience and not transgressing the appointed rule of his service, but acting with all seemliness.
41:2 Not in every place, brethren, are the continual daily sacrifices offered, or the freewill offerings, or the sin offerings and the trespass offerings, but in Jerusalem alone.
41:3 And even there the offering is not made in every place, but before the sanctuary in the court of the altar;
41:4 and this too through the high priest and the aforesaid ministers, after that the victim to be offered hath been inspected for blemishes.
41:5 They therefore who do any thing contrary to the seemly ordinance of His will receive death as the penalty.
41:6 Ye see, brethren, in proportion as greater knowledge hath been vouchsafed unto us, so much the more are we exposed to danger.
42:1 The Apostles received the Gospel for us from the Lord Jesus Christ;
42:2 Jesus Christ was sent forth from God.
42:3 So then Christ is from God, and the Apostles are from Christ.
42:4 Both therefore came of the will of God in the appointed order.
42:5 Having therefore received a charge, and having been fully assured through the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ and confirmed in the word of God with full assurance of the Holy Ghost,
42:6 they went forth with the glad tidings that the kingdom of God should come.
42:7 So preaching everywhere in country and town, they appointed their first fruits, when they had proved them by the Spirit, to be bishops and deacons unto them that should believe.
42:8 And this they did in no new fashion;
42:9 for indeed it had been written concerning bishops and deacons from very ancient times;
42:10 for thus saith the scripture in a certain place, {I will appoint their bishops in righteousness and their deacons in faith}.
43:1 And what marvel, if they which were entrusted in Christ with such a work by God appointed the aforesaid persons?
43:2 seeing that even the blessed Moses who was a {faithful servant in all His house} recorded for a sign in the sacred hooks all things that were enjoined upon him.
43:3 And him also the rest of the prophets followed, bearing witness with him unto the laws that were ordained by him.
43:4 For he, when jealousy arose concerning the priesthood, and there was dissension among the tribes which of them was adorned with the glorious name,
43:5 commanded the twelve chiefs of the tribes to bring to him rods inscribed with the name of each tribe.
43:6 And he took them and tied them and sealed them with the signet rings of the chiefs of the tribes, and put them away in the tabernacle of the testimony on the table of God.
43:7 And having shut the tabernacle he sealed the keys and likewise also the doors.
43:8 And he said unto them, Brethren, the tribe whose rod shall bud, this hath God chosen to be priests and ministers unto Him.
43:9 Now when morning came, he called together all Israel, even the six hundred thousand men, and showed the seals to the chiefs of the tribes and opened the tabernacle of the testimony and drew forth the rods.
43:10 And the rod of Aaron was found not only with buds, but also bearing fruit.
43:11 What think ye, dearly beloved?
43:12 Did not Moses know beforehand that this would come to pass?
43:13 Assuredly he knew it.
43:14 But that disorder might not arise in Israel, he did thus, to the end that the Name of the true and only God might be glorified :
43:15 to whom be the glory for ever and ever.
43:16 Amen.
44:1 And our Apostles knew through our Lord Jesus Christ that there would be strife over the name of the bishop's office.
44:2 For this cause therefore, having received complete foreknowledge, they appointed the aforesaid persons,
44:3 and afterwards they provided a continuance, that if these should fall asleep, other approved men should succeed to their ministration.
44:4 Those therefore who were appointed by them, or afterward by other men of repute with the consent of the whole Church,
44:5 and have ministered unblameably to the flock of Christ bin lowliness of mind, peacefully and with all modesty, and for long time have borne a good report with all these men we consider to be unjustly thrust out from their ministration.
44:6 For it will be no light sin for us, if we thrust out those who have offered the gifts of the bishop's office unblameably and holily.
44:7 Blessed are those presbyters who have gone before, seeing that their departure was fruitful and ripe:
44:8 for they have no fear lest any one should remove them from their appointed place.
44:9 For we see that ye have displaced certain persons, though they were living honourably, from the ministration which had been respected by them blamelessly.
45:1 Be ye contentious, brethren, and jealous about the things that pertain unto salvation.
45:2 Ye have searched the scriptures, which are true, which were given through the Holy Ghost;
45:3 and ye know that nothing unrighteous or counterfeit is written in them.
45:4 Ye will not find that righteous persons have been thrust out by holy men.
45:5 Righteous men were persecuted, but it was by the lawless;
45:6 they were imprisoned, but it was by the unholy.
45:7 They were stoned by transgressors :
45:8 they were slain by those who had conceived a detestable and unrighteous jealousy.
45:9 Suffering these things, they endured nobly.
45:10 For what must we say, brethren?
45:11 Was Daniel cast into the lions' den by them that feared God?
45:12 Or were Ananias and Azarias and Misael shut up in the furnace of fire by them that professed the excellent and glorious worship of the Most High?
45:13 Far be this from our thoughts.
45:14 Who then were they that did these things?
45:15 Abominable men and full of all wickedness were stirred up to such a pitch of wrath,
45:16 as to bring cruel suffering upon them that served God in a holy and blameless purpose, not knowing that the Most High is the champion and protector of them that in a pure conscience serve His excellent Name:
45:17 unto whom be the glory for ever and ever.
45:18 Amen.
45:19 But they that endured patiently in confidence inherited glory and honour;
45:20 they were exalted, and had their names recorded by God in their memorial for ever and ever.
45:21 Amen.
46:1 To such examples as these therefore, brethren, we also ought to cleave.
46:2 For it is written;
46:3 {Cleave unto the saints, for they that cleave unto them shall be sanctified}.
46:4 And again He saith in another place;
46:5 {With the guiltless man thou shalt be guiltless, and with the elect thou shalt be elect, and with the crooked thou shalt deal crookedly}.
46:6 Let us therefore cleave to the guiltless and righteous:
46:7 and these are the elect of God.
46:8 Wherefore are there strifes and wraths and factions and divisions and war among you?
46:9 Have we not one God and one Christ and one Spirit of grace that was shed upon us?
46:10 And is there not one calling in Christ?
46:11 Wherefore do we tear and rend asunder the members of Christ, and stir up factions against our own body, and reach such a pitch of folly, as to forget that we are members one of another?
46:12 Remember the words of Jesus our Lord :
46:13 for He said, {Woe unto that man;
46:14 it were good for him if he had not been born, rather than that he should offend one of Mine elect.
46:15 It were better for him that a millstone were hanged about him, and he cast into the sea, than that he should pervert one of Mine elect}.
46:16 Your division hath perverted many;
46:17 it hath brought many to despair, many to doubting, and all of us to sorrow.
46:18 And your sedition still continueth.
47:1 Take up the epistle of the blessed Paul the Apostle.
47:2 What wrote he first unto you in the beginning of the Gospel?
47:3 Of a truth he charged you in the Spirit concerning himself and Cephas and Apollos, because that even then ye had made parties.
47:4 Yet that making of parties brought less sin upon you;
47:5 for ye were partisans of Apostles that were highly reputed, and of a man approved in their sight.
47:6 But now mark ye, who they are that have perverted you and diminished the glory of your renowned love for the brotherhood.
47:7 It is shameful, dearly beloved, yes, utterly shameful and unworthy of your conduct in Christ,
47:8 that it should be reported that the very stedfast and ancient Church of the Corinthians, for the sake of one or two persons, maketh sedition against its presbyters.
47:9 And this report hath reached not only us, but them also which differ from us, so that ye even heap blasphemies on the Name of the Lord by reason of your folly, and moreover create peril for yourselves.
48:1 Let us therefore root this out quickly, and let us fall down before the Master and entreat Him with tears,
48:2 that He may show Himself propitious and be reconciled unto us, and may restore us to the seemly and pure conduct which belongeth to our love of the brethren.
48:3 For this is a gate of righteousness opened unto life, as it is written;
48:4 {Open me the gates of righteousness, that I may enter in thereby and praise the Lord.
48:5 This is the gate of the Lord;
48:6 the righteous shall enter in thereby}.
48:7 Seeing then that many gates are opened,
48:8 this is that gate which is in righteousness, even that which is in Christ, whereby all are blessed that have entered in and direct their path in holiness and righteousness, performing all things without confusion.
48:9 Let a man be faithful, let him be able to expound a deep saying, let him be wise in the discernment of words, let him be strenuous in deeds, let him be pure;
48:10 for so much the more ought lie to be lowly in mind, in pro portion as he seemeth to be the greater;
48:11 and he ought to seek the common advantage of all, and not his own.
49:1 Let him that hath love in Christ fulfil the commandments of Christ.
49:2 Who can declare the bond of the love of God?
49:3 Who is sufficient to tell the majesty of its beauty?
49:4 The height, whereunto love exalteth, is unspeakable.
49:5 Love joineth us unto God;
49:6 {love covereth a multitude of sins};
49:7 love endureth all things, is long-suffering in all things.
49:8 There is nothing coarse, nothing arrogant in love.
49:9 Love hath no divisions, love maketh no seditions, love doeth all things in concord.
49:10 in love were all the elect of God made perfect;
49:11 without love nothing is wellpleasing to God:
49:12 in love the Master took us unto Himself;
49:13 for the love which He had toward us, Jesus Christ our Lord hath given His blood for us by the will of God, and His flesh for our flesh and His life for our lives.
50:1 Ye see, dearly beloved, how great and marvellous a thing is love, and there is no declaring its perfection.
50:2 Who is sufficient to be found therein, save those to whom God shall vouchsafe it?
50:3 Let us therefore entreat and ask of His mercy, that we may be found blameless in love, standing apart from the factiousness of men.
50:4 All the generations from Adam unto this day have passed away:
50:5 but they that by God's grace were perfected in love dwell in the abode of the pious;
50:6 and they shall be made manifest in the visitation of the Kingdom of God.
50:7 For it is written;
50:8 {Enter into the closet for a very little while, until Mine anger and My wrath shall pass away, and I will remember a good day and will raise you from your tombs}.
50:9 Blessed were we, dearly beloved, if we should be doing the commandments of God in concord of love, to the end that our sins may through love be forgiven us.
50:10 For it is written;
50:11 {Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered.
50:12 Blessed is the man to whom the Lord shall impute no sin, neither is quite in his mouth}.
50:13 This declaration of blessedness was pronounced upon them that have been elected by God through Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom be the glory for ever and ever.
50:14 Amen.
51:1 For all our transgressions which we have committed through any of the wiles of the adversary, let us entreat that we may obtain forgiveness.
51:2 Yea and they also, who set themselves up as leaders of faction and division, ought to look to the common ground of hope.
51:3 For such as walk in fear and love desire that they themselves should fall into suffering rather than their neighbours;
51:4 and they pronounce condemnation against themselves rather than against the harmony which hath been handed down to us nobly and righteously.
51:5 For it is good for a man to make confession of his trespasses rather than to harden his heart, as the heart of those was hardened who made sedition against Moses the servant of God;
51:6 whose condemnation was clearly manifest, for they went down to hades alive, and {Death shall be their shepherd}.
51:7 Pharaoh and his host and all the rulers of Egypt, {their chariots and their horsemen}, were overwhelmed in the depths of the Red Sea,
51:8 and perished for none other reason but because their foolish hearts were hardened after that the signs and the wonders had been wrought in the land of Egypt by the hand of Moses the servant of God.
52:1 The Master, brethren, hath need of nothing at all.
52:2 He desireth not anything of any man, save to confess unto Him.
52:3 For the elect David saith;
52:4 {I will confess unto the Lord, and it shall please Him more than a young calf that groweth horns and hoofs.
52:5 Let the poor see it, and rejoice}.
52:6 And again He saith;
52:7 {Sacrifice to God a sacrifice of praise, and pay thy vows to the Most High:
52:8 and call upon Me in the day of thine affliction, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me.
52:9 For a sacrifice unto God is a broken spirit}.
53:1 For ye know, and know well, the sacred scriptures, dearly beloved, and ye have searched into the oracles of God.
53:2 We write these things therefore to put you in remembrance.
53:3 When Moses went up into the mountain and had spent forty days and forty nights in fasting and humiliation, God said unto him;
53:4 {Moses, Moses, come down quickly hence,
53:5 for My people whom thou leddest forth from the land of Egypt have wrought iniquity they have transgressed quickly out of the way which thou didst command unto them:
53:6 they have made for themselves molten images.
53:7 And the Lord said unto him;
53:8 I have spoken unto thee once and twice, saying, I have seen this people, and behold it is stiffnecked.
53:9 Let Me destroy them utterly, and I will blot out their name from under heaven, and I will make of thee a nation great and wonderful and numerous more than this}.
53:10 And Moses said;
53:11 {Nay, not so, Lord.
53:12 Forgive this people their sin, or blot me also out of the book of the living}.
53:13 O mighty love! O unsurpassable perfection! The servant is bold with his Master;
53:14 he asketh forgiveness for the multitude, or he demandeth that himself also be blotted out with them.
54:1 Who therefore is noble among you?
54:2 Who is compassionate?
54:3 Who is fulfilled with love?
54:4 Let him say;
54:5 if by reason of me there be faction and strife and divisions, I retire, I depart, whither ye will, and I do that which is ordered by the people:
54:6 only let the flock of Christ be at peace with its duly appointed presbyters.
54:7 He that shall have done this, shall win for himself great renown in Christ, and every place will receive him:
54:8 for {the earth is the Lord's and the fulness thereof}.
54:9 Thus have they done and will do, that live as citizens of that kingdom of God which bringeth no regrets.
55:1 But, to bring forward examples of Gentiles also;
55:2 many kings and rulers, when some season of pestilence pressed upon them, being taught by oracles have delivered themselves over to death, that they might rescue their fellow citizens through their own blood.
55:3 Many have retired from their own cities, that they might have no more seditions.
55:4 We know that many among ourselves have delivered themselves to bondage, that they might ransom others.
55:5 Many have sold themselves to slavery, and receiving the price paid for themselves have fed others.
55:6 Many women being strengthened through the grace of God have performed many manly deeds.
55:7 The blessed Judith, when the city was beleaguered, asked of the elders that she might be suffered to go forth into the camp of the aliens.
55:8 So she exposed herself to peril and went forth for love of her country and of her people which were beleaguered;
55:9 and the Lord delivered Holophernes into the hand of a woman.
55:10 To no less peril did Esther also, who was perfect in faith, expose herself, that she might deliver the twelve tribes of Israel, when they were on the point to perish.
55:11 For through her fasting and her humiliation she entreated the all-seeing Master, the God of the ages;
55:12 and He, seeing the humility of her soul, delivered the people for whose sake she encountered the peril.
56:1 Therefore let us also make intercession for them that are in any transgression, that forbearance and humility may be given them, to the end that they may yield not unto us, but unto the will of God.
56:2 For so shall the compassionate remembrance of them with God and the saints be fruitful unto them, and perfect.
56:3 Let us accept chastisement, whereat no man ought to be vexed, dearly beloved.
56:4 The admonition which we give one to another is good and exceeding useful;
56:5 for it joineth us unto the will of God.
56:6 For thus saith the holy word;
56:7 {The Lord hath indeed chastened me, and hath not delivered me over unto death.
56:8 For whom the Lord loveth He chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom He receiveth.
56:9 For the righteous}, it is said, {shall chasten me in mercy and shall reprove me, but let not the mercy of sinners anoint my head}.
56:10 And again He saith;
56:11 {Blessed is the man whom the Lord hath reproved, and refuse not thou the admonition of the Almighty.
56:12 For He causeth pain, and He restoreth again He hath smitten, and His hands have healed.
56:13 Six times shall He rescue thee from afflictions:
56:14 and at the seventh no evil shall touch thee.
56:15 In famine He shall deliver thee from death, and in war He shall release thee from the arm of the sword.
56:16 And from the scourge of the tongue shall He hide thee, and thou shall not be afraid when evils approach.
56:17 Thou shalt laugh at the unrighteous and wicked, and of the wild beasts thou shall not be afraid.
56:18 For wild beasts shall be at peace with thee.
56:19 Then shalt thou know that thy house shall be at peace:
56:20 and the abode of thy tabernacle shall not go wrong, and thou shalt know that thy seed is many, and thy children as the plenteous herbage of the field.
56:21 And thou shalt come to the grave as ripe corn reaped in due season, or as the heap of the threshing floor gathered together at the right time}.
56:22 Ye see, dearly beloved, how great protection there is for them that are chastened by the faster:
56:23 for being a kind father He chasteneth us to the end that we may obtain mercy through His holy chastisement.
57:1 Ye therefore that laid the foundation of the sedition, submit yourselves unto the presbyters and receive chastisement unto repentance, bending the knees of your heart.
57:2 Learn to submit yourselves, laying aside the arrogant and proud stubbornness of your tongue.
57:3 For it Is better for you to be found little in the flock of Christ and to have your name on God's roll, than to be had in exceeding honour and yet be cast out from the hope of Him.
57:4 For thus saith the All-virtuous Wisdom;
57:5 {Behold I will pour out for you a saying of My breath, and I will teach you My word.
57:6 Because I called and ye obeyed not, and I held out words and ye heeded not, but made My counsels of none effect, and were disobedient unto My reproofs;
57:7 therefore I also will laugh at your destruction,
57:8 and will rejoice over you when ruin cometh upon you, and when confusion over taketh you suddenly, and your overthrow is at hand like a whirlwind, or when anguish and beleaguerment come upon you.
57:9 For it shall be, when ye call upon Me, yet will I not hear you.
57:10 Evil men shall seek Me and shall not find Me:
57:11 for they hated wisdom, and chose not the far of the Lord, neither would they give heed unto My counsels, but mocked at My reproofs.
57:12 Therefore they shall eat the fruits of their own way, and shall be filled with their own ungodliness.
57:13 For because they wronged babes, they shall be slain, and inquisition shall destroy the ungodly.
57:14 But he that heareth Me shall dwell solely trusting in hope, and shall be quiet from fear of all evil}.
58:1 Let us therefore be obedient unto His most holy and glorious Name,
58:2 thereby escaping the threatenings which were spoken of old by the mouth of Wisdom against them which disobey, that we may dwell safely, trusting in the most holy Name of His majesty.
58:3 Receive our counsel, and ye shall have no occasion of regret.
58:4 For as God liveth, and the Lord Jesus Christ liveth, and the Holy Spirit, who are the faith and the hope of the elect,
58:5 so surely shall he, who with lowliness of mind and instant in gentleness hath without regretfulness performed the ordinances and commandments that are given by God,
58:6 be enrolled and have a name among the number of them that are saved through Jesus Christ, through whom is the glory unto Him for ever and ever.
58:7 Amen.
59:1 But if certain persons should be disobedient unto the words spoken by Him through us, let them understand that they will entangle themselves in no slight transgression and danger;
59:2 but we shall be guiltless of this sin.
59:3 And we will ask, with instancy of prayer and supplication,
59:4 that the Creator of the universe may guard intact unto the end the number that hath been numbered of His elect throughout the whole world,
59:5 through His beloved Son Jesus Christ, through whom He called us from darkness to light, from ignorance to the full knowledge of the glory of His Name.
59:6 [Grant unto us, Lord,] that we may set our hope on Thy Name which is the primal source of all creation, and open the eyes of our hearts,
59:7 that we may know Thee, who alone {abidest Highest in the lofty, Holy in the holy};
59:8 who {layest low the insolence of the proud}, who {scatterest the imaginings of nations};
59:9 who {settest the lowly on high, and bringest the lofty low};
59:10 who {makest rich and makest poor};
59:11 who {killest and makest alive};
59:12 who alone art the Benefactor of spirits and the God of all flesh;
59:13 who {lookest into the abysses}, who scannest the works of man;
59:14 the Succour of them that are in peril, the {Saviour of them that are in despair};
59:15 the Creator and Overseer of every spirit ;
59:16 who multipliest the nations upon earth, and hast chosen out from all men those that love Thee through Jesus Christ, Thy beloved Son, through whom Thou didst instruct us, didst sanctify us, didst honour us.
59:17 We beseech Thee, Lord and Master, to be {our help and succour}.
59:18 Save those among us who are in tribulation;
59:19 have mercy on the lowly;
59:20 lift up the fallen;
59:21 show Thyself unto the needy;
59:22 heal the ungodly;
59:23 convert the wanderers of Thy people;
59:24 feed the hungry;
59:25 release our prisoners;
59:26 raise up the weak;
59:27 comfort the faint-hearted.
59:28 {Let all the Gentiles know that Thou art God alone}, and Jesus Christ is Thy Son, and {we are Thy people and the sheep of Thy pasture}.
60:1 Thou through Thine operations didst make manifest the everlasting fabric of the world.
60:2 Thou, Lord, didst create the earth.
60:3 Thou that art faithful throughout all generations, righteous in Thy judgments, marvellous in strength and excellence,
60:4 Thou that art wise in creating and prudent in establishing that which Thou hast made, that art good in the things which are seen and faithful with them that trust on Thee, {pitiful and compassionate},
60:5 forgive us our iniquities and our unrighteousnesses and our transgressions and shortcomings Lay not to our account every sin of Thy servants and Thine handmaids,
60:6 but cleanse us with the cleansing of Thy truth,
60:7 and {guide our steps to walk in holiness} and righteousness and singleness {of heart} and {to do such things as are good and wellpleasing in Thy sight} and in the sight of our rulers.
60:8 Yea, Lord, {make Thy face to shine upon us} in peace for our good, that we may be sheltered {by Thy mighty hand and} delivered from every sin {by Thine uplifted arm}.
60:9 And deliver us from them that hate us wrongfully.
60:10 Give concord and peace to us and to all that dwell on the earth, as Thou gavest to our fathers, {when they called on Thee in faith and truth} with holiness,
60:11 [that we may be saved,] while we render obedience to Thine almighty and most excellent Name, and to our rulers and governors upon the earth.
61:1 Thou, Lord and Master, hast given them the power of sovereignty through Thine excellent and unspeakable might,
61:2 that we knowing the glory and honour which Thou hast given them may submit ourselves unto them, in nothing resisting Thy will.
61:3 Grant unto them therefore, O Lord, health, peace, concord, stability, that they may administer the government which Thou hast given them without failure.
61:4 For Thou, O heavenly Master, King of the ages, givest to the sons of men glory and honour and power over all things that are upon the earth.
61:5 Do Thou, Lord, direct their counsel according to that which is good and wellpleasing in Thy sight, that, administering in peace and gentleness with godliness the power which Thou hast given them,
61:6 they may obtain Thy favour.
61:7 O Thou, who alone art able to do these things and things far more exceeding good than these for us, we praise Thee through the High Priest and Guardian of our souls, Jesus Christ,
61:8 through whom be the glory and the majesty unto Thee both now and for all generations and for ever and ever.
61:9 Amen.
62:1 As touching those things which befit our religion and are most useful for a virtuous life to such as would guide [their steps] in holiness and righteousness, we have written fully unto you, brethren.
62:2 For concerning faith and repentance and genuine love and temperance and sobriety and patience we have handled every argument,
62:3 putting you in remembrance, that ye ought to please Almighty God in righteousness and truth and long-suffering with holiness, laying aside malice and pursuing concord in love and peace, being instant in gentleness;
62:4 even as our fathers, of whom we spake before, pleased Him, being lowly-minded towards their Father and God and Creator and towards all men.
62:5 And we have put you in mind of these things the more gladly, since we knew well that we were writing to men who are faithful and highly accounted and have diligently searched into the oracles of the teaching of God.
63:1 Therefore it is right for us to give heed to so great and so many examples and to submit the neck and occupying the place of obedience to take our side with them that are the leaders of our souls,
63:2 that ceasing from this foolish dissension we may attain unto the goal which lieth before us in truthfulness, keeping aloof from every fault.
63:3 For ye will give us great joy and gladness, if ye render obedience unto the things written by us through the Holy Spirit,
63:4 and root out the unrighteous anger of your jealousy, according to the entreaty which we have made for peace and concord in this letter.
63:5 And we have also sent faithful and prudent men that have walked among us from youth unto old age unblameably, who shall also be witnesses between you and us.
63:6 And this we have done that ye might know that we have had, and still have, every solicitude that ye should be speedily at peace.
64:1 Finally may the All-seeing God and Master of spirits and Lord of all flesh, who chose the Lord Jesus Christ, and us through Him for a peculiar people,
64:2 grant unto every soul that is called after His excellent and holy Name faith, fear, peace, patience, long-suffering, temperance, chastity and soberness,
64:3 that they may be wellpleasing unto His Name through our High Priest and Guardian Jesus Christ, through whom unto Him be glory and majesty, might and honour, both now and for ever and ever.
64:4 Amen.
65:1 Now send ye back speedily unto us our messengers Claudius Ephebus and Valerius Bito, together with Fortunatus also, in peace and with joy,
65:2 to the end that they may the more quickly report the peace and concord which is prayed for and earnestly desired by us, that we also may the more speedily rejoice over your good order.
65:3 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you and with all men in all places who have been called by God and through Him, through whom be glory and honour, power and greatness and eternal dominion, unto Him, from the ages past and for ever and ever. Amen.

This book is one of the hidden books of Saint Clement the Apostle, disciple of Simon

THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. ONE OF THE BOOKS OF CLEMENT. IN the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy f. 89 b Ghost, one God, the merciful Lord. This book is one of the hidden books of Saint Clement the Apostle, disciple of Simon Cepha. which Saint Clement com manded to be kept secret from the laity. Some of them were called " The Book of the Rolls," and there are the glorious gene alogies and mysteries which our God and Saviour Jesus the Christ committed to his disciples Simon and James, and what things will happen at the end of time, and how the second coming of our Lord the Christ from heaven to the world will happen, and what will become of sinners and such like. This is the sixth of Clement s books, treasured up in the city of Rome since the time of the Apostles. Saint Clement said, When our God Jesus the Christ went up to heaven, and the disciples were scattered in the regions of the world to evangelize, and to call mankind to the faith and to immersion by baptism, they took disciples, whom they chose and selected to be with them, and to travel about to the countries in the faith of the Christ. Wherefore Simon Cepha took me for a disciple to himself; I believed in him, and in Him that sent him, with a true faith ; I recognized that he was chief of the Apostles, to whom were given the keys of heaven and earth, on whom was built the Catholic Apostolic Church of God, which G. A 2 KITAB AL-MAGALL. f. 90 a the gates of Hell shall not destroy, as our God Jesus the Christ said in the holy Gospel. After a long time he took also my brothers Constans 1 and Constantinus 1 to be his disciples. Twenty years after he had taken me as his disciple, he brought me together with my father and my mother, who was called Metrodora, and committed to me all the mysteries which had been given him by our Lord Jesus the Christ on the Mount of Olives 2 . At that time the rest of the Apostles and all the believers had a struggle with the unbelieving Jews because the Jews were killing every one of the believers whose murder was possible to them. I and my gracious Teacher Simon encom passed some of the countries, and we met with great trouble from the controversy of the Jews, and their questioning about the genealogy of the pure Mary, for their saying about her was that she was not of the children of Judah that they might invalidate by this the coming of our Lord the Christ into the world, and His Incarnation from her. They were increasing [their] bribe of money and other things to the Greeks and the Romans that they might help them in the destruction of the believers and the bringing to nought of their business, and hinder the Apostles from the reading of the Law, lest they should teach out of it about the state of mankind, and how it was in the beginning. When I saw in what misery we were with the Jews, I sought from my gracious Teacher that he would make known to me how mankind were at the be ginning, and that he would make me perfect about the reasons, for he had learned everything from the Lord Jesus the Christ, and I was acquainted with the tongue of the Greeks and their f. 90 b books, and was learned in their mysteries, and I had deposited their secrets which had been entrusted to me, [in] my two books called the seventh and the eighth. I informed my Teacher what I conjectured about the envy towards the Lady Mary, and my anxiety at the reproach of the Jews to me that I did not understand the Torah, and their much questioning of me about the creation of our father Adam, and what I had heard with my ears of their insult to the Lady Mary and their 1 See note, p. xv. 2 Lit. oil. THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 3 fiction about her without any resource being possible for me [how] I should refute them in regard to their hateful saying. The Teacher was moved by my excitement, and zeal entered him when I told him about it. He said, " I will put it in order for thee, O my son, as thou hast asked me about it, and will initiate thee in things since the beginning of the creation, and will teach thee the genealogy of the Mother of Mercy, Mary the pure, and its authenticity, and that without doubt she is of the lineage of Judah the son of Jacob and his tribe, and I will relate to thee mysteries, and what reason there was for the fall of the Devil, the prince, from heaven. Know, O my son, that the Lord is the beginning and before the beginning, He who is Infinite, raised above the height, equal with the Highest, there is nothing lower about Him, nothing inward, nothing outward, He is before the beginning, the ancient substance, He who is boundless, whom no intelligence can reach, and no discernment nor quality can comprehend. He was above Being, and with Being, and below Being, the creative Substance, the glorious Light, which darkness reacheth not, Light dwelling in the Light which eyes cannot reach, before creation He was ; and He is the Former of forms, whose glory is from Himself and in Himself, and in His Essence. [He is] the Creator of what glorifies Him, that thou f. 9 1 mayest learn His divinity and His power, He made the heaven and the earth, He created before harmony the division of things. Angels worship Him, ten homogeneous choirs, I mean by this ten ranks. The highest rank, some of whom are nearest to the throne of the Lord God, pouring out praises in abundance, is the rank of Satanaeel, who was the prince, and praises rose up to God from all the Angels ; that was the beginning in the first day which was the holy first day (Sunday), chief of days ; early in it God created the upper heaven and the worlds, and the highest rank of Angels, which is the rank of Satanaeel, and the Archangels, and powers, and chiefs, and thrones, and dignities and governors, and cherubim and seraphim, and light, and day and night, and wind and water, and air, and fire and what is like these elements. Verily the Lord formed all this, may His names be sanctified ! by the completion of His eternal Word 4 KITAB AL-MAGALL. without speech, and in the first day in which these things were created, the Holy Spirit hovered over the waters, and in its hovering over them they were blessed and sanctified, and heat was formed in them by which the watery beings are born, and with this were mixed yeasts of the creatures, such as the bird which lays 1 the egg by its wings, and from this is formed the living bird, for by reason of the nature of the heat of flaming fire, it verily reneweth heat in the wings of the bird, and lo ! f. 91 b with them it lays an egg in which chickens are formed. Verily the reason why the holy Paraclete hovered over the waters in the form of a bird, was that every winged fowl should be formed in this shape. On the second day God created the lower heaven, which is called the firmament, on which the gaze of men falls, that thou mayest know that the beings of the highest heavens which the heaven of the visible firmament covers are like the nature of the heaven of the firmament, except that the heaven which the eyes reach is separated from the highest heavens. All the heavens are three heavens. The visible firmament, and what is above it ; it is called ^L-rrarov and above it there is flaming fire ; and a heaven which is above the fire ; and the two heavens are filled with light and fire which created eyes cannot look at. On the second day which is the second of the days (Monday) the Lord, to Whom be praise! separated between the higher water and the lower water. Verily the rising up of the water which was formed in the height that day was like gathered clouds clinging together, and the waters remained resting in the air, none of them inclining to any one district. On the third day (Tuesday) God commanded the waters which were below the firmament that they should be gathered together to one place, that the dry land might be seen. When this happened, the veil was removed which was above the earth and the earth was disclosed. He looked upon it, and it was barren of verdure, [it was] dust and water mixed together. f. 92 a The water was in it and below it and above it, and it was shaken to the blowing of the winds through it. The air went up from the bosom of the earth, and rested in the bosom of its Bezold C*<SA~> = hatches. THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 5 crevices and passages that in these caves might arise heat and cold for the service and consolidation of the earth, because the earth was created like a sponge standing above the water. On this day God commanded the earth to bring forth grass and reeds and trees and seeds and roots and other things. On the fourth day (Wednesday) God formed the sun and the moon and the stars that the heat of the sun might be spread over the earth and it should be strengthened by its mellowness and that the moisture communicated to it by the water high above it should be dried up. On the fifth day God commanded the waters to bring forth animals of various colours and forms, some of which should fly in the bosom of the water, and others should fly above the water, and from them should spring the whales and Leviathan, and Behemoth, so terrible in their appearance, and air-fowl and water-fowl. On the sixth day God created from the earth all the beasts, and animals and insects and creeping reptiles 1 . This day is Friday, and on it God created Adam of dust, and formed Eve from his rib. On the seventh day God had completed all creation, and He called it Sabbath. God had created Adam in the third hour of Friday the sixth day. Iblis had laid claim to Godhead which had entered him in the second hour f. 92 b of that day, and God had hurled him down from heaven to earth. Before God the Lord created Adam, rest fell upon all the powers ; and God said, Come, let us create a Man in our likeness and form and image. When the Angels heard this saying from the Lord they became frightened and much terrified, and they said to one another, What is this great wonder which we hear, and how is it possible that the form of our God and Creator can appear to us ? Then all the Angels looked to wards the right hand of the Lord, which was stretched out above all creation, and all of it was in His right hand. Then they looked towards the right hand of the Lord, and it took from all the earth a little handful of dust, and from all the waters a drop of water, and from the air a soul and a spirit, and from fire the force of heat, and it became in the grasp of the 1 See note, p. xv. 6 KITAB AL-MAGALL. Lord portions of the four elements, heat and cold, moisture and drought. Verily God, the glorious and strong, created Adam from these four weak elements, which have no power, that all creatures created from them might hear and obey him: dust, that man might obey him ; water, that all that is born of it and in it might obey him ; air, that it might be possible for him to breathe it and to feel its breezes, and that its birds might obey him ; and fire, that the heat of forces created from it should be a powerful helper to his sense. The reason f. 93 a why God, may His holy names be sanctified! created Adam with His holy hand in His form and image was that he should receive wisdom and speech and animal motion, and for the knowledge concerning things. When the glorious and illustrious Angels saw one like Him in Adam, they were affrighted. The wondrous glory upon his face terrified them, his form appeared shining with divine light greater than the light of the sun, and his body was bright and brilliant like the well-known stars in the crystal. When the figure of Adam drew itself up, he leapt standing ; he was in the centre of the earth, he stretched out his right hand and his left hand and put his feet in order upon Golgotha, which is the place where was put the wood (cross) of our Saviour Jesus the Christ. He was dressed with a royal robe, he wore upon his head a diadem of glory and praise and honour and dignity, he was crowned with a royal crown, and there he was made king and priest and prophet. God set him upon a throne of honour, and gathered to what was there all the animals and beasts and birds and all that God had created, and made them stand before 1 Adam. They bent their heads and did obeisance to him, and he called each of them by its name. He made all the creatures obey him and they responded to his command. The Angels and the Powers heard the voice of God, may He be glorified and exalted ! saying to Adam, O Adam, I have made thee f-93b king and priest and prophet and ruler and chief and governor over all creatures that are made. All creation shall obey thee 1 between the hands of, passim. THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 7 and follow thy voice. Under thy grasp they shall be. To thee alone I have given this power ; I have placed thee in possession of all that I have created. When the Angels heard this saying from the Lord they redoubled honour and respect to Adam. When the Devil saw the gift that was given to Adam from the Lord, he envied him from that day and the schis matic from God set his mind in cunning towards him to seduce him by his boldness and his curse ; and when he denied the grace of the Lord towards him, he became shameless and warlike. God, may His names be sanctified ! deprived the Devil of the robe of praise and dignity and called his name Devil, he is a rebel against God, and Satan, because he opposes himself to the ways of the Lord, and Iblis, because He took his dignity from him. While Adam was listening to the speech of his Lord to him, and standing upon the place of Golgotha, all the creatures being gathered together that they might hear the conversation of God with him, lo ! a cloud of light carried him and went with him to Paradise and the choirs of Angels sang before him, the cherubim among them blessing and the sera phim crying Holy ! until Adam came into Paradise. He entered it at the third hour on Friday, and the Lord, to Him be praise! gave him the commandment, and warned him against disobedience to it. Then the Lord, to Him be praise! threw upon Adam a form of sleep, and he slept a sweet sleep in Paradise. And God took a rib from his left side, and from f. 94 a it He created Eve. When he awoke and saw Eve he rejoiced over her and lived with her, and she was in the pleasant garden of Paradise. God clothed them with glory and splendour. They outvied one another in the glory with which they were clothed, and the Lord crowned them for marriage, the Angels congratu lated them, and there was joy there such as never has been the like and never will be till the day in which the people at the right hand shall hear the glorious voice from the Lord. Adam and Eve remained in Paradise for three hours. The site of Paradise was high up in the air, its ground was heavenly, raised above all mountains and hills, that were thirty spans high, that is fifteen cubits, according to the cubit of the Holy Ghost. This 8 KITAB AL-MAGALL. Paradise stretches round from the east by a wall from the hollow to the southern place of darkness where the cursed Prince was thrown, it is the place of sorrows. Eden is a fountain of God lying eastwards, to a height of eight degrees of the rising of the sun, and this is the mercy of God on which the children of men put their trust, that they shall have a Saviour from thence, because God, may He be exalted and glorified ! knew in His fore knowledge what the Devil would do to Adam. Adam lived in the treasury of His mercy, as David the prophet said, Thou hast been a fortress to us, O Lord, throughout all ages ; cause us to live in Thy mercy. The blessed David said also in his prayer about the salvation of men, Remember, Lord (the tree was the Cross which was planted in the middle of the earth), f. 94 b Thy grace which thou hast wrought from all eternity ; I mean by this the mercy which God loved to extend to all men and to our weak race. Eden is the Church of God, and the Paradise in which is the altar of rest, and the length of life which God has prepared for all the saints. Because Adam was king, priest and prophet, God caused him to enter Paradise that he might minister in Eden, the Church of God the holy Lord, as Moses the holy Prophet testifies about this, saying, * That thou shouldest minister and declare by noble and glorious service, and keep the commandment by which Adam and Eve were brought into the Church of God. Then God planted the tree of life in the middle of Paradise and it was the form of the cross which was stretched upon it, and it was the tree of life and salvation. Satan remained in his envy to Adam and Eve for the favour which the Lord shewed them, and he contrived to enter into the serpent, which was the most beautiful of the animals, and its nature was above the nature of the camel. He carried it till he went with it in the air to the lower parts of Paradise. The reason for Iblis the cursed hiding himself in the serpent was his ugliness, for when he was deprived of his honour he got into the acme of ugliness, till none of the creatures could have borne the sight of him uncovered, and if Eve had seen him unveiled in the serpent, when she spoke to him, she would have run away f. 95 a from him, and neither cunning nor deceit would have availed THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 9 him with her; but he contrived to hide himself in the serpent, the cunning creature, to teach the birds with round tongues the speech of men in Greek and such like. He would bring a broad mirror with much light sending out rays; he would put it between himself and a bird, and speak what he wished that the bird should know, and when the bird heard this speech, it would glance around and look in the mirror, and see the form of a bird like itself and rejoice at it, and not doubting that it was a bird of its species that was speaking to it would listen to it and attend to its language. And it would comprehend it in a moment and talk to it. But the cursed Devil, when he entered the serpent, came towards Eve, when she was alone in Paradise away from Adam, and called her by her name. She turned to him, and looked at her likeness behind a veil, and he talked to her, and she talked to him, and he led her astray by his speech, for woman s nature is weak, and she trusts in every word, and he lectured her about the forbidden tree in obedience to her desire, and described to her the goodness of its taste, and that when she should eat of it she should become a god ; and she longed for what the cursed one made her long for, and she would not hear from the Lord, may His names be sanctified ! what He had commanded Adam about the tree. She hastened eagerly towards it, and seized some of its fruit in her mouth. Then she called Adam, and he hastened to her, and she gave him of the fruit, telling him that if he ate of it he would become a god. He listened to her advice because he should become a god as f. 95 b she said. When he and she ate the deadly fruit they were bereft of their glory, and their splendour was taken from them, and they were stripped of the light with which they had been clothed. When they looked at themselves, they were naked of the grace which they had worn, and their shame was manifest to them ; they made to themselves aprons of fig-leaves, and covered themselves therewith, and they were in great sadness for three hours. They did not manage to continue in the grace and the power with which the Lord had endued them before their rebellion for three hours, till it was taken from them and they were made to slip and fall down at the time of sunset on that G. B 10 KITAB AL-MAGALL. day, and they received the sentence of God in punishment. After the clothing of fig-leaves they put on clothing of skins, and that is the skin of which our bodies are made, being of the family of man, and it is a clothing of pain. The entrance of Adam into Paradise was at the third hour. He and Eve passed through great power in three hours, they were naked for three hours, and in the ninth hour they went out from Paradise, unwillingly, with much grief, great weeping, mourning and sighing. They slept towards the East of it near the altar. When they awoke from their sleep, God spoke to Adam and comforted him, saying to him, blessed be His names ! O Adam ! do not grieve, for I will restore thee to thine inheritance, out of which thy rebellion has brought thee. Know that because of my love to thee I have cursed the earth, and I will not have pity upon it, on account of thy sin. I have cursed also the serpent by whom thou hast been led astray, f. 96 a and I have made its feet go within its belly. I have made dust its food. I have not cursed thee. I have decreed against Eve that she shall be at thy service. Know certainly that when thou hast accomplished the time that I have decreed for thee to dwell outside, in the accursed land, for thy trans gression of my commandment, I will send my dear Son ; He will come down to the earth, He will be clothed with a body from a Virgin of thy race, named Mary. I will purify her and choose her, and bring her into power generation after generation until the time that the Son comes down from Heaven. In that time shall be the beginning of thy salvation and restoration to thine inheritance. Command thy sons when thy death ap proaches which I have decreed for thee that when thou diest they keep thy body in myrrh and cassia, and put it in the cave where thou art dwelling to-day till the time of the exit of thy children from the bosom of paradise and their passage to the dusty land. When that time comes, instruct the one of thy children who lives until then to carry thy body with him and put it in the place where I shall make him halt. This place where he shall put thy body is the centre of the earth ; from it and in it salvation shall come to thee and to all thy children. God THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. I I disclosed to him all the griefs and pains that should happen to him, and commanded him to have patience about this. When f. 96 b He put Adam and Eve out of Paradise, He shut its gate, and put in charge a fiery Angel. He caused Adam and Eve to dwell in the holy mountain on which is the foundation of Paradise, in the place known as Matarimon. They lived there in a cave at the top of the hill, hidden in it, and despairing of mercy, and they were then pure virgins. Then Adam thought of the wedding of Eve, and he found in the foundation of Paradise gold and myrrh and incense. He left this together, and consecrated it in the interior of the cave, which he had already made his house of prayer. The gold which he got from the foundation of Paradise was like in quantity to seventy-two images. He paid this with the myrrh and the incense to Eve, saying, This is thy dowry, keep it. This must be all offered together to the Son of God at the time of His coming into the world. The gold is the symbol of His royalty; the incense is to burn before Him ; and the myrrh is to anoint His body which He will take from us. This shall be a witness between me and thee with our Saviour that He shall come to the world. Adam called this cave the Cave of Treasures. When a hundred years had passed over him after his exit from Paradise, and he and Eve were grieved and weeping, they f- 97 a went down from the holy hill to its foot, and there Adam knew Eve, and she conceived, and her time was fulfilled, and she bare Cain, and Lusia his twin-sister. He knew her again, and she conceived, and her time was fulfilled, and she bare Abel and also his twin-sister Aclima. The boys and the girls grew, and attained to discretion. Adam said to Eve, If God lets these lads and lasses grow up, let Cain marry Aclima the sister of Abel, and let Abel marry Lusia the sister of Cain. And they did thus. But Cain said to Eve, O Mother, I have a greater right to my sister who was born with me. Let her be given to me as a wife, and let Abel s sister who was born with him be given to him as a wife. For Lusia was more beautiful than Aclima, being like her mother Eve. Adam heard of his speech, and it made him angry and annoyed him. He said to 12 KITAB AL-MAGALL. Cain his son, Thy request, O my son, is unlawful, for it is not allowed to thee to marry thy sister who was born with thee. From that time Cain envied his brother Abel and thought of killing him. Then Adam said to him and to Abel, Choose some of the fruits of the earth and of the young of the flock and go up this holy hill, and go into the Cave of Treasures, and pray f. 97 b there before the Lord. Offer to Him what you have brought, fruit, and any young animals as an offering. When you have done this, let each of you take his wife. And they did so. While they were going up the hill, behold! the Devil entered into Cain, and incited him to the murder of Abel. Then they brought their offerings before the Lord ; the Lord accepted the offering of Abel and rejected the offering of Cain, because God, may He be praised and exalted ! knew the purpose of Cain, and how he was preparing the murder of his brother. When Cain saw that the Lord, may His name be praised ! had accepted the offering of Abel instead of his offering, his envy of Abel increased and his wrath against him. When they came down from the hill, Cain attacked Abel and slew him with a sharp stone. God cursed Cain, and his decree came down against him. He did not cease to be in fear and terror all the days of his life. God led him with his wife from the holy hill, outside to the cursed land, and they lived there. Adam and Eve grieved much about Abel for a hundred years. Then Adam came near to Eve, and she conceived, and her time was fulfilled, and she bare Seth, the handsome man, the complete and perfect giant. In his perfection he was like his father Adam, and God protected him when he grew up, making him the father of the other giants of the earth. The first who was born to Seth was Enos. And Enos begat Cainan, and Cainan begat Mahlaleel ; these were born during the life of Adam. Adam f. 98 a lived nine hundred and thirty years, to the time that Mahlaleel was a hundred and thirty-five years old. When the time of his death came, he summoned Seth, and Enos, and Cainan and Mahlaleel ; he prayed over them and blessed them, and com manded to his son Seth this Testament. THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 13 The Testament of Adam. Hear, O my son Seth ! what I command thee. Keep it, and thou shalt understand it. Command it at thy death to thy son Enos, that Enos may command this to Cainan, and Cainan may command [it] to Mahlaleel, that he may act according to this testament, and that the rest of your generations may learn, generation after generation, and tribe after tribe. This is the first thing that I command thee. When I die, embalm my body with myrrh and cassia, and put it in the Cave of Treasures of the holy hill, that thou mayest tell whosoever of thy posterity is alive at the time when your exit shall take place from this holy Paradise-encircled hill, to carry my body with him, and go with it to the centre of the earth, and put it there, and in that place salvation shall come to me and to all my children. Thou, O my son Seth, shalt after my death be governor of thy people in the fear of God. Remove thyself and all thy children, and keep them apart from the children of the murderer Cain. Understand, f. 98 b O my son, the state of the hours of the night and of the day, and their names, and what praises God in them, wherewith you must call on God at their approach, and at what hour prayer and supplication is due. My Creator has taught me this, and made me understand the names of all the beasts of the earth, and birds of the air ; and the Lord has initiated me into the number of the hours of the night and of the day, and the affairs of the Angels and their powers and how they are. Know 1 that in the first hour of the day is the raising of the praise of my children to God. In the second hour there are the prayers of the Angels and their cry. In the third hour the birds give praise. In the fourth hour is the worship of spiritual beings. In the fifth hour is the worship of the other living creatures. In the sixth hour is the entreaty of the cherubim and their supplication. In the seventh hour is the entrance to God and the exit from His presence, for in it the prayers of every living thing rise to the Lord. In 1 Perhaps [^] should be omitted. 14 KITAB AL-MAGALL. the eighth hour is the worship of all heavenly beings and fiery creatures. In the ninth hour is the service of the Angels of God who stand before Him, and the throne of His majesty. The tenth hour is for the water, and in it the Holy Ghost hovers and goes up over the other waters and chases the devils from f. 99 a them. Were it not for the Holy Spirit hovering every day over the waters and descending in that hour, when any one drank water, would there not be destruction to him from the corrupting devils in it? If any one took the water in that hour, and one of the priests of God mixed it with holy oil and anointed with it the sick and those in whom were unclean spirits, they were cured of their diseases. In the eleventh hour there is joy and rejoicing to the righteous. In the twelfth hour the supplication and cry of men is accepted before God. The hours of the night. In the first hour there is the worship of the devils. In this hour, the hour of their worship, they do not hurt any one, and no one fears them until the time of their return from their worship. In the second hour there is the worship of the great fishes and all that is upon the water, and the creeping things that are therein. In the third hour is the worship of the fire which is below the abyss, about this hour it is not possible for any one to speak. In the fourth hour is the consecration of the seraphim. I heard that in this hour during the time of my stay in Paradise, before my rebellion against the commandment. When I transgressed the command, I could f-99b no longer hear the voices nor their movement and agitation as I used to hear them, and I could not see anything holy as I used to see it before [my] sin. In the fifth hour there is the worship of the water which is above the heaven. Verily I and the Angels used in that hour to hear voices from the water which is in the height, and a tumult as if of chariots and great wheels and the sounding amongst the waves, and commotion among the echoes in praise to the Lord. In the sixth hour is the supplication of the clouds to God when they are fearful and trembling. In the seventh hour the powers of the earth are led forth, and they sing praise, whilst the waters sleep and are stilled. If a man takes anything from the water in THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 15 that hour and the priest mixes holy oil with it and anoints with it the sick and those who cannot sleep at night, verily the sick are cured and the wakeful sleep. In the eighth hour the grass comes forth from the earth. In the ninth hour is the service of the Angels and the entrance of prayers before God. In the tenth hour the gates of heaven are opened, and the cry of my believing children is heard, and they receive what they have asked from God, may He be exalted and praised ! and the seraphim rub their wings, and by the force of their rubbing the cock crows in praise to the Lord. In the eleventh hour there is f. rooa joy and delight over all the earth, for the Sun enters the Paradise of God, and its light arises in the regions of the earth. All creatures are illumined by the falling of the sun s rays upon them. In the twelfth hour my children must burn jasmine before the Lord, for by it there is much repose in heaven for all its inhabitants. Know, O my son Seth, and attend to my saying. Be sure that God will come down to the earth as He said to me, and made me understand and know when He comforted me at my exit from Paradise. Praise to His names ! He spoke to me, saying [that] at the end of time He will be incarnate of a Virgin girl named Mary and will be veiled in me. He will put on my skin, and will be born like the birth of man by a force and direction that none can understand but Himself and those to whom He reveals it; He will run with the children, boys and girls of that period ; He will do wonders and signs openly ; He will walk on the waves of the sea as if walking on the dry land ; He will rebuke the winds in a manifest way, and they will be led by His command. He will call to the waves of the sea, and they will answer Him obediently. At His command the blind shall see, the lepers shall be cleansed, the deaf shall hear, the dumb shall speak, the deformed shall be straightened, the lame shall spring up, the palsied shall rise and walk. Many rebels shall be led to God, those who have wandered shall be led aright, and devils shall be driven away. When the Lord comforted me with this, He said to me, O Adam, grieve not, for thou art a god, as thou thoughtest to become by thy transgression of my commandment, and I will make 1 6 KITAB AL-MAGALL. thee a god, not at this time, but after the lapse of years. The Lord said to me also, I have verily brought thee out of the land of Paradise, to the land which brings forth thorns and briers, that thou mayest inhabit it ; I will bend thy loins, and make thy knees tremble from age and senility. O thou dust! to death I will deliver thee, and thy body I will make to be food for maggots, and the fodder of the worm. After five days and a half 1 (of my days) I will have pity on thee in my mercy. I will come down to thee, and in thy house will I dwell and with thy body will I be clothed. For thy sake, O Adam, I will become a child; for thy sake, O Adam, I will appear in the market-places; for thy sake, O Adam, I will fast for forty days; for thy sake, O Adam, I will receive baptism ; for thy sake, O Adam, I will be lifted up on the cross ; for thy sake, O Adam, I will endure lies ; for thy sake, O Adam, I will be beaten with the whip ; for thy sake, O Adam, I will taste vinegar ; for thy sake, O Adam, my hands will be nailed ; for thy sake, O Adam, I will be pierced f. 101 a with a spear ; for thy sake, O Adam, I will thunder in the height ; for thy sake, O Adam, I will darken the sun ; for thy sake, O Adam, I will cleave the rocks ; for thy sake, O Adam, I will frighten the powers of heaven ; for thy sake, O Adam, I will cause heaven to rain on the desert ; for thy sake, O Adam, I will open the graves ; for thy sake, O Adam, I will cause all creation to tremble ; for thy sake, O Adam, I will make a new earth, and after three days, which I have spent in the grave, I will raise up the body which I took from thee, and will make it go up with me without any separation from me, and cause it to sit at the right hand of my Godhead. I will make thee a god as thou hast desired. Keep, O my son Seth, the command ments of God, and do not despise my word to thyself, and learn that the Lord must come down to earth, and godless people will take Him, and stretch Him on the wood of the cross, and strip Him of His raiment, and raise Him between wicked thieves. He will go up upon the cross in the substance of His humanity, He will be killed, and the body which He took from us will be buried. Then after three days He will raise it and take it up 1 See note, p. xv. THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. I/ with Him to heaven, and will set it with Him at the right hand of His divinity. To Him be the glory and the dignity and the praise and the greatness and the worship and the reverence and the hallelujah and the song, and to His Son, and to the Holy Ghost from now and always, and throughout all ages and times, Amen. Know, O my son, that there must come a Flood to wash all f- 101 b the earth on account of the children of Cain, the wicked man who slew thy brother for his envy about his sister Lusia. After the Flood through the wickedness of many congregations there shall be the end of the world, the conditions will be fulfilled, things will be perfected, the time will be cut short which I have fixed for the creatures, fire will consume whatever it reaches before 1 the Lord, and the earth shall be consecrated. Seth wrote this Testament, and sealed it with the seal of his father Adam, which he had from Paradise, and the seal of Eve, and his own seal. And Adam died, and the hosts of the Angels assembled to put him on his bier, for his honour with God, and Seth embalmed him, and swathed him, and he and his sons bare rule. And he put him eastwards of Paradise where he slept at his exit from it, near the town that was built before all building, called Enoch in the inhabited world. When Adam died, the sun was darkened, and the moon for seven days and seven nights, with a gross darkness. Seth took the scroll in which he wrote the Testament of his father Adam into the Cave of Treasures along with the offerings which Adam had carried with him from the land of Paradise, that is to say, gold, myrrh, and incense, [about] which Adam taught Seth and his children that they should belong to three Magian kings, and that they should travel with these things to the Saviour of the world, to be born in a city called Bethlehem, a territory of Judah. There was not one of the children born to Adam before his f. 102 a death who did not gather to him ; they bade him adieu, he prayed over them and wished them health. Then he died, in the nine hundred and thirtieth year by the reckoning of Abu-Seth. That is the beginning. The exit of our father 1 Between the hands of, passim. G. C 1 8 KITAB AL-MAGALL. Adam from this world was at three o clock in the day, on Friday the sixth of Nisan, fourteen nights after the new moon. On a similar day our Lord the Christ gave up His spirit to His Father s hand. Adam s children and children s children grieved for him a hundred and forty days, for he was the first mortal who died on the earth, and the tribes were divided among the people of Cain the murderer after the death of Adam. Seth took his children and his children s children and their wives, and made them go up to the glorious and holy hill, the place in which Adam was buried. Cain and his people and his children stayed below the hill, in the place where he killed Abel. Seth became governor of the people of his time in godliness and purity and holiness. My initiation, O my son Clement, into the f. 102 b story of Adam and this his testament was from the Magi who travelled to the Lady Saint Mary with offerings at the time of the birth of Jesus Christ our God the Saviour. Verily we found that they had a scroll with all this in it, and it was put by for safe keeping. I and the other Jews believed in this, and there were many things in it besides what I have shewn to thee, which it is not proper to make known at this time, and I must tell thee about them afterwards. I will disclose to thee all the secrets with which I have been entrusted. The reason of God s calling the children of Seth Ben-Adam, " the sons of God," was as the book says what He had revealed to Seth about godliness and purity. The Lord appropriated them to Himself by this name ; it is the most famous of names on account of their favour with Him. He appointed them to replace the choir of Angels which had rebelled and fallen from Heaven. He put Seth and his race in the lower parts of Paradise, and around it on the holy hill, they praising the Lord and sanctifying His name in all peace, no thought intruding on them about the affairs of the world, their greatest work being praise and hallelujah with the Angels, for they heard their voices in praise and hallelujah in Paradise, for it was raised thirteen spans above them, by the f. 103 a span of the Holy Ghost. They did not undergo the least labour. The food with which they sustained their bodies was the fruit of trees growing at the summits of the Mount THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 19 of Paradise. The zephyr of Paradise, which reached these trees, ripened their fruits. This tribe was godly and holy ; there was no anger in any one of them nor envy nor quar relling nor pride nor hatred, and they held no shameless con versations nor falsehood nor slander nor calumny, and they do not swear untruthfully nor in vain. Their oaths were among themselves by the purity of the blood of pure Abel. Their custom was to rise early, all of them, the old and the young, the male and the female ; to go up to the top of the hill and to worship there before God and be blessed by the body of their father Adam. Then they would lift up their eyes to Paradise and praising and sanctifying God they would return to their place. Seth Ben-Adam the godly lived nine hundred and twelve years. Then he fell sick of his disease of which he died. There gathered to him Enos and Cainan and Mahlaleel and Jared and Enoch, their wives, their sons and their daughters. He f- 103 b prayed over them, and made vows for them, and blessed them, and said to them, " By the truth of the blood of pure Abel, let not one of you descend from this holy hill ! Do not mix with the children of Cain the murderer. You know the enmity between us since the murder of Abel the pure." Then his son Enos came near him, and he said to him, "Thou art lord of thy people. Behold, I die. Devote thyself to service before the Lord and before the consecrated body of our father Adam." He made him swear by the blood of Abel the pure that he would govern his people well, and rule them in godliness and purity, and never cease the service before the body of Adam. Seth died *at the age of 1 nine hundred and twelve years, on Tuesday the twenty-fourth night of Ab, the twentieth year of the life of Enoch the righteous. He was embalmed with myrrh and frankincense and cassia, and put in the Cave of Treasures with the body of his father Adam. His people mourned for him forty days. Enos governed his tribe after the death of his father in purity and godliness ; he did to them what his father 1 Being the son of, passim. 2O KITAB AL-MAGALL. commanded. When Enos had lived eight hundred and twenty f. 104 a years, Lamech the Blind, of the tribe of Cain the murderer, killed [some one] in the thicket known as Nod 1 . This was the cause of it. Lamech was passing the thicket, leaning upon one of his youthful sons. He heard a movement in the thicket, it was the movement of Cain, for it was not possible for him to stay in one place since he had killed his brother. Lamech thought that this movement was that of some wild beasts. He took up a stone from the ground and threw it towards the moving thing. The stone hit Cain between the eyes and killed him. His son said, " By God, thou hast killed our father Cain with thy shot." Then Lamech the Blind lifted up his hands to give [him] a blow on the ear out of grief for the death of Cain. He hit the head of his son and killed him. When Enos had reached nine hundred and five years he fell sick of his disease of which he died, and there gathered to him the rest of the fathers ; amongst them were Jared, and Enoch, and Methuselah, and Cainan the son of Methuselah, and Mahlaleel, and their wives and their sons and their daughters. He blessed them and made vows for them and prayed over them and confirmed them in the oaths by the blood of Abel "oh do not mix yourselves with the children of Cain, and oh do not go down from the holy mountain." He reminded them of the enmity betwixt them on f. 104 b account of the murder of Abel. Then Cainan his son came near him. He said to him, " O my son, be to thy people and family as I have been to them, and govern them after my death." He commanded his son Mahlaleel about the care of his tribe in god liness and purity, and that he should not cease from the service before the body of our father Adam during his life. And Enos died when he had reached nine hundred and five years, on the sabbath day, when the third night of October had passed, in the fifty-third year of the life of Methuselah. His eldest son Cainan embalmed him, and swathed him, and put him in the Cave of Treasures. Cainan governed his people in godliness and holiness, and kept the commandments of his father. He lived for nine probably for i^J. THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 21 hundred and twenty years and died on Wednesday, the thirteenth night of June. Mahlaleel looked after his burial, and put him in the Cave of Treasures with his fathers. Mah laleel lived for eight hundred and ninety-five years. When death came near to him, he commanded his people like the commands of his fathers who had preceded him. He appointed Jared his son over the tribe. His death was on Sunday after two nights of Nisan had passed. Jared looked after him, and f. 105.1 put him in the cave with his fathers. When Jared was of the age of five hundred years, some of the sons of Seth disobeyed the commands of their fathers, and threw away their faith behind their backs. One by one they began to go down from the holy hill to the tribes of the children of Cain. This was the reason, that Lamech the Blind was followed by two sons, one being called Tufeel (Jubal) and the other Tubalcain. They made lyres, that is, harps, flutes, drums, and other musical instruments. The Devils awoke harmonious tones in them, and there was not one among the sons of Cain to command good behaviour or to restrain from what was forbidden. Every one of them did according to his lust. They busied themselves with musical instruments, and with eating and drinking, and immorality. ****** The Devil hunted the sons of Seth that he might mingle them with the children of Cain, by means of these musical instruments, for they heard the tones of them ; he brought them down from the holy hill to the cursed land, and he removed them from the protection of God and His angels to the protection of the Devils; they chose death rather than life, f 105 b and renounced the name which God had bestowed on them, because, may His name be sanctified ! He called them the sons of the Lord, according to His gracious saying in the prophecy of David, where he says, "Verily, ye are all gods, and ye shall be called the sons of the Most High. When ye do evil and defile your bodies with the idolatrous daughters of Cain, like them ye shall die in sin." They longed for unclean amuse ments. * * They had no shame about this and thought no harm of it. The earth was contaminated ; children were con fused ; no one knew his child from the child of another. The 22 KITAB AL-MAGALL. Devil incited them and he goaded them on and appropriated them to every misery. They rejoiced in their works. You could hear from them hateful laughter like the neighing of steeds. Their noise was heard in the holy mountain, and there assembled of the children of Seth a hundred powerful strong giants, for the descent. This came to [the knowledge of] Jared, and he was much troubled. He called them to his presence, and adjured them by the blood of Abel the Pure not to go down ; he reminded them of the oaths which their fathers who had gone before had received for them. Enoch the Righteous f. 106 a was there and said to them, " Know, O sons of Seth, that whosoever rejects the commandment of the Father and opposes the oaths by which he has been adjured and puts them behind his back, and goes down from this holy mount, that he shall never come back to it." But they did not turn at the warning of Jared and at the prohibitions of Enoch, and they went down. When they saw the daughters of Cain and their beauty, and that they uncovered their bodies without shame, they committed fornication with them, and destroyed their souls. When they had done this, they aimed at a return to the hill, but its stones became burning fire, and they could not do it. Another tribe wished for an alliance with them, not knowing about the affair of the stones. They went down to them, and defiled themselves with their defilement. When Jared reached the age of nine hundred and seventy-two years, Death came near to him. There gathered to him Enoch and Methuselah, and Lamech, and Noah. He prayed over them and made vows for them and said, "But as for you, go not down from this holy mountain ; yet your sons and your posterity shall be removed from it, because God will not allow them upon it on ac count of their transgression of the commandments of the fathers." Then he said to the rest of their children, "You shall journey to the dusty land which brings forth thorns and briers. Whosoever of you goes out from this holy land, let him take with him the body of our father Adam, and if he can take all the bodies of f. io6b the fathers, let him do it, and take with him the books of the Testaments, and the gifts of gold and myrrh and frankincense, THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 23 and put this with the body of our father Adam where God shall command him." Then said he to Enoch, " But thou, O my son, do not separate thyself from the service and praise before the body of our father Adam and serve before God in godliness and holiness all the days of thy life." He died in the third hour of Friday when the twelfth night of May had passed, in the 36oth year of the life of Methuselah. His son embalmed him and swathed him, and put him in the Cave of Treasures. God rejected the other children of Seth on account of their love of sin. Seventy assembled, and were inclined to descend. When Enoch and Methuselah and Lamech and Noah saw this, they v/ere much grieved. When Enoch had finished his service before the Lord for fifty years, this being the 365th year of his life, he presided over his house with his God. He called for Methuselah and Lamech and Noah, and said, " I know that the Lord will be angry with this people, and will surely judge them without mercy. But you, the rest of the fathers and of the holy races, do not leave off" the service before the Lord, and be pure and godly. Know that there shall not be born in this holy mountain after you any man who shall be father and chief to f- 107 a his people." When Enoch had finished this testament, God took him up to the land of life, and made him dwell round about Paradise in the country where there is no death. Then the children of Seth removed from the holy mountain to the quarters of Cain and his children. None of them remained on the mountain save the three fathers, Methuselah, Lamech and Noah. Noah the just kept his virgin soul for 500 years. After that, the merciful God revealed to him about the people who were subject to him, and commanded him to marry a woman named Haikal the daughter of Namousa, the son of Enoch, the brother of Methuselah. God disclosed to him about the Deluge which He was about to send upon the earth, and taught him that this would be after a hundred years, and commanded him to prepare the ark, that is, the ship for his salvation and that of his children, and that he should cut the wood from the holy mountain and make it in the quarters of the sons of Cain. He commanded him to make its length 24 KITAB AL-MAGALL. 300 cubits, according to [the length of] his arm ; its breadth 50 cubits, and its height 30 cubits, by [the length of] his arm ; and the breadth of its top above should be one cubit, and that he should make three stories to it. The lowest should be for the tame and the wild animals and the cattle, the middle one for the birds and their like, and the highest one for him and f. io8a his children and his wife and his sons wives. And that he should make in it storehouses for water and for food and for fodder. Also that he should prepare a gong of the cedar tree, its length to be three cubits, and its breadth one cubit, and that its hammer should be [made] of the same. " When thou beginnest to make the ship, thou shalt beat three strokes on it every day, one in the morning, the second in the middle of the day, that they may bring the workmen food ; and the third at sunset for [their] departure. If they ask thee about thy work, tell them that God is sending a flood of water to cleanse the earth and that thou art making the ship to save thyself and thy children." Noah received the commandment of the Lord, and married her. In the course of the hundred years she bare him three male children, Shem, Ham and Japhet. They also married some of the daughters of Methuselah. When Noah had finished the building of the ship, and entered it with those whom God commanded should enter it with him, the second thousand of the years of the time of Adam was finished, as the 70 interpreters expound. They said, From Adam till the Deluge was 2000 years. When Lamech had lived 777 years, Methuselah his father died ; this was four years before the Flood. Then Lamech f. io8b died after him, and his death was on the twenty-first [day] of September, in the 68th year of the life of Shem, the first-born of Noah. His son Noah swathed him, and embalmed him, and put him in the Cave of Treasures. He mourned for him 40 days and remained with all the holy fathers, Noah and his children. The daughters of Cain conceived by the sons of Seth, and brought forth giant-sons. It was certainly supposed by some that the Book relates and says that the Angels came down to earth and mingled with the children of men, that those THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 25 who came down and mingled with the children of men were really angels. This was only said on account of the sons of Scth and their union with the daughters of Cain, for God, may His name be glorified! had already out of His love to them, called them, as we said before, Sons of God and Angels of God. So he errs who thinks this ; for union, that is, marriage, was not in the substance of spiritual beings, and not in their nature, and if it had been in them as it is in men, the Devils would not have left any one in the world alone without corrupting them, till not a virgin would have been left on the earth, for the foul Devils love corruption and fornication. As they cannot do this, they change their nature on account of it ; they recommend it to men and make them love it. Methuselah lived for 969 years. When Death came to him, f. 109 a there gathered to him Lamech, and Noah, and Shem, and Ham, and Japhet and their wives, for none but they were left on the holy hill. Methuselah blessed them, and called to them ; he was weeping and sorrowful. He said to them, " There remaineth none but you on this mountain out of all the tribes who once were on it. The Lord God of our fathers who formed our father Adam and our mother Eve and blessed them till the earth was filled with their progeny, may He bless you and multiply you and cause your fruit to grow. May He be to you a keeper and a shepherd. I ask of Him to fill the earth with your progeny, and to help you and strengthen you and save you from the fearful punishment that is coming upon this hill, and that He may give you a share of the gift which He gave to our father Adam, that He may bring blessings into your dwellings, and bestow upon you prophecy, power, and priesthood." Then he said to Noah, " O thou blessed of the Lord, hear my speech and do my commandment. Know that I go out of this world f. 109 b as the saintly fathers went out of it. Verily the Lord shall send a Deluge to drown the earth for the many sins of men, but thou and thy children shall be saved. When I am dead, embalm my body like as were embalmed the bodies of the fathers who have gone before. Bury me in the Cave of Treasures. Take thy wife, and thy sons, and thy sons wives ; go down from this mountain, G. D 26 KITAB AL-MAGALL. and bear with thee the body of our father Adam, and the offer ings which thou didst bring out with him from Paradise, namely, gold and myrrh and frankincense. Put the body of our father Adam within the Ark which God commanded me to prepare; and the other bodies separately from it, so that the body of Adam may be like a dyke ever in the midst. Put the offerings on his breast. Dwell thou and thy sons in the east of the ark, thy wife and thy sons wives in the west, so that the body of our father Adam may be a barrier to hinder the men from sinning with regard to the women, and to hinder them from sinning with regard to the men ; let them not gather together for food f. 1 10 a or drink till ye come out of the Ark. When the water of the Deluge departs from the earth, and ye come out of the Ark, and dwell upon the earth, then gather ye together for food and drink, and cease not the service before the body of our father Adam nor the ministration before God in godliness and holiness within the Ark. When your exit from it takes place, then put the offerings which thou didst bring out from Paradise in the east of the land in which thou dwellest. When Death comes to thee, make thy Testament to thy son Shem. Command him to carry the body of our father Adam, and to bury it in the middle of the earth. Verily (it is) the place in which there shall be salvation to him and to his children. Where he burieth the body, let him appoint a man from among his children to serve before the body and to minister. Let him be pure all the days of his life, and let him command him that he dwell not in any house, that he shed no blood, that he shave not his hair, nor pare his nails, nor bring there any offering of beasts, but let his offering before the Lord be of fine bread, pure and white, and f. nob the best drink, pressed from the fruit of the vine, until the time that God shall certainly command him. Verily the Angel of the Lord shall go before the man chosen to officiate as a priest before the body of Adam till he shall put it in the middle of the earth, and where the body ought to be buried. Let this chosen one be commanded that his raiment be of the skins of beasts, and that he be unique as it is unique. Verily he is the priest of the glorious God." When Methuselah had finished THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 27 this testament, and tears were coming down from his eyes, on account of the grief that was in his heart, he died. Then nine hundred and sixty-nine years were completed, it was in Adar (March) on a Sunday. Noah and Shem and Japhet and their wives laid him out with weeping and groaning. They held a mourning for him for 40 days ; he was swathed and embalmed and laid with the fathers in the Cave of Treasures. They were blessed by the other bodies that were there. Then Noah bore the body of Adam and the bodies of the fathers from the Cave, and put them into holy coffins. Of the offerings Shem carried the gold, Ham carried the myrrh, and Japhet carried the frankincense. They left the Cave of Treasures with weeping and groaning. A noise was raised by them which was heard f. ma from Paradise, sorrow and mourning on account of [their] departure from the mountain, when they knew that they were leaving it for good. They lifted up their heads towards Paradise, they sobbed, and wept, and said : " Peace be to thee, O holy Paradise ! dwelling-place of our father Adam ; we are deprived of thy shelter, which is denied to us then, on our return to the cursed land in which we suffer pains and endure labours. Peace be to thee, O Cave of Treasures ! from us and from all the bodies of the fathers. Peace be to thee, O glorious dwelling-place and inheritance of the saintly fathers for ever. Peace be to you, O ye Fathers, beloved friends of God. Pray for us and bless us, and entreat for our salvation, O holy ones of God, who are well-pleasing unto Him. Peace be to Seth, chief of the fathers. Peace be to Enos, governor of his people, and righteous judge amongst them. Peace be to Cainan and Mahlaleel, those who govern their people in purity. Peace be to Methuselah and Jared and Lamech and Enoch, servants of God. We entreat you all to mediate for our salva- f. nib tion lest we be prevented looking for our inheritance from this time forth for evermore." Then they came down from the mountain, kissing its stones and embracing its trees with weeping and great grief, and they travelled towards the land. When Noah had finished building the ship, he entered it, and 28 KITAB AL-MAGALL. brought in the body of Adam and put it in the middle of it, with the offerings upon its breast. This was on a Friday, on the I7th day of March, it is also said, of May. Early the next day he brought in the beasts and the cattle, and made them dwell in the lowest deck. In the middle of the day he brought in the birds and all the sentient beings, and made them dwell in the middle deck. At sunset Noah and his sons and his sons wives entered, and dwelt in the topmost deck. The Ark was built in the form of a Church, in which the men are prevented from mingling with the women ; as there is peace and love betwixt man and woman, and between the elders amongst them and the youths, thus there was love betwixt the rest of the beasts and the birds and the sentient beings in the ship ; and as wise f. 1 12 a men are at peace with their inferiors, thus were the lions and the ewes at peace in the Ark. All that were in it were seven pairs of all the clean beasts, and two pairs of the unclean ones. When Noah and his people had arrived, the Lord shut the Ark. Then the doors of heaven were opened, and the doors of the abyss, and the waters came down in torrents, and the imprisoned sea appeared, which is called Oceanus, which encircles the whole earth. Raging winds were sent out from all directions. When the sons of Seth saw this, they came near to the place of the Ark, and entreated Noah to carry them ; but he gave them no answer about it, because the Ark was bolted and sealed by command of the Lord, and the Angel of the Lord was standing directing it. Repentance encompassed them, sorrow came upon them, and they had no refuge from destruction, as they were also hindered from going up to the holy mountain. They were all destroyed by drowning and suffocation, in the thick waters and the raging winds, as David the Prophet sang about their state where he said, " I said, All ye are gods, and children of the Most High f. ii2b ye shall be called; by this great sign ye are marked; but sin hath overthrown you, and ye have rebelled against the com mandment ; ye have defiled your bodies with the idolatrous daughters of Cain, and ye shall die the death like them. Ye THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 29 shall be tormented with the Prince who fell from the heavenly rank." The Ark was lifted up from the earth to the height of the waters, and all that was on the earth perished in the deluge; the waters rose above the tops of the mountains fifteen cubits, by the holy cubit. The waves bore the ship till they brought it to the lower parts of Paradise. It was blessed from Paradise ; the tops of the waves were rolled back, and they did obeisance before it, then returning from it were poured out to the destruction of those who remained on the earth. The ship flew on the wings of the wind above the waters from the east to the west, and from the south to the sea, like the sign of the Cross. It stood above the waters 150 days; the waves were stilled and laid to rest at the end of the seventh month from the beginning of the Deluge. The Ark stood upon the mountains, the Kurdish mountains, and the waters were divided from one f. ii3a another. They all returned to their places, and did not cease diminishing gradually, till the tenth month, which was February. He looked at the tops of the mountains from the Ark. On the tenth of March Noah opened the Ark from the eastern side, and sent the Raven, that at its return he might learn the news of the earth. It did not return to him. He sent the Dove ; it circled round, and found no place for its foot. It returned at sunset. After a week Noah sent another Dove. It returned to him with an olive-branch in its mouth. About the Dove there are holy mysteries. The first dove resembles the first covenant, to which there was no rest among the rejected nations ; the second dove the second covenant, which found rest with the nations that accepted the mysteries of baptism and preached the Christ at the end of 600 years of the life of righteous Noah. One day of Nisan (April) had passed, and the water was removed from the earth. On this day Noah and his wife and his sons and his f. ii3b sons wives went out of the ship. Their entrance to the ship had been in separation, their exit from it was in unity. At their exit came out all the beasts and the cattle and the birds and the creeping things which were in the ship. Noah built a town, and called it Thamanu, which remains to this day. The number of those who were in the ship with Noah was eight 30 KITAB AL-MAGALL. persons. Noah built an altar to the Lord and offered upon it an offering of the beasts and the clean birds that were slain. God accepted his offering, and gave a covenant that He would not send a deluge of water on the earth to all eternity. May His names be sanctified ! He took off wrath from them in regard to the bow in the clouds. By it He put away the bow string of anger, for before the Deluge men saw in heaven the bowstring of anger and the arrow of wrath. The sons of Noah planted in the town the fruit of the vine, and pressed from it a new drink ; they gave their father Noah to drink, and he got drunk, for he was not accustomed to drink. While he was drunk he slept, and his nakedness was uncovered. Ham looked f. 1 14 a at him, and laughed and mocked at him, and fetched his brothers to mock with him. When Shem and Japhet knew the reason was about the uncovering of their father, they were grieved at it ; they took a garment, threw it upon their hands, and went backwards, lest they should see their father uncovered ; then they threw the garment upon him. When Noah awoke from his drunken sleep, his wife told him what had happened about his sons, and he was angry with Ham, and said, "Let him and Canaan be cursed, and let him be a slave to his brethren." But Noah cursed Canaan, who was not guilty, and the guilt was Ham s ; for he knew that when Canaan should arrive at man s estate, he should renew what had already been blotted out of the works of the children of Cain, the music-halls and such like. When he came to man s estate, he did all this, and Noah knew it, was concerned about him and grieved at his work, that according to the example of the works of Canaan, the sons of Seth fell into sin, he increased in his curse of Canaan, wherefore his sons became slaves. They are the Copts, the Abyssinians, the Hindoos, the Mysians and other negroes. Ham was a hypocrite, a lover of unclean desire all the days of f. ii4b his life. This was in his mockery of his father. The sleep of Noah in his drunkenness was a type of the crucifixion of the Christ and His slumber in the tomb for three days, as David the prophet says about it, " The Lord awoke from his sleep like a man who recovers from strong drink." When Noah awoke THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 31 from his drunken sleep, he cursed Canaan and made his posterity slaves. Likewise when the Christ arose from the grave He cursed the Devil and destroyed those who had crucified Him, and scattered them among the nations. The sons of Canaan became slaves for ever, carrying burdens upon their necks. Every proprietor negotiates riding about on his business, but the children of Canaan negotiate about the affairs of their masters, as poor men on foot, and they are called the slaves of slaves. Noah lived after going out of the ship 350 years. When his death came near, there gathered to him Shem, and Ham, and Japhet, and Arphaxad, and Salah. He made vows for them, and desired the presence of Shem his firstborn, and commanded him secretly, saying to him, " When I die, bury me. Go into the Ark of safety, and take out of it the body of our father Adam f. 115 a secretly, let no one with thee know. Make for it a large chest, and put it within. Prepare for thyself a store of bread and drink, and carry the chest in which is the body of our father. Take with thee Melchizedek, the son of Malih. Verily the Lord hath chosen him from the rest of your sons to minister before our father Adam. When thou reachest the centre of the earth, bury the body there, and set Melchizedek in the place for the service of the body and the praise before it. Verily the Angel of the Lord will go before you to guide you two to the place for the body, which is the centre of the earth. From it shall be seen the power of God. The four pillars of the world are joined together and have become one pillar, and from it shall be salvation to Adam and to all his children." Thus it was written in the tables which Moses received from the hand of the Lord and broke at the time of his anger against his people. Noah strengthened Shem in receiving the testament, and told him that it was the Testament of Adam to Seth, and of Seth to Enos, and of Enos to Cainan, and of Cainan to Mahlaleel, and of Mahlaleel to Jared, and of Jared to Enoch, of Enoch to Methuselah, and of Methuselah to Lamech, and of Lamech to f. iisb Noah; he made him swear that no one [else] should attend to 32 KITAB AL-MAGALL. what he commanded in regard to the body of Adam. When he had finished his testament, he died, being 950 years old, on a Wednesday. Shem embalmed him, and with him his other children put him on a bier and buried him. They raised a wail over him for forty days. Then Shem went secretly into the ship, and took out the body of Adam. He sealed the ship with his father s seal. Then he desired the presence of Ham and Japhet and said to them, " Know that Noah my father commanded me to journey after his death to the elevated land and to go round it to the place of the sea, that I may attend to the state of its trees, and fruits and rivers. I have already resolved on this, and have left my wife and children with you ; take heed to them till the time of my return." They said to him, "Take with thee a man since thou hast resolved on this, for the land which thou hast described has wild beasts and hunting lions." He said to them, " Verily, the Angel of God is with me, he is my Saviour." His brethren called to him and said, " The f. ii6a Lord be with thee wherever thou dwellest." Then he said to them, " Verily, our father at his death made me swear not to enter the ship nor allow any one [else] to enter it. I have received his testament, and sealed it with his seal, and beware that ye enter it not ! ye, nor any of your children." They pledged themselves to him concerning this. Then he approached the father and mother of Melchizedek and said to them. " I wish that you would give me Melchizedek that I may journey with him in my way." They said to him, "He is before thee, as thou wouldest journey, take him with thee." Then Shem called Melchi zedek by night, and bore with him the body of Adam secretly. They went out, the Angel going before them, till he brought them to the place with the utmost speed. He said to them, " Set him down, for this is the centre of the earth." And they put him down from their hands. When he came to the ground, the earth was cleft for him as a door, and the body was let down into it, and they put him in it. When the body rested in its place, the earth returned and covered it over. The place was called Gumgumak, tl of a skull," because in it was placed the THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 33 skull of the Father of mankind, and Gulgulah, because it was conspicuous in the earth, and was despised by its sons, for in f. n6b it was the head of the hateful Dragon which seduced Adam. It was called also Otaria, which is, being interpreted, "the families of the world," because to it is the gathering together of mankind. Shem said to Melchizedek son of Malih, " Know that thou art the priest of the Everlasting God, who hath chosen thee from the rest of men to minister before Him before the body of our father Adam. Accept the Lord s choice of thee, and never leave this place. Do not marry any woman, do not shave thy hair, nor pare thy nails. Shed no blood for thyself, and sacrifice no beast. Do not build a building over this place. Let thine offerings before the Lord be of fine pure bread, and [let the] drink be of the juice of the vine. The Angel of the Lord is with thee for ever." He wished him peace, and bade him farewell and embraced him, and returned to his dwelling. Then came to him Jozadak and Malih, the parents of Melchizedek. They asked him about him, and he told them that he had died on the road, and that he had looked after him and buried him. His father and his people sorrowed over him with a great sorrow. When Shem the righteous was 700 years old, he died, f. 117 a and his son Arphaxad looked after him, and Salah and Eber, and they buried him. When Arphaxad was thirty years old, he begat Salah his son, and when he was 465 years old, he died, and Salah and Eber looked after him. They buried him in the town that Arphaxad had built, known as Arphaxad (cod. Arbalsarbat). When Salah was thirty years old, he begat Eber, and when he had completed 430 years, he died. Eber and Peleg looked after him ; he was buried in the town that Salah had built, known as Salhadib. When Eber was thirty years old, he begat Peleg, and when he had completed 434 years, he died ; his son Peleg buried him, and Reu and Serug in the town which Eber had built and had called by his name. When Peleg attained 239 years, all the tribes of the sons of Shem, and Ham and Japhet gathered themselves together and journeyed to the elevated land ; they found in the place known as Shinar a beautiful plain. They dwelt in it, and their speech was altogether G. E 34 KITAB AL-MAGALL. f. ii7b Syriac, and it is called Resany 1 , and Chaldaean ; it is the tongue and speech of Adam. Verily the Syriac language is the Queen of languages and the most comprehensive; from it all other tongues are derived ; Adam is a Syriac name. Whoever asserts that it is Hebrew tells a falsehood. Speakers of Syriac will not stand on the left of the Lord but on His right, for the writing of Syriac runs from right to left, and of others the way of the Persian from left to right. In the days of Peleg the nations built the tower at Babel, upon which their tongues were diversified and confounded and divided ; because of their con fusion the town was called Babel. Peleg was very much grieved about this when he saw the scattering of the nations in the regions of the earth. He died, and his son Reu, and Serug and Nahor buried him in the town which he had built and had called by his name. The earth became two portions among two chiefs of tribes ; they allowed to every tribe and tongue a king and a chief; they appointed in the race of Japhet f. ii8a thirty-seven kings, and in the race of Ham sixteen kings. The kingdom of the sons of Japhet was from the border ot the holy mountain and Mount Nod (>^J ?), which is in the borders of the East, to the Tigris and the side of Algauf, and from Bactria to the island town (or Gades = Cadix). The kingdom of the sons of Shem was from the land of Persia, that is from the borders of the East to the Hardasalgs sea among the borders of the West. They had authority also in the centre of the earth. When Reu was thirty-two years old, Serug was born to him ; the length of his life being 232 years. At the end of 163 years of the life of Reu, Nimrod the giant reigned over the whole earth. The beginning of his kingdom was from Babel. It was he who saw in the sky a piece of black cloth and a crown ; he called Sasan the weaver to his presence, and commanded him to make him a crown like it ; and he set jewels in it and wore it. He was the first king who wore a crown. For this reason f. n8b people who knew nothing about it, said that a crown came down to him from heaven. The length of his reign was sixty-nine years. He died in the days of Reu, and the third thousand 1 Perhaps from Resen, Gen. x. 12. THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 35 since Adam was completed. In his days the people of Egypt set up a king over them called Firnifs. He reigned over them for sixty-eight years. In his days also a king reigned over the town of Saba and annexed to his kingdom the cities of Ophir and Havilah, his name was Pharaoh. He built Ophir with stones of gold, for the stones of its mountains are pure gold. After him there reigned over Havilah a king called Hayul. He built it and cemented it, and after the death of Pharaoh women reigned over Saba until the time of Solomon son of David. When he (Reu) was 239 years old, he died. Serug his son and Nahor buried him in the town called Oa nan, which Reu had built for himself. When Serug was thirty years old, his son Nahor was born to him. In the days of Serug idols were worshipped, and they were adored instead of God, and the people in that day were scattered in the earth ; f. u 9a there was not among them a teacher nor a lawgiver, nor a guide to the way of truth, nor even a right way. They wandered and were rebellious and became a sect. Some of them worshipped the Sun and the Moon, some of them worshipped the sky, some of them worshipped images, some of them worshipped the stars, some of them worshipped the earth, some of them worshipped beasts, some of them worshipped trees, and some of them worshipped waters and winds and such like, for the Devil blinded their hearts and left them in darkness without light. No one among them believed in the Last Day and the Resur rection. When one of them died, his people made an image in his likeness, and put it upon his tomb, lest his memory should be cut off. The earth was filled with sins, and idols were multiplied in it, made in the likenesses of males and females. When Serug was 230 years old he died. His son Nahor, f. ii9b and Terah and Abraham buried him in the town which Serug had built and called it Serug. Terah was born to Nahor when he was twenty- nine years old. In the third year of the life of Nahor, God looked up through His remembrance at His creatures, and they were worshipping idols. He sent upon them earthquakes which destroyed all the idols. Their 36 KITAB AL-MAGALL. worshippers did not turn from their error, but persevered in their godlessness. In the twenty-sixth year of the rule of Terah appeared witchcraft. The beginning of it was that a rich man died ; his son made a golden image of him and placed it upon his tomb as a mark [to] the people of his age, and appointed a young man to guard it. The Devil entered into the image, and spoke to its guardian from the tongue of the deceased and [with] his voice. The guardian told the son of the deceased about it. After some days robbers entered the dwelling of the deceased, and took all that belonged to his son, and his grief was greater at this, and they bewailed him beside the grave of his father. The f. 120 a Devil called to him from the image with a voice like the voice of his father, and said, " O my son, weep not. Bring me thy little son, to sacrifice him to me, and I will restore to thee all that has been taken from thee." He brought his son to the tomb and sacrificed him to the Devil. When he had done this, the Devil entered him and taught him witchcraft, unveiled his mysteries, and taught him omens and auguries 1 . Since that time people offer their children to Devils. At the completion of a hundred years of the life of Nahor, God, may His name be exalted ! looked on the godlessness of men, and their sacrificing of their children to the Devils, and their adoration of images. God, may His names be sanctified, sent them raging winds which tore away the images and their worshippers, and buried them in the earth and strewed over them great mounds and towering hills, and they are below these unto this day. Some assert on this account that in the time of Terah there was a Deluge of wind. Wise men of India say that these mounds came into existence in f. 120 b the days of the Deluge. That is nonsense, for image-worship was after the Deluge of water, and the Deluge was not sent upon them for the worship of images ; verily that was done because there was so much corruption on the earth among the children of Cain, and the musical instruments which they invented. There was no people inhabiting this rough wild land, but when 1 Professor Seybold suggests that this may have been originally, as also on page 38, line 6, JUJIj THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 37 our fathers were not found worthy of the neighbourhood of Paradise they were thrust away to it. Then they came out of the ship to this land, and were scattered amongst its regions. He talks nonsense who asserts that these elevated mounds have never ceased in the earth, for they have been formed since the time of the anger of God about idol-worship. They were turned topsy-turvy, and there is no mound on the earth beneath which a Devil with an image appeareth not. In the days of Nimrod the giant, he looked at fire from heaven, and fire came up from the earth. When Nimrod saw it he adored it, and appointed in the place where he saw it people to worship it, and to throw incense f. 121 a into it. Since that time magicians adore fire when they see it coming up from the heaven and from the earth, and they worship it to this day. A chief magician named Sasir found a spring of bountiful water at a place in the country of Atropatene. He erected upon it a white horse. Whoever bathed in that fountain worshipped this horse. The Magi honour the horse, and there is a sect of them who worship it to this day. Nimrod travelled till he arrived at the land of Mariun. When he entered the city of Alturas he found there Bouniter the fourth son of Noah. Nimrod s army was on a lake, and he went down there one day to bathe in it. When Nimrod saw Bouniter the son of Noah, he did obeisance to him. Bouniter said to him, "O giant king, why do you adore me?" Nimrod said to him, " I did thee homage because thou didst meet me." Nimrod stayed with him three years that he might teach him wisdom and strategy, then he wandered away from him. He said to Nimrod, " Thou shalt not return a second time." When Nimrod was passing through the East, he deposited books f. 121 b making known what Bouniter the son of Noah had taught him. The people were astonished at his wisdom. There was among the people entrusted with the worship of fire a man called Ardashir. When Ardashir saw the wisdom of Nimrod and the excellency of his star-gazing (Nimrod had a perfect genius), he envied him for this, and implored a Devil who had appeared to him beside the fire to teach him the wisdom of Nimrod. The Devil said to him, " Thou canst not do this until thou have 38 KITAB AL-MAGALL. fulfilled the magic rite, and its perfection is the marriage of mothers, daughters and sisters." Ardashir answered him concerning this, and did what he commanded him about it. Since that time the Magi allow the wedlock of mothers, sisters and daughters. The Devil also taught Ardashir the knowledge of omens and auguries 1 , and physiognomy, and fortune-telling, and divining and witchcraft, which were doctrines of the Devil, and the Chaldaeans 2 gave one another this doctrine ; these were f. 122 a the Syrians, and some people say that it is the tongue of the Nabataeans. Every one who uses aught of these doctrines, his guilt before God is great But the knowledge which Nimrod learned from Bounitar, verily Bounitar the son of Noah learned it from God, the great and glorious, for it is the counting of the stars, and the years and the months ; the Greeks call this science Astronomy, and the Persians call it Astrology. Nimrod built great towns in the East, namely, Hadaniun, Ellasar, Seleucia, Ctesiphon, Ruhin, and the towns of Atrapatene, and Telalon, and others that he chose for himself. When Terah, father of Abraham, reached two hundred and three years he died. Abraham and Lot buried him in the city of Haran. [God] commanded him that he should travel to the Holy Land. Abraham took with him Sarah his wife, and Lot his brother s son, and journeyed to the land of the Amorites. Abraham the Just was then seventy-five years old. When he reached eighty years, he fought with the nations and put them to flight and delivered Lot from them, and he had no f. i22b child at that time, for Sarah was barren. When he returned from the war with the nations, God commanded him to journey and pass over to Mount Yabus. When he got there he met Melchizedek, priest of God. When Abraham saw him, he did homage to him and was blessed by him. He offered before him fine pure bread and drink. Melchizedek blessed Abraham and made vows for him. Thereupon God com manded Melchizedek to pare his nails. Melchizedek consecrated an offering of fine bread and drink. Abraham offered some 1 See note, page 36. 2 Probably THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 39 of it, and paid to Melchizedek the tenth of his goods. Then God, may His names be sanctified, discoursed with Abraham the second time and said to him, "Thy reward 1 shall be great with Me. Since thou hast received the blessing of Melchizedek and thou art worthy to receive from his hand the gift of bread and wine ? I will bless thee, and will multiply thy seed." When Abraham reached eighty-six years, Ishmael was born to him of Hagar the Egyptian bond-maid. Pharaoh of Egypt f. 1233 had given her to Sarah, the wife of Abraham, who was his sister by his father but not by his mother, for Terah married two wives ; the name of the one was Yuta, she was the mother of Abraham, and she died when she gave birth to him ; the name of the other was Nahdeef, and she was the mother of Sarah. Therefore Abraham answered as he said to the king of Egypt when he wished to do violence to Sarah, that " she is my sister." When Abraham reached ninety-nine years, God came down to his house, and gave to Sarah a son. When he reached a hundred years, Isaac was born to him, the son whom God gave him of barren Sarah. When Isaac reached twelve years, Abraham offered him to God as an offering upon the hill Yabus, which is the place in which the Christ was crucified, and which is known as Golgolah. In it Adam was created ; in it Abraham looked at the tree which bore the lamb by which Isaac was redeemed from sacrifice, and in it the body of Adam was laid. In it was the altar of Melchizedek, and in it David looked at the Angel of the Lord bearing a sword for the destruction of Jerusalem. Verily f. i23b Abraham s carrying up there of Isaac to the altar is a type of the crucifixion of the Christ for the salvation of Adam and his children. The proof of this is the saying of the Christ in the holy Gospel to the children of Israel, that "your father Abraham did not cease to long to look on my days, and when he saw them, he rejoiced in them." The lamb which Abraham saw hanging on the tree was a type of the slaying of the Christ in the body, which He had taken from us, and of His crucifixion also, because the lamb was not the child of a ewe and was worthy of being sacrificed. In that place Abraham saw what pertained 1 Probably 40 KITAB AL-MAGALL. to the salvation of Adam through the crucifixion of the Christ In the hour that Abraham took up Isaac to the altar, Jerusalem began to be built, and the reason was this. When Melchizedek, priest of God, appeared to men, his fame reached the kings of the nations, and they came to him from every region to be blessed. Among those that came to him were Abimelech king f. 1 24 a of Gerar, Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Delassar (Ellasar), Kedarlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of men, Bera king of Sodom, Birsha king of Gomorrah, or Simeon king of the Amorites, and Simair king of Saba, Bislah king of Bela, Hiar king of Damascus, and Yaftar king of the deserts. When these kings, O my son Clement, saw Melchizedek king of Peace and priest of God, and heard his word, they honoured and applauded him and asked him to journey with them to their lands. He told them that he was not allowed to leave his place, in which God had appointed him to an office. Their unanimous counsel was that a city should be built for him at their expense, and that they should rule it. They built for him the Holy City, and delivered it to him, and Melchizedek called it Jerusalem. Then Maoalon king of Teman journeyed to Melchizedek when his fame reached him, and gave him noble and glorious presents. He honoured him when he saw him and heard his f. 124 b word. All kings and nations honoured him and called him the Father of Kings. Some people think that Melchizedek will not die, and bring as proof the saying of David the Prophet in his psalms, " Thou art a priest for ever after the figure of Melchizedek." David does not wish (to say) in this his saying that he will not die, and how can this be when he is a man ? But God honoured him and made him His priest, and in the Torah there is no mention of a beginning to his days. There fore David sang as he sang about him. Moses does not make mention of him in his book, for he was only relating the genealogy of the Fathers. But Shem the son of Noah has told us in the books of the Testaments that Melchizedek was the son of Malih, son of Arphaxad, son of Shem, son of Noah ; and his mother was Jozedek. In the hundredth year of Abraham there reigned in the East THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 41 a king called Karmos, he who built Shamshat, and Claudia (Aj^^JJI), and Careem, and Leouza. He had a son called Caran and three daughters ; the name of the one being Shamshout, and the other Harzea, and the other Leouza, and he called these cities by their names. When Peleg had reached fifty f. 125.1 years, Nimrod journeyed to the province of Mesopotamia, and built Nisibis, and Raha (Edessa), and Haran ; to every city he put a wall, and he called the wall of Haran by the name of Harteeb, the wife of Sem, priest of the beautiful mountains. The people of Haran made an image in the form of this Sem, and worshipped it. Ba alsameen fell in love with Nalkeez wife of Nimroda, and Nimroda fled before Ba alsameen ; on account of this the children of Israel wept over Nimroda and burnt the city of Haran in anger about him. When Sarah died, Abraham the famous (or J-JciJl, the Friend, i.e. of God) married a woman named Kentoura, daughter of Yaftour king of the deserts. When Isaac, son of Abraham, reached forty years, Eleazar his servant journeyed in search of her who was named Rebecca for Isaac. When Abraham reached one hundred and seventy years he died ; his sons Ishmael and Isaac buried him by the side of Sarah his wife. When Isaac reached sixty years, Rebecca his wife conceived Jacob and Esau. When the birth-pangs took f. 125 b hold of her, she went to Melchizedek ; he blessed her and prayed over her. He said to her, " God has already formed two men in thy womb, who shall be chiefs of two great nations. The elder of them shall be beneath the younger. Each of them shall hate his brother, and the elder shall serve a man of the race of the other. I am servant of that man, whose name shall be called the living God/ and he shall come up upon a branch of cursing because of those who rebel against him." When sixty years of Isaac s life had passed, he built a city which he called Ail, and in his sixty-fourth year Jericho was built by the hand of seven kings, the king of the Hittites, the king of the Amorites, the king of the Jebusites, the king of the Canaanites, the king of the Girgashites, the king of the Hivites and the king of the [Perizzites ?], and every one of them built G. F 42 KITAB AL-MAGALL. a wall to it. But the town which was called Masr (Egypt), the king of the Copts had built. Ishmael was the first to work f. 126 a with a hand-mill, and it was called the mill of the kingdom. After one hundred and thirty years of the life of Isaac, that is in the seventy-seventh year of Jacob, God blessed Jacob, and he received the blessings of Isaac, and the blessing of Esau his brother by deceit. He journeyed to the land of the East. While he was on his journey, behold, a deep sleep came upon him. He prepared below his head seven stones and slept upon them. In his sleep he saw a ladder of fire whose top was in heaven, and its bottom on the earth. On it Angels were descending from it and ascending, and he saw the Lord sitting on the top. When he awoke he said, " Doubtless this place is the house of God." He took the stones which were beneath his head and built them into an altar and anointed it with oil, and vowed there that he would give to God the tenth of all his goods as an offering. The power of this vision, O my son Clement, is not difficult to those who know, for it is a prophecy of the coming of our Lord the Christ. Verily the ladder which Jacob saw was a sign of the Crucifixion, and the Angels coming down from f. i26b Heaven [were] for the Gospel to Zacharia, and Mary, and the Magi and the shepherds. The place of the Lord s seat at the top of the ladder was like the descent of our God the Christ from Heaven for our salvation, and the place where Jacob saw it was a type of the Church, which is being interpreted, the House of God. The stones are a type of the altar, and their being anointed with oil [a type] of the union of Godhead with Manhood. The vow which he made of a tenth of his goods is a type of the Eucharist. Jacob journeyed from the place of the vision till he came to the town of his uncle Laban. He saw a well of water, at which three flocks of sheep were lying down ; over the mouth of the well was a great stone. Rachel, the daughter of Jacob s uncle, was standing there with the sheep. Jacob came near to the well, removed the stone from its mouth, and watered the sheep that were with Rachel. Then he approached Rachel and kissed her. Jacob s uncovering of the well was a type of Baptism, which was veiled from of old, and THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 43 uncovered in the latter [days]. That which the priest gives to those whom he baptizes in the water is in the name of the f. 127 a Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Know, O my son, that Jacob did not come forward to kiss Rachel until he had uncovered the well and watered her sheep from it. Likewise, I say that it is not permitted in the law of the Christ for any one to enter the Church till after baptism, for if he is baptized, he has become one of Christ s sheep. The prophet Moses said in his book that Jacob wrought with his uncle Laban seven years for Rachel, whom he loved of Laban s daughters, for she was at the height of beauty, but he gave him his ugly daughter. Like this was the story of Moses with the Jews whom God saved from the bondage of Pharaoh. On account of them he did not give the young girl, but he gave her who was old and faded. Verily the first girl whom he gave to Jacob had ugly eyes, and the second one was perfect in face and had beautiful eyes. f. 127 b The face of the first one was covered lest the children of Israel should look at its beauty ; the second one had her face uncovered, and had a bright, and shining and beautiful person ality. The girl with ugly eyes who was spouse of Jacob was the type of the people of his day whom he ruled ; in his time there were prophets, and saints and pure ones, and there was little sin in them. The faded old woman whom Moses describes, she is the people of the children of Israel which went astray in the worship of idols, and left the worship of God ; and the girl whose face was covered so that it was not possible for the children of Israel to look at her was the tribe that was estab lished on the holy mount, which did not mingle with the children of Israel, and did not look at them, and if they had looked at it (the tribe), verily they would have imitated its good works. The better and brighter girl is the tribe which received the Lord of the world, the Christ, and worshipped Him in His Godhead. He enlightened our hearts by His holiness. When Jacob had reached sixty-nine years, Reuben was born f. 128 a to him, then followed him his brethren whom God brought out of the loins of Jacob ; these were Simeon and Levi, Judah the ancestor of Mary, Issachar and Zebulun ; Joseph and Benjamin 44 KITAB AL-MAGALL. the sons of the beautiful Rachel ; Gad and Asher, sons of Zilpah ; Dan and Naphtali, sons of Bilhah the maid of Rachel. Two years after the emigration of Jacob, he returned to Isaac his father. He lived after that fully thirty-one years of Levi s life. When he reached one hundred and twenty years his father Isaac died. Twenty-three years afterwards he journeyed from Haran to the elevated land ; Joseph was sold during the lifetime of Isaac, and he was a companion to Jacob in his sorrow. After the sale of Joseph, Isaac died ; his sons Jacob and Esau buried him beside the grave of his father Abraham. After nine years Rebecca died, and was buried near the grave of Abraham. Judah married Hosha the Canaanitess ; Jacob was grieved at that because she was not of the children of Israel, and said to him, " By the God of Abraham and Isaac, do not mingle the seed of Canaan with f. 128 b us," and he did not accept it from him. He begat from her Er and Onan [Cod. Othen] and Shelah. Judah wedded his son Er with Tamar the daughter of Kedar, son of Levi. Er wrought the deed of the people of Sodom, and God punished him for his deed. God killed him in answer to the prayer of Jacob, and the seed of Canaan was not mingled with his seed. Then this Tamar disguised herself, and sat in the middle of the way ; Judah came together with her, not knowing that she was his daughter-in- law ; she conceived by him, and bare Pharez and Zarah. At this time Jacob and his children journeyed to Egypt, and stayed with Joseph for seventeen years. When he had completed [a hundred] and forty-seven years of life he died, Joseph that day being fifty- six years old. The wise physicians of Pharaoh embalmed him. After this Joseph removed his body and placed it beside the bodies of his father and of his grandfather Abraham. Pharez the son of Judah begat Hezron, and Hezron begat Aram, and Aram begat Aminadab, and Aminadab begat Nahson, who was the most cunning of the sons of Judah. And Aminadab wedded Eleazar the son of Aaron the priest to a girl, and from her he f. 1 29 a begat Phinehas the priest, who by his prayer took away death from the people, and whose was the deed with the javelin. Know that the priesthood was from Aminadab among the people of Israel, and from Nahson the kinghood came among them. Look, THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 45 O my son Clement, how from Judah came the priesthood and the kinghood among the children of Israel. Nahson begat a son, who is Salmon ; Salmon begat Boaz. When Boaz was old, he married Ruth the Moabitess ; in her was kinghood, for she was of the race of kings. She was of the children of Lot. God did not make Lot unclean for his cohabiting with his daughters, and did not attach blame to him, and did not depreciate his good deed in his support of his uncle Abraham in his exile, and his reception of the Angels in faith, but He put the king- hood into Ruth who was of his race, so that the Incarnation of our Lord the Christ was of the race of Abraham. Also [into] her, the wife of Solomon, son of David, by whom he begat. Solomon verily had six hundred free women and four hundred concubines, and he obtained no child from any of them, because God, may His name be praised ! wished that the seed of Canaan should not mingle with the seed of the chosen people from whom f. 12913 Jesus the Christ took flesh. The rest of the wives of Solomon were of the children of Canaan. Nevertheless Moses the Prophet of God related, for the responsible books, the chronicles of the children of Israel relate that Levi, when he entered Egypt with his father Jacob, begat there his son Amram the father of Moses. When Moses was born he was thrown out by his mother into the Egyptian Nile, and Sapphira the daughter of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, saved him from drowning and brought him up in her father s palace. When he grew up and had finished forty years, he killed Casoum the Egyptian, chief of the swordsmen of Pharaoh. He fled to Reuel to the priest of Midian for fear of Pharaoh, and that because Sapphira had died before this, and if she had been still there, why should Moses have been afraid of Pharaoh ? Moses married Zipporah daughter of Jethro, priest of Midian. She bare him two sons, these were Gershon and Eleazar, at the time of the birth of Joshua the son of Nun, and Moses age was fifty-two years. When he had completed eighty years, God spake to him from the thorn bush, and his tongue stammered out of fear for God, and he said, " O Lord, at the time when thou spakest to thy servant, his tongue stammer- f. 130 a ed." All his years were 120. He spent forty in Egypt, and 46 KITAB AL-MAGALL. forty in Midian, and he governed the children of Israel forty years in the wilderness. When he died, Joshua the son of Nun governed them thirty-one years. Then Chushan the Atheist governed them after him eight years. Then Othniel the son of Kenaz the brother of Caleb, for forty years. Then the Moabites enslaved the children of Israel for eighteen years. Then [God] prepared their deliverance from their 1 hand. Their government was presided over by Ehud the son of Gera for eighty years. In the twenty-sixth year of the reign of this Ehud, the fourth thousand [year] from the beginning was finished. Then after him the famous Jabin presided over their government for an interval of twenty years, then Deborah and Barak looked after it for forty years. Then the Midianites conquered them, and enslaved them for seven years, then God saved them by the hand of Gideon. He presided over their government for forty years ; then his son Abimelech for three f. i3ob years. Then Jufa (Tola) the son of Puah for twenty years, then a daughter of the Gileadite twenty-two years. Then the children of Ammon conquered the children of Israel and enslaved them for eighteen years, then God saved them by the hands of Jephthah, he who offered his daughter as a sacrifice before 1 God. And Ibzan governed them for six years, then after him Elon son of Zebulon for ten years. Then Abdon for eight years. Then the Philistines fought with the children of Israel and subdued them and enslaved them for forty years, and God saved them by the hands of Samson. He governed them for twenty years, and after him they remained for twelve years without a leader. Then there arose to rule them Eli the priest, and he governed them for forty years, then Samuel for twenty-two years. In his time the children of Israel rebelled against God, and set up Saul as king over them ; he was the first king among the children of Israel, and he governed them for forty years. In the days of Saul appeared the giant Goliath ; he drove out the children of Israel and killed their young men. Then God sent against him David the Prophet, and he killed him ; against Saul f. 131 a [He sent] the Philistines, and they killed him, because Saul left 1 Cod. "his." THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 47 off seeking help from God, and sought help from devils. David the son of Jesse reigned over the children of Israel for forty years. Then after him Solomon reigned over them and did many wonderful things ; amongst them his sending to the city of Ophir, and bringing out the gold from its mountains, and ships continued for thirty-six months carrying gold from its mountains. Also he built the city of Tadmor in the interior of the wilderness, and wrought in it many extraordinary things. When Solomon passed by Sabad, a building built by Kourhi and Abu Nigaf (they whom Nimrod had sent to Bila am the priest when he heard of his occupation with the stars, and he built there this altar to the Sun and a stone fort), Solomon built there also a city called the City of the Sun. Then Aradus, which is in the middle of the sea, was built at Solomon s com mand and they praised him yet more for his wisdom. There journeyed to him the Queen of Sheba and she was obedient to his religious worship. There came up to him at his command Hiram king of Tyre, and had a real love for him ; he had already been a friend to David before him. His reign was before the reign of David, and he remained to the last of King Zedekiah. Solomon took one thousand wives, as we said f. 131 b above about him; and they deteriorated his mind when he exceeded in his love to them, and they got the power to f. 132,1 mock at him, and it caused him to slide away from the worship of God ; he sacrificed to idols and worshipped them instead of the Lord. He died, after reigning for forty years, an idolater and an infidel. Then Hiram king of Tyre was seduced and forgot his humanity and disbelieved in God, and claimed divinity, and he said, " I sit in the heart of the seas like the sitting of a God " ; and news of him came to Nebuchadnezzar, and he journeyed to him till he killed him. In the chronicles of the Hebrews, O my son Clement, [we learn] that in the days of this Hiram appeared the purple dye, and this [was that] a shepherd and his sheep were on the sea-shore, and he saw a dog of his gnawing with its mouth something that came out of the sea, and its mouth was filled with its blood. He looked at the blood, and had never seen the like of it. He took some 48 KITAB AL-MAGALL. clean wool and wiped this blood with it ; with that he made a crown and put it upon his head. It had a brightness like the brightness of the sun or rays of fire. The news of it came to Hiram ; he sent for him and wondered greatly at the beauty of his dye. He assembled the dyers of his kingdom and gave them a commission for its like, and they were amazed at this, until some of the wise men of his time possessed themselves of the purple shell-fish. He made garments for himself with its blood, and he rejoiced over this with a great joy. Thou, O my son, and all the Greeks, disagree with the Hebrews in this narrative. After Solomon, Rehoboam his son reigned, and defiled the land by the worship of idols, by much whoredom in the city of f. 132 b Jerusalem, and by sacrificing to devils. In his day the kingdom of the house of David was divided, and became two parts. In his fifth year journeyed Shishak king of Egypt to Jerusalem, and took possession of all that was in the treasuries of the Lord s house and the treasuries of David and Solomon, the vessels of gold and silver, and he was strengthened by this in his power. He said to the Jews, " This is none of your earning ; it is some of what your fathers brought out of Egypt at the time of their flight." And Rehoboam the son of Solomon died an infidel, after he had reigned for seventeen years. Abia his son reigned after him, being twenty years old. He enslaved Jerusalem and destroyed it, and his mother Ma ka, the daughter of Abishalom, commended his deeds. He died after three years, and Asa reigned. He did right, and abolished the worship of the stars and the images, and whoredom from Jerusalem. He drove away his mother from his kingdom, because she committed adultery and built an altar to the idols. There came to him Azarah king of Hind 1 , and Asa put him to flight, and reigned for forty years, then he died. After him his son Jehoshaphat reigned, and he went in the way of his father in righteousness, but he loved the household of Ahab, and kept company with them. He built ships, and sent by them to the land of Ophir to bring gold from its mountains. God sunk his ships, and was angry with him and his mother 1 Probably this means Zerah king of Ethiopia. See 2 Chron. xiv. 9. THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 49 Sem daughter of Uriah, daughter of Shalom. When he had died, his son Joram reigned, being thirty-two years of age. He f. i33 a was disobedient, and sacrificed to devils, on account of his wife Aliah (Athaliah) daughter of Amsir (Omri) son of the sister of Ahab. He died an infidel. After him Ahaziah reigned, being twenty years of age. He was a shameless infidel. The Lord delivered him over to his enemies, and they killed him after one year of his reign. His mother took the kingdom to herself, and killed the kings sons, that thereby she might destroy the kingdom of the family of David. None were saved from her except Joash, for Jehosheba the daughter of Joram son of Jehoshaphat hid him. She increased adultery and infidelity in Jerusalem. She died after seven years, and the people of Jerusalem thought about who should reign over them, Jehoiada knew about that, and their choice fell upon none but Joash whom Jehoiada had hidden. He sent and brought [him] out to the house of the Lord ; the warriors completely armed surrounded him, and Jehoiada the priest seated him upon the throne of the family of David his father, he being seven years of age. His mother s name was Zibiah of the family of Sheba. f. 134 a Jehoiada the priest covenanted with him that he should do righteousness before the Lord. When Jehoiada the priest died, Joash forgot his covenants, and did not know rightly what was administered from the throne of the family of David, nor the shedding of innocent blood. He died after he had reigned for forty years. After him his son reigned, and his mother s name was Jehoaddan. He killed every one who had killed any one of his household, but spared their sons, for in this he followed the law of the Lord. He died after he had reigned for twenty-nine years, and his son Azariah reigned after him, being twenty 1 years old. His mother s name was Jecholiah. He did right before the Lord, save that he was bold about the priest hood, for which reason he became a leper, and God weakened the power of Isaiah the prophet from prophecy until this Azariah died, because he did not reprove him for his boldness about the priesthood. The duration of his reign was fifty-two 1 Bezold has " nineteen," in accordance with Scripture. G. G 50 KITAB AL-MAGALL. years, and Jotham his son reigned after him, being twenty-five years of age, and his mother s name was Jerusha the daughter of Dafma (Zadok). He did right, and the duration of his reign f. i34b was sixteen years. After him his son Ahaz reigned, being twenty years of age ; his mother s name was Jahkebez the daughter of Levi. He did wickedly, and sacrificed to devils and idols. God was angry with him, and Tiglath son of Cardak, king of Assyria, came against him, and besieged him. Ahaz wrote him self down his vassal, and delivered Jerusalem up to the Assyrians, and he carried all the gold and silver that was in the temple of God to Assyria the regions of Tiglath. In his time the children of Israel were led captive, and went down to Babylon. The king of Assyria sent instead Babylonians to the land of Judah to dwell in it ; and they complained of what befel them to the king of Assyria, and he sent to them Urijah one of the priests of the children of Israel that he might teach them the law of the Lord. When they knew it, the lions ceased from them, and went to the land of Babylon and to Samaria. When he (Ahaz) had com pleted sixteen years he died, and his son Hezekiah reigned after him, being twenty-five years old, and his mother s name was Ahi (Abi) the daughter of Zechariah. He did right and broke the idols, and caused the sacrifices to cease, and cut up the serpent that Moses had made in the wilderness of the wandering (Tih), because the children of Israel were seduced in their worship of f. 1 35 a it. In the fourth year of his reign, Shalmanezer king of Assyria came to Jerusalem, and took captive the Israelites who were in it, and drove them away to a place beyond Babylon named Media. In the twenty-sixth year journeyed Sennacherib king of the province to the cities of Judah, and took captive those whom he found in them and their villages excepting Jerusalem. Verily it was saved by the prayer and cries of king Hezekiah. When Hezekiah was ill with his death-sickness, he grieved and wept because he had no son to reign after him ; he prayed before the Lord, and said, " Lord, have mercy on Thy servant, and do not let him die without offspring ; let not the kingdom fail from the house of David, nor the blessings cease which have come on the tribes in my days." The Lord answered him, and told him that THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 51 He had added to his life fifteen years ; he recovered ; a son was born to him, and he called him Manasseh. When twenty- six years of his reign were finished, and he was rejoicing in his son, he died. His son reigned after him, being twelve years old ; his mother s name was Hephzibah. He did wickedly, and his infidelity surpassed all the infidel kings that were before him in evil-doing. He built an altar to idols, and sacrificed to them ; he defiled Jerusalem with corruption, and the worship of idols, f. i35b He took Isaiah the prophet, and they sawed him with a wooden saw from the middle of his head to between his feet, because he had reproved him for his wicked deeds. Isaiah s age that day was one hundred and twenty years, he began to prophesy when he was ninety years old. Then Manasseh repented about that, and turned to his Lord ; he put on sackcloth, and imposed a fast upon himself [all] the days of his life. God accepted his repent ance and he died. His son Amon reigned after him, being that day twenty-two years of age ; his mother s name was Musalmath the daughter of Hasoun. He did wicked deeds before the Lord, and burned his children in the fire. He reigned twelve years and he died. After him his son Josiah reigned, being sixty- eight years of age ; his mother s name was Arnea, daughter of Azariah son of Tarfeeb. He kept righteously the feast of the Passover, a feast such as the children of Israel had never kept since the time of the Prophet Moses; he abolished the sacrifices to the images, broke the idols, sawed them with saws, killed their worshippers, and burnt in the fire the bones of the prophets of the Honoured One. He cleansed Jerusalem from defilements. None like him reigned over the Jews before him nor after him. f. 136 a He remained there for thirty years, but Pharaoh king of Egypt killed him. After him his son Jehoahaz reigned, being twenty- two years of age ; his mother s name was Hamtoul the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. Not more than three months of his reign had passed when Pharaoh the lame bound him, made him fast with chains, and carried him to Egypt, and he died there. After him his brother Jehoiakim reigned, being twenty-five years of age ; his mother s name was Zobeed, daughter of Yerkuiah of the town of Al-Ramah. In the third year of his 52 KITAB AL-MAGALL. reign Nebuchadnezzar approached Jerusalem, reigned over it, and made him his vassal for three years. He rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar, and death overtook him. His son Jehoiachin reigned after him, being eighteen years of age ; his mother s name was Tahseeb the daughter of Lutanan of the people of Jerusalem. Nebuchadnezzar journeyed a second time to Jeru salem, bound him after three months of his reign, and carried him and his officers and the armies of his soldiers to Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar in his first attack had bound the wife of Jehoiakim and other wives of the grandees and nobles of Jeru- f. 1365 salem, and carried them to Babylon. The wife of Jehoiakim was pregnant that day, and in the way she gave birth to Daniel. In the Captivity were also Hananiah, Azariah, and Mishael, sons of Johanan. The reason of this Captivity was that Jehoiachin had made a truce with Nebuchadnezzar, then they betrayed one another. When Johanan died, Zedekiah the uncle of Jehoiakim reigned after him, being twenty-one years of age ; the seat of all the kings of the children of Israel was Jerusalem ; the name of Zedekiah s mother was Hamtoul ; he was the last of the kings of the children of Israel. After eleven years of his reign, Nebu chadnezzar journeyed for the third time to the West, to pacify its cities, and the cities of the Euphrates, and of the Great Sea. He made his way through the islands of the sea, and took captive their people, he laid Tyre waste, and smote it with fire. He killed Hiram its king as we have already said. He en tered Egypt to seek those of the children of Israel who had fled, and killed its Pharaoh. He returned by sea to Jerusalem, and was f. 1 37 a victorious there a second time. He bound Zedekiah, killed his sons Jerbala and Rahmut, and carried him blind and fettered with chains to Babylon. This was a punishment from God to him for his deed that he did to the prophet Jeremiah when he threw him into a miry well. Nebuchadnezzar appointed Jozadan (Nebuzaradan) the captain of his prison in Jerusalem until he had laid waste its wall, and burned the temple of the Lord which Solomon had built in it. He demolished the rest of the dwellings of Jerusalem, carried all the tools that he found of iron and brass, and the raiment which belonged to the house THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 53 of the Lord to Babylon. Between Simeon the High Priest of Jerusalem and Jozadan captain of the prison to Nebuchadnezzar there was love and friendship. He asked if he would give him the old writings; he did so, and Simeon carried them with him, being among the crowd of the Captivity. He saw a well in his way among the borders of the West; he laid the writings in it, and put with them a bronze vase, filled with glowing coals, and in it sweet smelling incense ; he covered up this well, and went to Babylon. The devastation of Jerusalem was completed, and it became a waste. There was not one person in it, nor f. 137!) even a building save the tomb of the prophet Jeremiah. Jeremiah in his lifetime had dwelt in a place called Samaria ; he commanded a man named Uriah that he should be buried in Jerusalem, and he did it. It was not known that this place was the grave of Jeremiah except at the devastation of Jerusalem. Now for the genealogies. The Syrians say that no one looked after them after the last devastation of Jerusalem, except among the tribe of the Philistines, and no one looked after the genealogy of the people among whom the children of Israel married, nor from whence was the beginning of the priesthood. Jehoiachin did not cease to be bound in the land of Babylon, and shut up in prison for thirty-seven years. Meanwhile there was born to Mardul a son named Mardahi, and the king let Jehoiachin out of the prison, and married him to Helmuth the daughter of Eliakim. By him she gave birth in the land of Babylon to a son, who was called Salathiel. Then he married another who was called Melkat the daughter of Ezra the teacher, and had no child by her in Babylon. At that time Cyrus reigned in Babylon. He married Masahet the sister of f. 138 a Zerubabel a nobleman of the Jews, according to the custom of Persia ; he let her rule his affairs ; she begged him to restore the children of Israel to Jerusalem, and he did this to its place where it had been before him. He commanded a herald to pro claim, that there should not remain one of the children of Israel, who should not present himself to Zerubabel his brother-in-law. When they were gathered together, he commanded him to take them to Jerusalem and that they should build it. The children 54 KITAB AL-MAGALL. of Israel returned to Jerusalem in the second year of the reign of Cyrus the Persian. At that time was completed the fifth thousand from the beginning. The children of Israel after their return to Jerusalem remained without a teacher to teach them the law of the Lord or any writings of the prophets. When Ezra saw this, he went to the well in which the Law had been put, uncovered it, and found the vase full of fire and incense, and he found the writings faded, there was no means to get them. God revealed to him that he should receive of them from His hands ; he succeeded, and threw it on his mouth once, and twice and thrice, and God put into it the power of the spirit of prophecy; he kept all the writings, and that fire which was in the vase in the well was from the fire of Paradise f. 138 b which was in the house of the Lord. Zerubabel journeyed to Jerusalem as king over it. By Joshua son of Jozadak the High Priest and by Ezra, the writing of the Law and the Books of the Prophets were completed. After their return, the children of Israel kept the feast of the Passover, and all the feasts that they celebrated were three. The first was the feast of Moses in Egypt, the second the feast of Josiah, and the third after their return from Babylon in the days of Cyrus the Persian. The number of the years of the Captivity which Jeremiah the prophet mentions are seventy years. The children of Israel built the temple of the Lord in Jerusalem, and its building was finished by the hands of Zerubabel and Joshua the son of Jozadak the priest, and Ezra the scribe of the Law, in six and forty years. When the books of the genealogies were destroyed, the fathers were in despair about genealogy, and there was despair about it after them, until their accuracy was guaranteed by the secret books of the Hebrews. I relate this to thee, my son Clement, that when Zerubabel journeyed to Jerusalem, he married Malka the daughter of Ezra the teacher, and by her he begat a son called Abiud. She had already been the wife of Jehoiachin before him. When Abiud grew up, he married f. 139 a Ragib, daughter of Joshua the son of Jozadak the priest. By her he begat a son called Jehoiachim. Jehoiachim married a wife, and begat a son by her. When he grew up, he married BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 55 Alfcet, daughter of Hesron, and by her he begat Zaclok. Zadok married Felbin the daughter of Rahab, and by her he begat Atin. Atin married Hesheeb, daughter of Jula, and by her he begat Tur (Eliud). Tur (Eliud) married Salsin, daughter of Hasoul, and by her he begat Eleazar. Eleazar married Habeeth, daughter of Malih, and by her he begat Manar (Matthan). Manar (Matthan) married Seerab, daughter of Phinehas, and by her he begat two sons in [one] womb. One of them was Jacob, who was called by two names, Joachim son of Yartah. Jacob married Had the daughter of Eleazar, and by her he begat Joseph. Joachim married Hannah, daughter of Ka rdal, and by her he begat Mary, by whom our Lord the Christ was incarnate. On account of our knowledge, O my son Clement, about the genealogy of the Lady Mary, and the genealogies of her ancestors, the Jews begin by assertions about us that we do not understand the genealogies, and we do not know them ; and they venture to mock the mother of Light, the Lady Mary, the Virgin, and they attribute her genealogy to fornication, because they do not know that it was the Holy f. 139 b Ghost who came down on us, a company of twelve in the upper room of Zion, who taught us all that we need to know about the genealogies and the rest of the mysteries, as He had taught Azariah (Ezra) the teacher all the Law, so that he kept it and renewed it. Let the mouths of the cursed Jews now be stopped, and let them know assuredly that Mary the pure was of the race of Judah, also of the race of David, also of the race of Abraham; that they have nothing against the genealogies which the Holy Ghost taught us, and there is not a book left in their hands from which they can make a stand against genealogy, since their books have been burnt three times ; the first time in the days of Antiochus, who defiled the temple of the Lord, and commanded sacrifices to idols; the second by Herod at the time of the devastation of Jerusalem ; and the third, hear, O blessed son, what the Holy Ghost has revealed to me ; about the sixty-three fathers, whose names are registered, and how the pedigree came about to the tribe from which was incarnate our God the Christ. 56 KITAB AL-MAGALL. The beginning of genealogies. Adam begat Seth. Seth married Aclima, sister of Abel, f. 140 a and by her begat Enos. Enos married a woman called Hita, daughter of Mahmouma of the sons of Har son of Seth, and by her begat Cainan. Cainan married Karith, daughter of Kersham son of Maheal, and by her begat Mahlaleel. Mah- laleel married Teshabfatir, daughter of Enos, and by her begat Jared. Jared married Zebeeda, daughter of Kargilan son of Cainan, and by her begat Enoch. Enoch married Jardakin, daughter of Terbah son of Mahlaleel, and by her begat Me thuselah. Methuselah married Rahoub, daughter of Serkeen son of Enoch, and by her begat Lamech. Lamech married Kifar, daughter of Jutab son of Methuselah, and by her begat Noah. Noah married Haikal, daughter of Mashamos son of Enoch, and by her begat Sem. Sem married Leah, daughter of Nasih, and by her begat Arphaxad. Arphaxad married Fardou, daughter of Salweh son of Japhet, and by her begat Salah. Salah married Muldath, daughter of Kahin son of Sem, and by her begat Obed (Eber). Obed (Eber) married Rasdah sister of Melchisedek, daughter of Malih son of Arphaxad, and by her begat Peleg. Peleg married Hadeeb, daughter of Hamlah, and by her begat Jareu (Reu). Jareu (Reu) married Tanaa b, daughter of Obed (Eber). and by her begat Serug. f. 140 b Serug married Feel, and by her begat Nahor. Nahor married a wife, A akris daughter of Reu, and by her begat Tarah. Tarah married two wives, one of them Juta, and the other Salmat, by Juta he begat Abraham and by Salmat Sarah. Abraham married Sarah, daughter of this Salmat his father s wife, and by her begat Isaac. Isaac married a wife called Rebecca, daughter of Fathael, and by her begat Jacob. Jacob married Leah, daughter of Laban, and by her begat Judah. Judah begat Pharez by Tamar. Pharez son of Judah married Afdeeb, daughter of Levi, and by her begat Hesron. Hesron married Farteeb, daughter of Zebulon, and by her begat Aram. Aram married Safuza, daughter of Judah, and by her begat Aminadab. Aminadab married Baruma, daughter of Hesron, and by her begat Nahshon. Nahshon married Aram, daughter THE BOOK OF THE ROLLS. 57 of Adam, and by her begat Salmon. Salmon married Saleeb (Rahab), daughter of Aminadab, and by her begat Boaz. Boaz married Aroof (Ruth), daughter of Lot, and by her begat Obcd. Obed married Nefut, daughter of Shela, and by her begat Asse (Jesse). Asse (Jesse) married Amrat, daughter of Othan, and by her begat David. David married Balseba (Bathsheba), daughter of Joutan son of Shela, and by her begat Solomon. Solomon married Naama, daughter of Maheel, and by her begat Reho- f. 141 a boam : who had none like him. Rehoboam married Naheer, daughter of Al, and by her begat Abia. Abia married Maachah the daughter of Abishalom, and by her begat Asa. Asa married Auzbah the daughter of Shalih, and by her begat Jehoshaphat. Jehoshaphat married Na mna the daughter of Amon, and by her begat Jorain. Joram married Tala ia, daughter of Amoi, and by her begat Ahaz. Ahaz married Suma the daughter of Balhi, and by her begat Amaziah. Amaziah married Kama, daughter of Caram, and by her begat Uzziah. Uzziah married Jerousa, daughter of Zadok, and by her begat Jeream (Jotham). Jeream (Jotham) married Jahfat, daughter of Hani, and by her begat Ahaz. Ahaz married Ahir, daughter of Zachariah, and by her begat Hezekiah. Hezekiah married Hephzibah, daughter of Jarmoun, and by her begat Manasseh. Manasseh married Artida, daughter of Azuriah, and by her begat Aman. A man married Tarib, daughter of Murka, and by her begat Josiah. Josiah married Hamtoul, daughter of Armeed (Jeremiah), and by her begat Jehoahaz. Jehoahaz married a woman and had no sons by her. Jehoiakim reigned after the death of his brother, and married a woman called Carteem, daughter of Haluta, and by her begat Salaeel (Salathiel). Salaeel (Salathiel) married Hamtat, daughter of Eliakim, and by her begat Zeru- f Mi b babel. Zerubabel married Malkut, daughter of Ezra, and by her begat Armeed (Abiud). Armeed (Abiud) married Awarkeeth, daughter of Zadok, and by her begat Jachim. Jachim married Hali, daughter of Zurniem, and by her begat A zor. A zor married Afi, daughter of Hasor, and by her begat Sadoc. Sadoc married Faltir, daughter of Dorteeb, and by her begat Asham Joteed. Joteed Asham married Hasgab, daughter of Jula, and by her G. H 58 KITAB AL-MAGALL. begat Liud (Eliud). Liud (Eliud) married Shabshetin, daughter of Hubaballia, and by her begat Eleazar. Eleazar married Hanbeth. daughter of Jula, and by her begat Mathan. Mathan married Seerab, daughter of Phinehas, and by her begat Jacob. Jacob married Harteeb, daughter of Eleazar, and by her begat Joachim, known as Jonahir. Joachim married Hannah, and returned to the house of Eleazar. And after sixty years of his marriage to her, he begat by her Mary the Virgin, her by whom the Christ became incarnate. Joseph the Carpenter was the son of her [paternal] uncle Laha, and therefore his vote did not fall against her when Ram, priest of the children of Israel, delivered her to a man who should be surety for her. It was in the hidden work of God (may He be glorious and exalted !) and in the mystery of His knowledge that there was no escape from the Jews reproaching Mary the pure on account of her bearing the Christ. To our Master and our God and our Lord Jesus the Christ be praise and power and greatness and dignity and worship with the Father and the Holy Ghost from now unto all time and throughout all ages. Amen. APHIKIA. IN the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy synaque Ghost, the one God, we begin to transcribe the story of Aphikia 179, wife of Jesus the son of Sirach, vizier of King Solomon, the l son of David, King of the children of Israel. It is said : Solomon the wise heard about Aphikia wife of Jesus the son of Sirach, his treasurer and vizier, that there was not among the women of the children of Israel nor in all Jeru salem one like her, so perfect in body and wise in mind. So he wished to see her and talk with her that he might know the utmost of her wisdom. So he sent to her the eunuch his chan cellor, saying to her, " I long to meet with thee and talk with thee." When the eunuch went to her and told her the saying of the King, her heart was pained and she sobbed, and said to the Chief, " Say to my lord the King, Thy wisdom has filled the whole world, and how has it given place to this idea, that it should come into thy heart, thou whose teaching turneth the fool into a wise man. Yet if it be thy will, I will acquiesce in this unworthy idea ; but let it not be carried out while my husband is in this city, lest there be any scandal." When the f. i26b eunuch related this saying in the ears of the King, he wondered the more, and begged earnestly to meet with her. He talked with Jesus her husband, saying, " O my son, we have urgent business with the King of Mosul, and I do not see a man suit able to meet with him like thyself." And Jesus said, " May my lord the King live ! according to what he says so be it." And he wrote the letters for him, and made him ride with honour like the son of kings. He sent with him troops and 60 APHIKIA. gifts, and he took his journey. Then King Solomon com manded the eunuch, saying to him, " Go to Aphikia wife of Jesus the son of Sirach, and say to her, Be ready for my Sovereign s reception in thy dwelling. " The eunuch went to her with the saying of the King. And Aphikia said to the Chief, " Tell my lord the King, saying, * Is a humble handmaid worthy f. 127 a of this great honour that her Sovereign should walk and come to her ? I beg him not to taste any food until he comes and eats in the abode of his servant. " And the eunuch went away from her to the King and told him of this saying. But Aphikia, when the eunuch had gone, called her cook and said to him, " Ask for all thou requirest, fowls, fish and mutton. Cook me from them forty kinds with one taste and let them be different and various in kind." When the time came, she spread for the King in the chamber of her husband Jesus the son of Sirach, according to the honour of the king. The evening had come, even the end of a part of the night ; King Solomon came to her abode, and people went before him with lanterns, and they brought him in to the chamber in which they had spread for him. He was amazed at what he saw. Then Aphikia came up, she and her maidens, and they bowed themselves down to f. 127 b the earth before the King, and they sat behind the door of the chamber in which it had been spread for the King. Then she commanded that the table should be brought up, and upon it were all kinds of bread. Then she commanded that they should present the kinds on the top. The King ate with gusto on account of the purity of the meats of which he was eating, and taking account. He remained contemplating the kinds and wondered at their variety from one another in resem blance. When he had tasted these kinds which were put there, he found that they had all one taste. He ate, and was satisfied, and raised his hand. Then they brought forward many kinds more, and put them before him. He merely tasted them without eating of them. He knew certainly that this was- a parable of wisdom. Then he said, " Thy favours are acceptable, O God of Israel ! I would know, O Aphikia ! the meaning of f. 128 a what thou commandest me by thy foods." And Aphikia said, APIJIKIA. 6l " O my lord the King ! thy wisdom is sufficient for thee and for the whole world. Of what worth is the light of a candle placed before the sun ? And what is the measure of thy handmaid that she should speak before the lord the King? The soul from God moves in her body. To-day she hides her corruption and her fetidness, and to-morrow she will be thrown into a grave beyond the place of the fields in which she appears, and she will be a naked soul, with a soul that never dies." Then said Solomon, " Blessed be the day when they gave thee birth into the world since thou hast filled it with wisdom." Then he arose, wondering at what he had seen and heard from this chaste woman. When he was outside the door of the room, behold, a ruby got detached from his crown between the lintels of the door, without any one seeing it till the return of Jesus from the journey. He saw it lying, and he took it and examined f. 128 b it in his hand and he recognized it. He knew for certain that the King had entered into his chamber, and he was grieved in his heart and did not speak, nor did he return to his wife another time in conjugal intercourse till the end of two years, nor inquire of her, that she might appease him. She also did not wish to say to him, "Why art thou estranged from me?" saying in her heart that her husband must not say in his heart, "This one is longing for reunion." And after two years her mother gazed in her face, and saw it, and behold, it was altered and changed. She looked at her limbs, and saw in them great weakness. And she said, " O my beloved daughter, what gives thee pain ? for thou art very weak." She took her by the hand, and went with her to a quiet place in the house, and told her all that had happened, and that she was grieved in her heart on account of her husband more than [on account of] the weakness f. 129 a that had come on her body. Her mother arose at once and went to Solomon, and met with him in a palace alone in a retired spot, for she was in much honour with him. She said, " O my lord the King, live for ever ! I had a pleasant vineyard, where I could enjoy life, by God ! in the first place, and be comforted by it ; I gave it over to a vine-dresser to cultivate it. He waited to give me fruit for a time, then also to himself. 62 APHIKIA. I trusted in regard to my vineyard to this vine-dresser that he should not neglect to improve my vineyard. I did not visit it for two years. I walked to-day till I reached it, and I found it waste, going to ruin. I implore thee, O my lord the King, to judge between me and this vine-dresser, for he has spoiled a noble vineyard." The King said to her, " What has happened to thee about my neglect of thy vineyard until this day ? " for he knew the object of her speaking and the meaning of her wisdom. And f. 129 b he commanded them to call Jesus up to his presence, and made him sit by his side with his mother-in-law. And he said to her, " All that thou hast said, repeat it to us once again according to what thou didst tell me," and she was silent. Then Solomon said, " What sayest thou ? " And he said, " All that she said is true, except that I did not weary of doing my best for the cultivation of this vineyard until the day that my lord the King sent me to Damascus. But on my return, O King, to my vine yard, as I went up to the interior of the vineyard looking [about], behold, there was a trace of the steps of a great lion within the threshold. And I feared, and turned back, lest the lion should destroy me." Then King Solomon said to him, " Listen to me, that I may speak unto thee, By the truth of the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, of Moses and Aaron, the great and high God who f 1 3 a has appeared to us, He who hears us when we swear by Him, because that lion did not aim at doing anything beyond conversation in speech suitable to wisdom, a gain to all souls who should hear it, now, O my son ! rise with joy and a pure heart ; enter into thy vineyard and cultivate it in honour, for its honour is great before the Lord of Hosts." Then Jesus rose at once, and his mother-in-law, and entered his abode and sat with Aphikia his wife and inquired of her, and she informed him of what had happened, and he glorified the Lord God of the name of Israel. By the help of God, the story of Aphikia wife of Jesus the son of Sirach, vizier of Solomon the son of David, is finished and completed. APHIKIA. 63 Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, one true God. To Him be glory, and on us His mercies for ever. It was Alfarag who copied the book of Jesus the son of f. 130 b Sirach, and the story of his wife Aphikia, on Friday at the sixth hour, the fifth Friday of the holy fast, twenty-six days having passed of the month of Adar, the blessed, the second day of the feast of the Gospel, in the year 1885 of the Greeks, and this by the hand of the poor hoarse preacher, rich in sins, poor in good things, unlucky in works pleasing to God, by name a priest, by deed a robbing wolf, entitled by two names, Nekoula son of David of the village of Kafr Houra, in the district of Tarablus. This is by command of the Priest, Joseph the Syrian, the Jacobite, of Damascus, surnamed " Golden," God be gracious to him for it ! and guide him in the work of ex position and of its meanings, and give him the reward of his labour with us, as He prescribed by His holy mouth, one thirty-fold, sixty-fold and a hundred-fold, and cause him to dwell eternally in the pleasant gardens, in the bosoms of the fathers, Abraham, Isaac., and Jacob, and the rest of the saints. Amen. Amen. Amen. It was written in the fortress Damascus, in the house of the [above] mentioned father, the priest Joseph.

Clement was the disciple of Peter (Kefa) and his successor. (Clement’s journal, in which Peter’s travels is the subject, can be found at www.apostolia.us). Traditionally known as The Second Letter of Clement to the Corinthians, this manuscript is neither a letter nor by Clement. It is a sermon on the subject of the believer’s walk of righteousness, and the earliest to use New Testament (or proto-New Testament) citations as though they were Scripture. In addition, there are citations from works that did not make the cut of the canonical rule, including (perhaps) The Gospel of Thomas and The Gospel of the Egyptians. This sermon is dated by scholars to the late 1st century; some date it as early as 70 AD, since one of the manuscripts was bound in a codex with Clement to the Corinthians, The Epistle of Barnabas, and The Teaching of the Twelve (Didaché). – jhs
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Italicized words from Manuscript B. Words within curly brackets {} are added for clarity. Words in < > are lacunae supplied by the authors. Words in bold have been emphasized by the editor. This is a modified version of the texts as found in The Dead Sea Scrolls - A New Translation, by Wise, Abegg & Cook (1996).
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[ ] The Judge of the living and the dead : Cf. Acts 10:43, 1 Pet. 4:5.
[ ] What praise, then, will we give Him, or what return Cf. Ps. 116:12
[ ] For He called us when we were not: Cf. Hos. 2:23; Rom.4:17, 9:25.
[ ] Rejoice, you barren who bear not Isa.54:1; Gal. 4:27.
[ ] I came not to call the righteous, but sinners: Cf. Mk. 2:7, The earliest NT quote.
[ ] Desire to save the things that were perishing : Cf. Matt. 18:11; Luke 19:10.
[ ] Whoever will confess Me before men: Cf. Mk. 12:30; Matt. 10:32.
[ ] But with all our heart and all our mind. Cf. Matt. 12:37.
[ ] By honoring Him … with our heart and our mind: Isa. 29:13; Mk. 7:6.
[ ] Not everyone who says to Me, Master, Master: Matt. 7:21, loosely quoted.
[ ] Even though you were gathered together to Me in My very bosom: The Gos. Eg.
[ ] I do not know where you come from: Cf. Matt. 7: 23, Luke 13:27.
[ ] You will be as lambs in the midst of wolves: Matt. 10:16.
[ ] Kefa = Simon Peter; but no such conversation is recorded in Scripture.
[ ] The lambs have no cause after they are dead to fear the wolves: Gos.Eg.
[ ] Soul and body to cast them into the fiery Gehenna: Cf. Matt. 10:28; Luke 12:4.
[ ] No servant can serve two masters: Matt. 6:24; Luke 16:13.
[ ] If a man gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?: Matt. 16:26; Mk. 8:36.
[ ] They would not deliver their children in captivity: Ezek.14:14, 20.
[ ] For of those who do not preserve the seal (baptism): Cf. Eph. 1:13; Acts 19: 6.
[ ] And they will be a spectacle to all flesh: Isa.66: 24. Cf. Mk. 9:48.
[ ] Let us practice repentance = confessing sins then turning back to the Torah.
[ ] Faithful in that which is least, is faithful in much: Cf. Luke 16:10-12.
[ ] Keep the flesh set-apart and the seal undefiled: an unknown apocryphal work.
[ ] My brothers who do the will of My Father Matt. 12:50; Mk. 3:35; Luke 8:21.
[ ] Afterwards will they receive good things. Cf. 1 Clem. 23:3.
[ ] He is faithful who has promised: Cf. Heb. 10:23.
[ ] That ear has not heard, nor eye seen: 1 Cor. 2:9.
[ ] When two will be one, without as that which is within: Thomas 22b, Gos. Eg.
[ ] The men who are without, by our righteousness, that the Name: Cf. Acts 5:41.
[ ] My name is blasphemed among all the Gentiles: Isa. 52:5.
[ ] Woe to him … My name is blasphemed Cf. Ezek.6:20-23.
[ ] There is thanks to you, if you love your enemies: Luke 6:27,32, Matt. 5:44,46.
[ ] The spiritual Kahal, created before the sun and moon: Cf. Ps.72. (LXX.71):5,17.
[ ] My house was made a den of robbers: Jer. 7:11. Cf. Matt. 12:13; Mark 11:17.
[ ] The Living Kahal is the body of the Anointed One: Cf. Eph. 1:23 etc.
[ ] Elohim made man, male and female: Gen. 1:27; Cf. Eph. 5:31-33.
[ ] The seferot (books) and the shlichim (apostles); the Kahal is from the first.
[ ] Ruach haQodesh = Set-apart Spirit (ie Holy Spirit).
[ ] No one corrupts the copy will partake the original: Cf. Heb.9:24; 1 Pet. 3:21.
[ ] Not one can proclaim what the Master has prepared for his bacharim: Cor. 2:9
[ ] Awandering and perishing soul that it may be saved. Cf. Jas. 5:19, 20
[ ] I will say, Lo, I am here: Isa. 58:9, LXX. Rom 7:8,11. Cf. Mal.4:1.
[ ] The earth will be as lead melting on the fire: Cf. Isa. 34:4, and 2 Pet.3:7,10.
[ ] Fasting is better than prayer, but almsgiving is better than both: Cf. Tobit12:8, 9
[ ] Charity covers a multitude of sins 1 Pet. 4:8. Cf. Prov. 10:12; Jas. 5:20.
[ ] For alms-giving lightens the burden of sin Cf. Sirach. 3:30.
[ ] Overseers = presbyters, mebacharim = chosen leaders.
[ ] Let us not be dragged away by worldly lusts, but coming: Cf. Heb. 10:1 22.
[ ] Let us advance in the Torah, that all being like-minded 2 Cor. 13:11; Phil. 2:2.
[ ] Gather all the nations, tribes, and tongues: Isa. 66:18. Cf. Dan. 3:7. Acts 1:14ff.
[ ] When they see the world government: Cf. 1 Pet. 4:4, 12.
[ ] Woe unto us since you are the one: Cf. John 8:24.
[ ] They will be for a spectacle unto all flesh: Isa. 66:24.
[ ] For I being an utter sinner: Cf. Didache 5:2, Ap. Cons. 7:18, and Barnabas 20.
[ ] In the midst of the devil’s engines, Cf. Ignat., Rom., 4, (teeth of beasts).
[ ] So, brothers and sisters Cf. Barnabas 1:1, “Sons and daughters.”
[ ] I now read to you my entreaty: Cf. 1 Tim.2:1,4:5.
[ ] We are “darkened in our understanding: Cf. Eph. 4:18.
[ ] To the only Elohim invisible: 1 Tim.1:17.
[ ] And Prince of Incorruption to us Acts 3:15, v. 31; Cf. Heb. 2:10.
[ ] Amein: The doxology indicates the early custom of closing a sermon.
Chap. I.—We Should Think Highly of the Anointed One.
Brothers, it is fitting that you should think as highly of Yahshua the Anointed as of YHWH as the Judge of the living and the dead.[2] And it does not become us to think lightly of our salvation; for if we think little of Him, we will only hope to obtain little from Him. And those of us who hear carelessly of these things, as if they were of small importance, commit sin, not knowing from where we have been called, and by whom, and to what place, and how much Yahshua the Anointed submitted to suffer for our sakes. What return, then, will we make to Him? or what of our fruit will be worthy of that which He has given to us? For, indeed, how great are the benefits that we owe Him! He has graciously given us light; as a Father, He has called us sons; He has saved us when we were ready to perish. What praise, then, will we give Him, or what return will we make for the things that we have received?[3] We were deficient in understanding, worshipping stones and wood, and gold, and silver, and brass, the works of men’s hand; and our whole life was nothing else than death. Involved in blindness, and with such darkness before our eyes, we have received sight, and by His will have laid aside that cloud by which we were enveloped. For He had compassion on us, and mercifully saved us, observing the many errors in which we were entangled, as well as the destruction to which we were exposed, and that we had no hope of salvation except it came to us from Him. For He called us when we were not,[4] and willed that out of nothing we should attain a real existence.
Chap. II.—The Kahal, Formerly a Barren Tree, is Now Fruitful.[5]
As the prophet has admonished us, “Rejoice, you barren who bear not; break forth and cry, you who travail not; for she who is desolate has many more children than she who has a husband.”[6] In that He said, “Rejoice, you barren who bear not,” He referred to us, for our Kahal was barren before children were given to her. But when He said, “Cry out, you who travails not,” He means this, that we should sincerely offer up our prayers to Elohim, and should not, like women in travail, show signs of weakness. And in that He said, “For she who is desolate has many more children than she who has a husband,” He means that our people seemed to be outcast from Elohim, but now, through believing, have become more numerous than those who are reckoned to possess Elohim. And another Scripture says, “I came not to call the righteous, but sinners.”[7] This means that those who are perishing must be saved. For it is indeed a great and admirable thing to establish, not the things that are standing, but the ones that are falling. Thus also did the Anointed One desire to save the things that were perishing,[8] and has saved many by coming and calling us when we were hastening to destruction.
Chap. III.—The Duty of Confessing the Anointed One.
Since, then, He has displayed such great mercy towards us, and especially in this respect, that we who are living would not offer sacrifices to dead gods, or pay them homage, but would through Him attain to the knowledge of the true Father. How else will we show that we do indeed know Him except by not denying the One[9] through whom this knowledge has been attained? For He Himself declares, “Whoever will confess Me before men, him will I confess before My Father.”[10] This is our reward if we will but confess Him by whom we have been saved. But in what way will we confess Him? By doing what He says, and not transgressing His Torah, and by honoring Him not with our lips only, but with all our heart and all our mind.[11] For he says in Isaiah, “This people honors Me with their lips, but their heart is far from Me.”[12]
Chap. IV.—True Confession of the Anointed One.
Let us, then, not only call Him Master, for that will not save us. For He says, “Not everyone who says to Me, Master, Master, will be saved, but he who works righteousness.”[13] So, brothers, let us confess Him by our works, by loving one another, by not committing adultery, or speaking evil of one another, or cherishing envy; but being continent, compassionate, and good. We ought also to sympathize with one another, and not be covetous. By such works let us confess Him, and not by such deeds that are of the opposing variety. And it is not fitting that we should fear men, but rather Elohim. For this reason, if we should do such immoral things, YHWH has said, “Even though you were gathered together to Me in My very bosom, yet if you were not to keep My Torah, I would cast you off, and say to you, Leave Me; I do not know where you come from, you workers of iniquity.”[14]
Chap. V.—This World Should be Despised.
So, brothers, leaving willingly our sojourn in this present world, let us do the will of Him who called us, and not fear to depart out of this world. For the Master says, “You will be as lambs in the midst of wolves.”[15] And Kefa answered and said to Him,[16] “What, then, if the wolves will tear in pieces the lambs?” Yahshua said to Kefa, “The lambs have no cause after they are dead to fear the wolves; and in like manner, fear not them who kill you, and can do nothing more to you; but fear Him who, after you are dead, has power over both soul and body to cast them into the fiery Gehenna.”[17] And consider, brothers, that the sojourning in the flesh in this world is but brief and transient, but the promise of the Anointed One is great and wonderful, even the rest of the kingdom to come, and of long-lasting life. By what course of conduct, then, will we attain these things, but by leading a set-apart and righteous life, and by deeming these worldly things as not belonging to us, and not fixing our desires upon them? For if we desire to possess them, we fall away from the path of righteousness.
Chap. VI.—The Present and Future Worlds are Enemies to Each Other.
Now the Master declares, “No servant can serve two masters.”[18] If we desire, then, to serve both Elohim and mammon, it will be unprofitable for us. “For what will it profit if a man gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?”[19] This world and the next are two enemies. The one urges to adultery and corruption, covetousness and deceit; the other bids farewell to these things. We cannot therefore be the friends of both; and it is to our advantage, by renouncing the one, to make sure of the other. Let us reckon that it is better to hate the things present, since they are trifling, and transient, and corruptible; and to love those that are to come, as being good and incorruptible. For if we do the will of the Anointed One, we will find rest; otherwise, nothing will deliver us from longstanding[20] retribution, if we disobey His Torah. For thus also says the Scripture in Ezekiel, “If Noah, Job, and Daniel should rise up, they would not deliver their children in captivity.”[21] Now, if men so eminently righteous are not able by their righteousness to deliver their children, how can we hope to enter into the royal residence of Elohim unless we keep our baptism set-apart and undefiled? Or who will be our advocate, unless we are found possessed of righteousness and set-apart works?
Chap. VII.—We Must Strive in Order to be Crowned.
So, then, my brothers, let us struggle with all earnestness, knowing that the contest is in our case close at hand, and that many undertake long voyages to strive for a corruptible reward; yet all are not crowned, but those only who have labored hard and striven famously. Let us therefore so strive, that we may all be crowned. Let us run the straight course, even the race that is incorruptible; and let us in great numbers set out for it, and strive that we may be crowned. And should we not all be able to obtain the crown, let us at least come near it. We must remember that he who strives in the corruptible contest, if he be found acting unfairly, is taken away and whipped, and cast forth from the lists. What then think you? If someone does something unseemly in the incorruptible contest, what will he have to bear? For of those who do not preserve the seal[22] unbroken, the Scripture says, “Their worm will not die, and their fire will not be quenched, and they will be a spectacle to all flesh.”[23]
Chap. VIII.—The Necessity of Turning Around While We are on Earth.
So as long as we are on earth, let us practice teshuvah,[24] for we are as clay in the hand of the artificer. For as the potter, if he make a vessel, and it be distorted or broken in his hands, he fashions it over again; but if before this he has cast it into the fiery furnace, he can no longer find any help for it: so let us also, while we are in this world, turn with our whole heart away from the evil deeds we have done in the flesh, that we may be saved by the Master, while we still have an opportunity to turn around. For after we have gone out of the world, no further power of confessing or turning will belong to us there. So, brothers, by doing the will of the Father, and keeping the flesh set-apart, and observing the Torah of YHWH, we will obtain long-enduring life. For the Master says in the Good News, “If you-all have not kept what was small, who will commit great things to you? For I say to you, that he who is faithful in that which is least, is faithful also in much.”[25] Here is what He means: “Keep the flesh set-apart and the seal undefiled, so that you-all may receive long-lasting life.”[26]
Chap. IX.—We Will be Judged in the Flesh.
And let no one of you say that this very flesh will not be judged, nor rise again. Consider in what state you-all were saved, in what you received sight, if not while you were in this flesh. We must therefore preserve the flesh as the temple of Elohim. For as you were called in the flesh, you will also come to be judged in the flesh. As the Anointed Master who saved us, though He was first ruach, became flesh, and thus called us, so will we also receive the reward in this flesh. Let us therefore love one another, that we may all attain to the kingdom of Elohim. While we have an opportunity of being healed, let us yield ourselves to Elohim who heals us, and give Him compensation. Of what sort? Turning around out of a sincere heart; for He knows all things beforehand, and is acquainted with what is in our hearts. Let us therefore give Him praise, not with the mouth only, but also with the heart, that He may accept us as sons. For the Master has said, “Those are My brothers who do the will of My Father.”[27]
Chap. X.—Vice is to be Forsaken, and Virtue Followed.
So, my brothers, let us do the will of the Father who called us, that we may live; and let us intentionally follow virtue while forsaking every immoral tendency that would lead into transgression; and flee from unrighteousness, lest evils overtake us. For if we are diligent in doing good, peace will follow us. On this account, such men cannot find peace, since they are influenced by human terrors, and prefer rather present enjoyment to the promise that will afterwards be fulfilled. For they do not know what torment this present enjoyment exacts, or what speed is involved in the future promise. And if, indeed, they themselves only did such things, it would be the more tolerable; but now they persist in imbuing innocent souls with their pernicious doctrines, not knowing that they will receive a double condemnation, both they and those who hear them.
Chap. XI.—We Ought to Serve YHWH, Trusting in his Promises.
Let us serve Elohim with a pure heart, and we will be righteous; but if we do not serve Him, because we do not trust the promise of Elohim, we will be miserable. For the prophetic word also declares, “Wretched are those of a double mind, and who doubt in their heart, who say, All these things have we heard even in the times of our fathers; but though we have waited day by day, we have seen none of them accomplished. You fools! Compare yourselves to a tree; take, for instance, the vine. First of all it sheds its leaves, then the bud appears; after that the sour grape, and then the fully-ripened fruit. So, likewise, my people have borne disturbances and afflictions, but afterwards will they receive good things promised.”[28] So, my brothers, let us not be of a double mind, but let us hope and endure, that we also may obtain the reward. For He is faithful who has promised[29] that He will bestow on everyone a reward according to his works. If, therefore, we will do righteousness in the sight of Elohim, we will enter into His kingdom, and will receive the promises, “that ear has not heard, nor eye seen, neither have entered into the heart of man.”[30]
Chap. XII.—We are Constantly to Look tor YHWH’s Kingdom Reign.
Let us expect, hour by hour, the kingdom of Elohim in love and righteousness, since we know not the day of the appearing of Elohim. For the Master Himself, being asked by one when His kingdom would come, replied, “When two will be one, and that which is without as that which is within, and the male with the female, neither male nor female.”[31] Now, two are one when we speak the truth one to another, and there is undoubtedly one soul in two bodies. And “that which is without as that which is within” means this: He calls the soul “that which is within,” and the body “that which is without.” As, then, your body is visible to sight, so also let your soul be manifest by good works. And (he said) “the male with the female, neither male nor female.” This means that a brother seeing a sister should not think of her as of any female, nor should she think of him as of any male. “If you do these things,” says He, “the kingdom of my Father will come.”
Chap. XIII.—Disobedience Causes the Name of YHWH To Be Blasphemed.
Now {brothers}, let us confess at length; let us be sober unto what is good; for we are full of much folly and immorality. Let us blot out from us our former sins, and confessing from the soul let us be saved; and let us not become people-pleasers, nor let us desire to please only one another, but also the men who are without, by our righteousness, that the Name[32] be not blasphemed on account of us. For YHWH also says “Continually My name is blasphemed among all the Gentiles,”[33] and again, “Woe to him on account of whom My name is blasphemed.” [34] Wherein is it blasphemed? In your not doing what I desire. For the Gentiles, when they hear from our mouth the oracles of Elohim, marvel at them as beautiful and great; afterwards, when they have learned that our works are not worthy of the words we speak, they then turn themselves to blasphemy, saying that it is some fable and delusion. For when they hear from us that Elohim says, “There is no thanks to you, if you love them who love you; but there is thanks to you, if you love your enemies and them who hate you” [35]; when they hear these things, they marvel at the excellence of the goodness; but when they see that we not only do not love them who hate us, but not even them who love us, they laugh us to scorn, and the Name is blasphemed.
Chap. XIV.—the Living Kahal is the Body of the Anointed One.
So, brothers, if we do the will of YHWH our father, we will be a part of the First Kahal, that is, the spiritual Kahal, which has been created before the sun and moon;[36] but if we do not the will of the Master, we will be of the Scripture that says, “My house was made a den of robbers.”[37] So then let us choose to be of the Kahal of Life, that we may be saved. I do not, however, suppose you are ignorant that the Living Kahal is the body of the Anointed One;[38] for the Scripture says, “Elohim made man, male and female.”[39] the male is the Anointed One, the female is the Kahal. And the seferot and the shlichim plainly declare that the Kahal is not of the present, but from the beginning.[40] For the Kahal was spiritual, as was our Yahshua also, but was manifested in the last days that He might save us. Now the Kahal, being spiritual, was manifested in the flesh of the Anointed One, thus signifying to us that, if any of us keep her in the flesh and do not corrupt her, he will receive her again through Ruach haQodesh: for this flesh is the copy of the ruach.[41] No one then who corrupts the copy, will partake of the original.[42] This then is what He means, “Keep the flesh that you may partake of the ruach.” But if we say that the flesh is the Kahal and the ruach the Anointed One, then he who has shamefully used the flesh has shamefully used the Kahal. Such a one then will not partake of the ruach, which is the Anointed One. Such life and incorruption this flesh can partake of if Ruach haQodesh is joined to it. For not one soul can utter or proclaim “what the Master has prepared” for his bacharim.[43]
Chap. XV.—Faith and Love the Proper Return to Elohim.
Now I do not think I have given you any light counsel concerning self-control, which if anyone do he will not renounce it, but will save both himself and me who counseled him. For it is no light reward to turn again a wandering and perishing soul that it may be saved.[44] For this is the recompense we have to return to Elohim who created us, if he who speaks and hears both speaks and hears with faith and love. Let us therefore abide in the things that we believed, righteous and set-apart, that with boldness we may ask of Elohim who says, “While you are yet speaking, I will say, Lo, I am here.”[45] For this saying is the sign of a great promise; for YHWH says of Himself that He is more ready to give than he who asks to ask. Now being partakers of so great kindness, let us not be envious of one another in the obtaining of so many good things. For as great as is the pleasure that these sayings have for those who have done them, so great is the condemnation they have for those who have been disobedient.
Chap. XVI.—The Excellence of Almsgiving.
So, brothers, having received no small occasion for teshuvah, while we have the opportunity, let us turn to Elohim who called us, while we still have Him as One who receives us. For if we renounce these ‘enjoyments’ and conquer our soul in not doing these its evil desires, we will partake of the mercy of Yahshua. But you know that the day of judgment even now “comes as a burning oven,” and some “of the skies will melt,” and all the earth will be as lead melting on the fire,[46]and then the hidden and open works of men will appear. So almsgiving is a good thing indeed as a means of turning away from sin. And fasting is better than prayer, but almsgiving is better than both;[47] “but charity[48] covers a multitude of sins.”[49] But prayer out of a good conscience delivers from death. Blessed is everyone who is found full of these; for alms-giving lightens the burden of sin.[50]
Chap. XVII.—The Danger of Refusing to Turn Around.
So let us confess from the whole heart, that no one of us perish by the roadside. For if we have Torah that we should practice this, to draw away men from idols and instruct them, how much more ought a soul already knowing Elohim not to perish! Let us help one another that we may also lead those who are weak about what is good, so that all may be saved; and let us convert and admonish one another. And let us not think to give heed and believe now only, while we are admonished by the overseers,[51] but also when we have returned home, remembering the Torah of YHWH; and let us not be dragged away by worldly lusts, but coming[52] more frequently let us attempt to advance in the Torah of YHWH, that all being like-minded[53] we may be gathered together life-ward. For YHWH said, “I come to gather all the nations, tribes, and tongues in Yahad.”[54] This He speaks of the day of His appearing, when He will come and redeem us, each one according to his works. And the unbelievers “will see His Shekinah,” and His strength; and THEY WILL THINK IT STRANGE WHEN THEY SEE THE WORLD GOVERNMENT[55] IN YAHSHUA’S POWER; them saying, Woe unto us since YOU ARE[56] THE ONE[57] WHOM WE DID NOT KNOW AND DID NOT BELIEVE; Neither did me obey the overseers when they preached to us about our salvation!
As for these, “their worm dies not, and their fire is not quenched, and they will be for a spectacle unto all flesh.”[58] He speaks of that day of judgment, when they will see those among us who have been unrighteous and acted deceitfully with the Torah of Yahshua the Anointed One. But the righteous who have done well and endured torments and hated the enjoyments of the soul, when they will behold those who have gone astray and denied Yahshua through their words or through their works, how that they are punished with grievous torments in unquenchable fire, will be giving glory to Elohim, saying, There will be hope for him who has served Elohim with his whole heart.
Chap. XVIII.—The Preacher Confesses His Own Sinfulness.
Let us also become of the number of them who give thanks, who have served Elohim, and not of the unrighteous who are judged. For I myself also, being an utter sinner,[59] and not yet escaped from temptation, but still being in the midst of the devil’s engines,[60] give diligence to follow after righteousness, that I may have strength to come even near it, fearing the judgment to come.
Chap. XIX.—He Justifies His Sermon.
So, brothers and sisters,[61]after the Elohim of Truth has been heard,[62] I now read to you my entreaty[63] that you may give heed to the things that are written, in order that you may save both yourselves and the one among you who is not able to read. For as a reward I ask of you that you confess with the whole heart, thus giving to yourselves salvation and life. For by doing this we will set a goal for all the young who are minded to labor on behalf of piety and the goodness of Elohim. And let us not, unwise ones whom we are, be defensive and sorely displeased, whenever someone admonishes and turns us from iniquity to righteousness. For sometimes while we are practicing evil things we do not realize it because of the double-mindedness and unbelief that is in our hearts, and we are “darkened in our understanding”[64] by our vain lusts. Let us then practice righteousness that we may be saved unto the end. Blessed are they who obey these ordinances. Even if for a little time they suffer evil in the world, they will enjoy the undying fruit of the resurrection. Let not then the righteous man be grieved, if he be wretched in the times that now are; a blessed time waits for him. He, living again above with the fathers, will be joyful for a very long time without grief.
Chap. XX.—Concluding Word of Consolation & a Word of Praise.
But neither let it trouble your understanding, seeing that the unrighteous are rich while Elohim’s slaves are unable to make ends meet.[65] Let us therefore, brothers and sisters, continue believing: yes, we are striving in the contest of the living Elohim, we are exercised by the present life, in order that we may be crowned by that which is to come. None of the righteous ever received fruit right away, but he awaits it. For if Elohim gave recompense to the righteous immediately, then immediately we would be exercising ourselves in business, not in righteousness; for we would seem to be righteous, while pursuing not what is righteous but what is gainful. And on this account, Divine Judgment surprised a spirit that was not righteous, and loaded it with chains.
To the only Elohim invisible,[66] the Father of truth, who sent forth the Savior and Prince of Incorruption to us,[67] through whom also He manifested to us the truth and the sky-ward life, to Him be the esteem for a long, long time. Amein.[68
Divine Liturgy of St. James
The Priest.
I O Sovereign Lord our God, contemn me not, defiled with a multitude of sins: for, behold, I have come to this Your divine and heavenly mystery, not as being worthy; but looking only to Your goodness, I direct my voice to You: God be merciful to me, a sinner; I have sinned against Heaven, and before You, and am unworthy to come into the presence of this Your holy and spiritual table, upon which Your only-begotten Son, and our Lord Jesus Christ, is mystically set forth as a sacrifice for me, a sinner, and stained with every spot. Wherefore I present to You this supplication and thanksgiving, that Your Spirit the Comforter may be sent down upon me, strengthening and fitting me for this service; and count me worthy to make known without condemnation the word, delivered from You by me to the people, in Christ Jesus our Lord, with whom You are blessed, together with Your all-holy, and good, and quickening, and consubstantial Spirit, now and ever, and to all eternity. Amen.
Prayer of the standing beside the altar.
II Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit, the triune light of the Godhead, which is unity subsisting in trinity, divided, yet indivisible: for the Trinity is the one God Almighty, whose glory the heavens declare, and the earth His dominion, and the sea His might, and every sentient and intellectual creature at all times proclaims His majesty: for all glory becomes Him, and honour and might, greatness and magnificence, now and ever, and to all eternity. Amen.
Prayer of the incense at the beginning.
III Sovereign Lord Jesus Christ, O Word of God, who freely offered Yourself a blameless sacrifice upon the cross to God even the Father, the coal of double nature, that touched the lips of the prophet with the tongs, and took away his sins, touch also the hearts of us sinners, and purify us from every stain, and present us holy beside Your holy altar, that we may offer You a sacrifice of praise: and accept from us, Your unprofitable servants, this incense as an odour of a sweet smell, and make fragrant the evil odour of our soul and body, and purify us with the sanctifying power of Your all-holy Spirit: for You alone are holy, who sanctifies, and are communicated to the faithful; and glory becomes You, with Your eternal Father, and Your all-holy, and good, and quickening Spirit, now and ever, and to all eternity. Amen.
Prayer of the commencement.
IV O beneficent King eternal, and Creator of the universe, receive Your Church, coming unto You through Your Christ: fulfil to each what is profitable; lead all to perfection, and make us perfectly worthy of the grace of Your sanctification, gathering us together within Your holy Church, which You have purchased by the precious blood of Your only-begotten Son, and our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, with whom You are blessed and glorified, together with Your all-holy, and good, and quickening Spirit, now and ever, and to all eternity. Amen.
The Deacon.
V Let us again pray to the Lord.
The Priest, prayer of the incense at the entrance of the congregation.
God, who accepted the gifts of Abel, the sacrifice of Noah and of Abram, the incense of Aaron and of Zacharias, accept also from the hand of us sinners this incense for an odour of a sweet smell, and for remission of our sins, and those of all Your people; for blessed are You, and glory becomes You, the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, now and ever.
The Deacon.
Sir, pronounce the blessing.
The Priest prays.
Our Lord and God, Jesus Christ, who through exceeding goodness and love not to be restrained was crucified, and did not refuse to be pierced by the spear and nails; who provided this mysterious and awful service as an everlasting memorial for us perpetually: bless Your ministry in Christ the God, and bless our entrance, and fully complete the presentation of this our service by Your unutterable compassion, now and ever, and to all eternity. Amen.
The responsive prayer from the Deacon.
VI. The Lord bless us, and make us worthy seraphically to offer gifts, and to sing the oft-sung hymn of the divine Trisagion, by the fullness and exceeding abundance of all the perfection of holiness, now and ever.
Then the Deacon begins to sing in the entrance.
You who art the only-begotten Son and Word of God, immortal; who submitted for our salvation to become flesh of the holy God-mother, and ever-virgin Mary; who immutably became man and was crucified, O Christ our God, and by Your death trod death underfoot; who art one of the Holy Trinity glorified together with the Father and the Holy Spirit, save us.
The Priest says this prayer from the gates to the altar.
VII God Almighty, Lord great in glory, who hast given to us an entrance into the Holy of Holies, through the sojourning among men of Your only-begotten Son, our Lord, and God, and Saviour Jesus Christ, we supplicate and invoke Your goodness, since we are fearful and trembling when about to stand at Your holy altar; send forth upon us, O God, Your good grace, and sanctify our souls, and bodies, and spirits, and turn our thoughts to piety, in order that with a pure conscience we may bring unto You gifts, offerings, and fruits for the remission of our transgressions, and for the propitiation of all Your people, by the grace and mercies and loving-kindness of Your only-begotten Son, with whom You are blessed to all eternity. Amen.
After the approach to the altar, the Priest says:—
VIII. Peace be to all.
The People.
And to your spirit.
The Priest.
The Lord bless us all, and sanctify us for the entrance and celebration of the divine and pure mysteries, giving rest to the blessed souls among the good and just, by His grace and loving-kindness, now and ever, and to all eternity. Amen.
Then the Deacon says the bidding prayer.
IX. In peace let us beseech the Lord.
For the peace that is from above, and for God’s love to man, and for the salvation of our souls, let us beseech the Lord.
For the peace of the whole world, for the unity of all the holy churches of God, let us beseech the Lord.
For the remission of our sins, and forgiveness of our transgressions, and for our deliverance from all tribulation, wrath, danger, and distress, and from the uprising of our enemies, let us beseech the Lord.
Then the Singers sing the Trisagion Hymn.
Holy God, holy mighty, holy immortal, have mercy upon us.
Then the Priest prays, bowing.
X. O compassionate and merciful, long-suffering, and very gracious and true God, look from Your prepared dwelling-place, and hear us Your suppliants, and deliver us from every temptation of the devil and of man; withhold not Your aid from us, nor bring on us chastisements too heavy for our strength: for we are unable to overcome what is opposed to us; but You are able, Lord, to save us from everything that is against us. Save us, O God, from the difficulties of this world, according to Your goodness, in order that, having drawn near with a pure conscience to Your holy altar, we may send up to You without condemnation the blessed hymn Trisagion, together with the heavenly powers, and that, having performed the service, well pleasing to You and divine, we may be counted worthy of eternal life.
Because You are holy, Lord our God, and dwell and abide in holy places, we send up the praise and the hymn Trisagion to You, the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, now and ever, and to all eternity.
The People.
The Priest.
XI. Peace be to all.
The People.
And to your spirit.
The Singers.
Then there are read in order the holy oracles of the Old Testament, and of the prophets; and the incarnation of the Son of God is set forth, and His sufferings and resurrection from the dead, His ascension into heaven, and His second appearing with glory; and this takes place daily in the holy and divine service.
After the reading and instruction the Deacon says:—
XII. Let us all say, Lord, be merciful.
Lord Almighty, the God of our fathers;
We beseech You, hear us.
For the peace which is from above, and for the salvation of our souls;
Let us beseech the Lord.
For the peace of the whole world, and the unity of all the holy churches of God;
Let us beseech the Lord.
For the salvation and help of all the Christ-loving people;
We beseech You, hear us.
For our deliverance from all tribulation, wrath, danger, distress, from captivity, bitter death, and from our iniquities;
We beseech You, hear us.
For the people standing round, and waiting for the rich and plenteous mercy that is from You;
We beseech You, be merciful and gracious.
Save Your people, O Lord, and bless Your inheritance.
Visit Your world in mercy and compassion.
Exalt the horn of Christians by the power of the precious and quickening cross.
We beseech You, most merciful Lord, hear us praying to You, and have mercy upon us.
The People (thrice).
Lord, have mercy upon us.
The Deacon.
XIII. For the remission of our sins, and forgiveness of our transgressions, and for our deliverance from all tribulation, wrath, danger, and distress, let us beseech the Lord.
Let us all entreat from the Lord, that we may pass the whole day, perfect, holy, peaceful, and without sin.
Let us entreat from the Lord a messenger of peace, a faithful guide, a guardian of our souls and bodies.
Let us entreat from the Lord forgiveness and remission of our sins and transgressions.
Let us entreat from the Lord the things which are good and proper for our souls, and peace for the world.
Let us entreat from the Lord, that we may spend the remaining period of our life in peace and health.
Let us entreat that the close of our lives may be Christian, without pain and without shame, and a good plea at the dread and awful judgment-seat of Christ.
The Priest.
XIV. For You are the gospel and the light, Saviour and keeper of our souls and bodies, God, and Your only-begotten Son, and Your all-holy Spirit, now and ever.
The People.
The Priest
God, who hast taught us Your divine and saving oracles, enlighten the souls of us sinners for the comprehension of the things which have been before spoken, so that we may not only be seen to be hearers of spiritual things, but also doers of good deeds, striving after guileless faith, blameless life, and pure conversation.
In Christ Jesus our Lord, with whom You are blessed, together with Your all-holy, good, and quickening Spirit, now and always, and for ever.
The People.
The Priest.
XV. Peace be to all.
The People.
And to Your spirit.
The Deacon.
Let us bow our heads to the Lord.
The People.
To You, Lord.
The Priest prays, saying:
O Sovereign giver of life, and provider of good things, who gave to mankind the blessed hope of eternal life, our Lord Jesus Christ, count us worthy in holiness, and perfect this Your divine service to the enjoyment of future blessedness.
So that, guarded by Your power at all times, and led into the light of truth, we may send up the praise and the thanksgiving to You, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, now and ever.
The People.
The Deacon.
XVI. Let none remain of the catechumens, none of the unbaptized, none of those who are unable to join with us in prayer. Look at one another. The door.
All erect: let us again pray to the Lord.
The Priest says the prayer of incense.
Sovereign Almighty, King of Glory, who know all things before their creation, manifest Yourself to us calling upon You at this holy hour, and redeem us from the shame of our transgressions; cleanse our mind and our thoughts from impure desires, from worldly deceit, from all influence of the devil; and accept from the hands of us sinners this incense, as You accepted the offering of Abel, and Noah, and Aaron, and Samuel, and of all Your saints, guarding us from everything evil, and preserving us for continually pleasing, and worshipping, and glorifying You, the Father, and Your only-begotten Son, and Your all-holy Spirit, now and always, and for ever.
And the Readers begin the Cherubic Hymn.
Let all mortal flesh be silent, and stand with fear and trembling, and meditate nothing earthly within itself:—
For the King of kings and Lord of lords, Christ our God, comes forward to be sacrificed, and to be given for food to the faithful; and the bands of angels go before Him with every power and dominion, the many-eyed cherubim, and the six-winged seraphim, covering their faces, and crying aloud the hymn, Alleluia, Alleluia, Alleluia.
The Priest, bringing in the holy gifts, says this prayer:—
XVII. O God, our God, who sent forth the heavenly bread, the food of the whole world, our Lord Jesus Christ, to be a Saviour, and Redeemer, and Benefactor, blessing and sanctifying us, do You Yourself bless this offering, and graciously receive it to Your altar above the skies:
Remember in Your goodness and love those who have brought it, and those for whom they have brought it, and preserve us without condemnation in the service of Your divine mysteries: for hollowed and glorified is Your all-honoured and great name, Father, and Son, and Holy Spirit, now and ever, and to all eternity.
The Priest.
Peace be to all.
The Deacon.
Sir, pronounce the blessing.
The Priest.
Blessed be God, who blesses and sanctifies us all at the presentation of the divine and pure mysteries, and gives rest to the blessed souls among the holy and just, now and always, and to all eternity.
The Deacon.
XVIII Let us attend in wisdom.
The Priest begins.
I believe in one God, Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God: and the rest of the Creed.
Then he prays, bowing his neck.
XIX. God and Sovereign of all, make us, who are unworthy, worthy of this hour, lover of mankind; that being pure from all deceit and all hypocrisy, we may be united with one another by the bond of peace and love, being confirmed by the sanctification of Your divine knowledge through Your only-begotten Son, our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, with whom You are blessed, together with Your all-holy, and good, and quickening Spirit, now and ever, and to all eternity. Amen.
The Deacon.
XX. Let us stand well, let us stand reverently, let us stand in the fear of God, and with compunction of heart. In peace let us pray to the Lord.
The Priest.
For God of peace, mercy, love, compassion, and loving-kindness are You, and Your only-begotten Son, and Your all-holy Spirit, now and ever.
The People.
The Priest.
Peace be to all.
The People.
And to your spirit.
The Deacon.
Let us salute one another with an holy kiss. Let us bow our heads to the Lord.
The Priest bows, saying this prayer:—
XXI. Only Lord and merciful God, on those who are bowing their necks before Your holy altar, and seeking the spiritual gifts that come from You, send forth Your good grace; and bless us all with every spiritual blessing, that cannot be taken from us, You, who dwellest on high, and hast regard unto things that are lowly.
For worthy of praise and worship and most glorious is Your all-holy name, Father and Son and Holy Spirit, now and always, and to all eternity.
The Deacon.
Sir, pronounce the blessing.
The Priest.
The Lord will bless us, and minister with us all by His grace and loving-kindness.
And again.
The Lord will bless us, and make us worthy to stand at His holy altar, at all times, now and always, and for ever.
And again.
Blessed be God, who blesses and sanctifies us all in our attendance upon, and service of, His pure mysteries, now and always, and for ever.
The Deacon makes the Universal Litany.
XXII In peace let us pray to the Lord.
The People.
O Lord, have mercy.
The Deacon.
Save us, have mercy upon us, pity and keep us, O God, by Your grace.
For the peace that is from above, and the loving-kindness of God, and the salvation of our souls;
Let us beseech the Lord.
For the peace of the whole world, and the unity of all the holy churches of God;
Let us beseech the Lord.
For those who bear fruit, and labour honourably in the holy churches of God; for those who remember the poor, the widows and the orphans, the strangers and needy ones; and for those who have requested us to mention them in our prayers;
Let us beseech the Lord.
For those who are in old age and infirmity, for the sick and suffering, and those who are troubled by unclean spirits, for their speedy cure from God and their salvation;
Let us beseech the Lord.
For those who are passing their days in virginity, and celibacy, and discipline, and for those in holy matrimony; and for the holy fathers and brethren agonizing in mountains, and dens, and caves of the earth;
Let us beseech the Lord.
For Christians sailing, travelling, living among strangers, and for our brethren in captivity, in exile, in prison, and in bitter slavery, their peaceful return;
Let us beseech the Lord.
For the remission of our sins, and forgiveness of our transgressions, and for our deliverance from all tribulation, wrath, danger, and constraint, and uprising against us of enemies;
Let us beseech the Lord.
For favourable weather, peaceful showers, beneficent dews, abundance of fruits, the perfect close of a good season, and for the crown of the year;
Let us beseech the Lord.
For our fathers and brethren present, and praying with us in this holy hour, and at every season, their zeal, labour, and earnestness;
Let us beseech the Lord.
For every Christian soul in tribulation and distress, and needing the mercy and succour of God; for the return of the erring, the health of the sick, the deliverance of the captives, the rest of the fathers and brethren that have fallen asleep aforetime;
Let us beseech the Lord.
For the hearing and acceptance of our prayer before God, and the sending down on us His rich mercies and compassion.
Let us beseech the Lord.
And for the offered, precious, heavenly, unutterable, pure, glorious, dread, awful, divine gifts, and the salvation of the priest who stands by and offers them;
Let us offer supplication to God the Lord.
The People.
O Lord, have mercy.
Then the Priest makes the sign of the cross on the gifts, and, standing, speaks separately thus:—
XXIII Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good-will among men, etc.
Lord, You will open my lips, and my mouth shall show forth Your praise.
Let my mouth be filled with Your praise, O Lord, that I may tell of Your glory, of Your majesty, all the day.
Of the Father. Amen. And of the Son. Amen. And of the Holy Spirit. Amen. Now and always, and to all eternity. Amen.
And bowing to this side and to that, he says:
XXIV. Magnify the Lord with me, and let us exalt His name together.
And they answer, bowing:—
The Holy Ghost shall come upon you, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow you.
Then the Priest, at great length:—
O Sovereign Lord, who hast visited us in compassion and mercies, and hast freely given to us, Your humble and sinful and unworthy servants, boldness to stand at Your holy altar, and to offer to You this dread and bloodless sacrifice for our sins, and for the errors of the people, look upon me Your unprofitable servant, and blot out my transgressions for Your compassion’s sake; and purify my lips and heart from all pollution of flesh and spirit; and remove from me every shameful and foolish thought, and fit me by the power of Your all-holy Spirit for this service; and receive me graciously by Your goodness as I draw near to Your altar.
And be pleased, O Lord, that these gifts brought by our hands may be acceptable, stooping to my weakness; and cast me not away from Your presence, and abhor not my unworthiness; but pity me according to Your great mercy, and according to the multitude of Your mercies pass by my transgressions, that, having come before Your glory without condemnation, I may be counted worthy of the protection of Your only-begotten Son, and of the illumination of Your all-holy Spirit, that I may not be as a slave of sin cast out, but as Your servant may find grace and mercy and forgiveness of sins before You, both in the world that now is and in that which is to come.
I beseech You, Almighty Sovereign, all-powerful Lord, hear my prayer; for You are He who work all in all, and we all seek in all things the help and succour that come from You and Your only-begotten Son, and the good and quickening and consubstantial Spirit, now and ever.
XXV. O God, who through Your great and unspeakable love sent forth Your only-begotten Son into the world, in order that He might turn back the lost sheep, turn not away us sinners, laying hold of You by this dread and bloodless sacrifice; for we trust not in our own righteousness, but in Your good mercy, by which You purchase our race.
We entreat and beseech Your goodness that it may not be for condemnation to Your people that this mystery for salvation has been administered by us, but for remission of sins, for renewal of souls and bodies, for the well-pleasing of You, God and Father, in the mercy and love of Your only-begotten Son, with whom You are blessed, together with Your all-holy and good and quickening Spirit, now and always, and for ever.
XXVI. O Lord God, who created us, and bring us into life, who hast shown to us ways to salvation, who hast granted to us a revelation of heavenly mysteries, and hast appointed us to this ministry in the power of Your all-holy Spirit, grant, O Sovereign, that we may become servants of Your new testament, ministers of Your pure mysteries, and receive us as we draw near to Your holy altar, according to the greatness of Your mercy, that we may become worthy of offering to You gifts and sacrifices for our transgressions and for those of the people; and grant to us, O Lord, with all fear and a pure conscience to offer to You this spiritual and bloodless sacrifice, and graciously receiving it unto Your holy and spiritual altar above the skies for an odour of a sweet spiritual smell, send down in answer on us the grace of Your all-holy Spirit.
And, O God, look upon us, and have regard to this our reasonable service, and accept it, as You accepted the gifts of Abel, the sacrifices of Noah, the priestly offices of Moses and Aaron, the peace-offerings of Samuel, the repentance of David, the incense of Zacharias. As You accepted from the hand of Your apostles this true service, so accept also in Your goodness from the hands of us sinners these offered gifts; and grant that our offering may be acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit, as a propitiation for our transgressions and the errors of the people; and for the rest of the souls that have fallen asleep aforetime; that we also, Your humble, sinful, and unworthy servants, being counted worthy without guile to serve Your holy altar, may receive the reward of faithful and wise stewards, and may find grace and mercy in the terrible day of Your just and good retribution.
Prayer of the veil.
XXVII. We thank You, O Lord our God, that You have given us boldness for the entrance of Your holy places, which You have renewed to us as a new and living way through the veil of the flesh of Your Christ. We therefore, being counted worthy to enter into the place of the tabernacle of Your glory, and to be within the veil, and to behold the Holy of Holies, cast ourselves down before Your goodness:
Lord, have mercy on us: since we are full of fear and trembling, when about to stand at Your holy altar, and to offer this dread and bloodless sacrifice for our own sins and for the errors of the people: send forth, O God, Your good grace, and sanctify our souls, and bodies, and spirits; and turn our thoughts to holiness, that with a pure conscience we may bring to You a peace-offering, the sacrifice of praise:
By the mercy and loving-kindness of Your only-begotten Son, with whom You are blessed, together with Your all-holy, and good, and quickening Spirit, now and always:
The People.
The Priest.
Peace be to all.
The Deacon.
Let us stand reverently, let us stand in the fear of God, and with contrition: let us attend to the holy communion service, to offer peace to God.
The People.
The offering of peace, the sacrifice of praise.
The Priest [A veil is now withdrawn from the oblation of bread and wine.]
And reveal it clearly to us, uncovering the veils that darkly invest in symbol this sacred ceremonial. Fill our intellectual vision with absolute light, and having purified our poverty from every pollution of flesh and spirit, make it worthy of this dread and awful approach: for You are an all-merciful and gracious God, and we send up the praise and the thanksgiving to You, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, now, and always, and for ever.
The Anaphora.
Then he says aloud:—
XXVIII. The love of the Lord and Father, the grace of the Lord and Son, and the fellowship and the gift of the Holy Spirit, be with us all.
The People.
And with your spirit.
The Priest.
Let us lift up our minds and our hearts.
The People.
It is becoming and right.
Then the Priest prays.
Verily it is becoming and right, proper and due to praise You, to sing of You, to bless You, to worship You, to glorify You, to give You thanks, Maker of every creature visible and invisible, the treasure of eternal good things, the fountain of life and immortality, God and Lord of all:
Whom the heavens of heavens praise, and all the host of them; the sun, and the moon, and all the choir of the stars; earth, sea, and all that is in them; Jerusalem, the heavenly assembly, and church of the first-born that are written in heaven; spirits of just men and of prophets; souls of martyrs and of apostles; angels, archangels, thrones, dominions, principalities, and authorities, and dread powers; and the many-eyed cherubim, and the six-winged seraphim, which cover their faces with two wings, their feet with two, and with two they fly, crying one to another with unresting lips, with unceasing praises:
With loud voice singing the victorious hymn of Your majestic glory, crying aloud, praising, shouting, and saying:—
The People.
Holy, holy, holy, O Lord of Sabaoth, the heaven and the earth are full of Your glory. Hosanna in the highest; blessed is He that comes in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest.
The Priest, making the sign of the cross on the gifts, says:—
XXIX. Holy are You, King of eternity, and Lord and giver of all holiness; holy also Your only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom You have made all things; holy also Your Holy Spirit, which searches all things, even Your deep things, O God: holy are You, almighty, all-powerful, good, dread, merciful, most compassionate to Your creatures; who made man from earth after Your own image and likeness; who gave him the joy of paradise; and when he transgressed Your commandment, and fell away, did not disregard nor desert him, O Good One, but chastened him as at merciful father, call him by the law, instruct him by the prophets; and afterwards sent forth Your only-begotten Son Himself, our Lord Jesus Christ, into the world, that He by His coming might renew and restore Your image;
Who, having descended from heaven, and become flesh of the Holy Spirit and Virgin Godmother Mary, and having sojourned among men, fulfilled the dispensation for the salvation of our race; and being about to endure His voluntary and life-giving death by the cross, He the sinless for us the sinners, in the night in which He was betrayed, nay, rather delivered Himself up for the life and salvation of the world,
Then the Priest holds the bread in his hand, and says:—
XXX. Having taken the bread in His holy and pure and blameless and immortal hands, lifting up His eyes to heaven, and showing it to You, His God and Father, He gave thanks, and hallowed, and broke, and gave it to us, His disciples and apostles, saying:—
The Deacons say:
For the remission of sins and life everlasting.
Then he says aloud:—
Take, eat: this is my body, broken for you, and given for remission of sins.
The People.
Then he takes the cup, and says:—
In like manner, after supper, He took the cup, and having mixed wine and water, lifting up His eyes to heaven, and presenting it to You, His God and Father, He gave thanks, and hollowed and blessed it, and filled it with the Holy Spirit, and gave it to us His disciples, saying, Drink all of it; this is my blood of the new testament shed for you and many, and distributed for the remission of sins.
The People.
The Priest.
This do in remembrance of me; for as often as you eat this bread, and drink this cup, you do show forth the Lord’s death, and confess His resurrection, till He come.
The Deacons say:—
We believe and confess:
The People.
We show forth Your death, O Lord, and confess Your resurrection.
The Priest (Oblation).
XXXI. Remembering, therefore, His life-giving sufferings, His saving cross, His death and His burial, and resurrection from the dead on the third day, and His ascension into heaven, and sitting at the right hand of You, our God and Father, and His second glorious and awful appearing, when He shall come with glory to judge the quick and the dead, and render to every one according to His works; even we, sinful men, offer unto You, O Lord, this dread and bloodless sacrifice, praying that You will not deal with us after our sins, nor reward us according to our iniquities;
But that You, according to Your mercy and Your unspeakable loving-kindness, passing by and blotting out the handwriting against us Your suppliants, wilt grant to us Your heavenly and eternal gifts (which eye has not seen, and ear has not heard, and which have not entered into the heart of man ) that you have prepared, O God, for those who love You; and reject not, O loving Lord, the people for my sake, or for my sin’s sake:
Then he says, thrice:—
For Your people and Your Church supplicate You.
The People.
Have mercy on us, O Lord our God, Father Almighty.
Again the Priest says (Invocation):—
XXXII. Have mercy upon us, O God Almighty.
Have mercy upon us, O God our Saviour.
Have mercy upon us, O God, according to Your great mercy, and send forth on us, and on these offered gifts, Your all-holy Spirit.
Then, bowing his neck, he says:—
The sovereign and quickening Spirit, that sits upon the throne with You, our God and Father, and with Your only-begotten Son, reigning with You; the consubstantial and co-eternal; that spoke in the law and in the prophets, and in Your New Testament; that descended in the form of a dove on our Lord Jesus Christ at the river Jordan, and abode on Him; that descended on Your apostles in the form of tongues of fire in the upper room of the holy and glorious Zion on the day of Pentecost: this Your all-holy Spirit, send down, O Lord, upon us, and upon these offered holy gifts;
And rising up, he says aloud:—
That coming, by His holy and good and glorious appearing, He may sanctify this bread, and make it the holy body of Your Christ.
The People.
The Priest.
And this cup the precious blood of Your Christ.
The People.
The Priest by himself standing.
XXXIII. That they may be to all that partake of them for remission of sins, and for life everlasting, for the sanctification of souls and of bodies, for bearing the fruit of good works, for the establishing of Your Holy Catholic Church, which You have founded on the Rock of Faith, that the gates of hell may not prevail against it; delivering it from all heresy and scandals, and from those who work iniquity, keeping it till the fullness of the time.
And having bowed, he says:—
XXXIV. We present them to You also, O Lord, for the holy places, which You have glorified by the divine appearing of Your Christ, and by the visitation of Your all-holy Spirit; especially for the glorious Zion, the mother of all the churches; and for Your Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church throughout the world: even now, O Lord, bestow upon her the rich gifts of Your all-holy Spirit.
Remember also, O Lord, our holy fathers and brethren in it, and the bishops in all the world, who rightly divide the word of Your truth.
Remember also, O Lord, every city and country, and those of the true faith dwelling in them, their peace and security.
Remember, O Lord, Christians sailing, travelling, sojourning in strange lands; our fathers and brethren, who are in bonds, prison, captivity, and exile; who are in mines, and under torture, and in bitter slavery. Remember, O Lord, the sick and afflicted, and those troubled by unclean spirits, their speedy healing from You, O God, and their salvation.
Remember, O Lord, every Christian soul in affliction and distress, needing Your mercy and succour, O God; and the return of the erring.
Remember, O Lord, our fathers and brethren, toiling hard, and ministering unto us, for Your holy name’s sake.
Remember all, O Lord, for good: have mercy on all, O Lord, be reconciled to us all: give peace to the multitudes of Your people: put away scandals: bring wars to an end: make the uprising of heresies to cease: grant Your peace and Your love to us, O God our Saviour, the hope of all the ends of the earth.
Remember, O Lord, favourable weather, peaceful showers, beneficent dews, abundance of fruits, and to crown the year with Your goodness; for the eyes of all wait on You, and You give their food in due season: you open Your hand, and fill every living thing with gladness.
Remember, O Lord, those who bear fruit, and labour honourably in the holy of Your Church; and those who forget not the poor, the widows, the orphans, the strangers, and the needy; and all who have desired us to remember them in our prayers.
Moreover, O Lord, be pleased to remember those who have brought these offerings this day to Your holy altar, and for what each one has brought them or with what mind, and those persons who have just now been mentioned to You.
Remember, O Lord, according to the multitude of Your mercy and compassion, me also, Your humble and unprofitable servant; and the deacons who surround Your holy altar, and graciously give them a blameless life, keep their ministry undefiled, and purchase for them a good degree, that we may find mercy and grace, with all the saints that have been well pleasing to You since the world began, to generation and generation— grandsires, sires, patriarchs, prophets, apostles, martyrs, confessors, teachers, saints, and every just spirit made perfect in the faith of Your Christ.
XXXV. Hail, Mary, highly favoured: the Lord is with You; blessed are you among women, and blessed the fruit of your womb, for you bore the Saviour of our souls.
The Deacons.
XXXVI. Remember us, O Lord God.
The Priest, bowing, says:—
Remember, O Lord God, the spirits and all flesh, of whom we have made mention, and of whom we have not made mention, who are of the true faith, from righteous Abel unto this day: unto them do You give rest there in the land of the living, in Your kingdom, in the joy of paradise, in the bosom of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob, our holy fathers; whence pain, and grief, and lamentation have fled: there the light of Your countenance looks upon them, and enlightens them for ever.
Make the end of our lives Christian, acceptable, blameless, and peaceful, O Lord, gathering us together, O Lord, under the feet of Your elect, when You will, and as You will; only without shame and transgressions, through Your only-begotten Son, our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus Christ: for He is the only sinless one who has appeared on the earth.
The Deacon.
And let us pray:—
For the peace and establishing of the whole world, and of the holy churches of God, and for the purposes for which each one made his offering, or according to the desire he has: and for the people standing round, and for all men, and all women:
The People.
And for all men and all women. (Amen.)
The Priest says aloud:—
Wherefore, both to them and to us, do You in Your goodness and love:
The People.
Forgive, remit, pardon, O God, our transgressions, voluntary and involuntary: in deed and in word: in knowledge and in ignorance: by night and by day: in thought and intent: in Your goodness and love, forgive us them all.
The Priest.
Through the grace and compassion and love of Your only-begotten Son, with whom You are blessed and glorified, together with the all-holy, and good, and quickening Spirit, now and ever, and to all eternity.
The People.
The Priest.
XXXVII. Peace be to all:
The People.
And to your spirit.
The Deacon.
Again, and continually, in peace let us pray to the Lord.
For the gifts to the Lord God presented and sanctified, precious, heavenly, unspeakable, pure, glorious, dread, awful, divine;
Let us pray.
That the Lord our God, having graciously received them to His altar that is holy and above the heavens, rational and spiritual, for the odour of a sweet spiritual savour, may send down in answer upon us the divine grace and the gift of the all-holy Spirit;
Let us pray.
Having prayed for the unity of the faith, and the communion of His all-holy and adorable Spirit;
Let us commend ourselves and one another, and our whole life, to Christ our God:
The People.
The Priest prays.
XXXVIII. God and Father of our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus Christ, the glorious Lord, the blessed essence, the bounteous goodness, the God and Sovereign of all, who art blessed to all eternity, who sittest upon the cherubim, and art glorified by the seraphim, before whom stand thousand thousands and ten thousand times ten thousand hosts of angels and archangels: You have accepted the gifts, offerings, and fruits brought unto You as an odour of a sweet spiritual smell, and hast been pleased to sanctify them, and make them perfect, O good One, by the grace of Your Christ, and by the presence of Your all-holy Spirit.
Sanctify also, O Lord, our souls, and bodies, and spirits, and touch our understandings, and search our consciences, and cast out from us every evil imagination, every impure feeling, every base desire, every unbecoming thought, all envy, and vanity, and hypocrisy, all lying, all deceit, every worldly affection, all covetousness, all vainglory, all indifference, all vice, all passion, all anger, all malice, all blasphemy, every motion of the flesh and spirit that is not in accordance with Your holy will:
And count us worthy, O loving Lord, with boldness, without condemnation, in a pure heart, with a contrite spirit, with unshamed face, with sanctified lips, to dare to call upon You, the holy God, Father in heaven, and to say,
The People.
Our Father, which art in heaven: hollowed be Your name; and so on to the doxology.
The Priest, bowing, says (the Embolism ):—
And lead us not into temptation, Lord, Lord of Hosts, who know our frailty, but deliver us from the evil one and his works, and from all his malice and craftiness, for the sake of Your holy name, which has been placed upon our humility:
For Yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, now and for ever.
The People.
The Priest.
XXXIX. Peace be to all.
The People.
And to your spirit.
The Deacon.
Let us bow our heads to the Lord.
The People.
To You, O Lord.
The Priest prays, speaking thus:—
To You, O Lord, we Your servants have bowed our heads before Your holy altar, waiting for the rich mercies that are from You.
Send forth upon us, O Lord, Your plenteous grace and Your blessing; and sanctify our souls, bodies, and spirits, that we may become worthy communicants and partakers of Your holy mysteries, to the forgiveness of sins and life everlasting:
For adorable and glorified are You, our God, and Your only-begotten Son, and Your all-holy Spirit, now and ever.
The People.
The Priest says aloud:—
And the grace and the mercies of the holy and consubstantial, and uncreated, and adorable Trinity, shall be with us all.
The People.
And with your spirit.
The Deacon.
In the fear of God, let us attend.
The Priest says secretly:—
O holy Lord, who abides in holy places, sanctify us by the word of Your grace, and by the visitation of Your all-holy Spirit: for You, O Lord, have said, You will be holy, for I am holy. O Lord our God, incomprehensible Word of God, one in substance with the Father and the Holy Spirit, co-eternal and indivisible, accept the pure hymn, in Your holy and bloodless sacrifices; with the cherubim, and seraphim, and from me, a sinful man, crying and saying:—
He takes up the gifts and says aloud:—
XL. The holy things unto holy.
The People.
One only is holy, one Lord Jesus Christ, to the glory of God the Father, to whom be glory to all eternity.
The Deacon.
XLI. For the remission of our sins, and the propitiation of our souls, and for every soul in tribulation and distress, needing the mercy and succour of God, and for the return of the erring, the healing of the sick, the deliverance of the captives, the rest of our fathers and brethren who have fallen asleep aforetime;
Let us all say fervently, Lord, have mercy:
The People (twelve times).
Lord, have mercy.
Then the Priest breaks the bread, and holds the half in his right hand, and the half in his left, and dips that in his right hand in the chalice, saying:—
The union of the all-holy body and precious blood of our Lord and God and Saviour, Jesus Christ.
Then he makes the sign of the cross on that in his left hand: then with that which has been signed the other half: then immediately he begins to divide, and before all to give to each chalice a single piece, saying:—
It has been made one, and sanctified, and perfected, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, now and ever.
And when he makes the sign of the cross on the bread, he says:—
Behold the Lamb of God, the Son of the Father, that takes away the sin of the world, sacrificed for the life and salvation of the world.
And when he gives a single piece to each chalice he says:—
A holy portion of Christ, full of grace and truth, of the Father, and of the Holy Spirit, to whom be the glory and the power to all eternity.
Then he begins to divide, and to say:—
XLII. The Lord is my Shepherd, I shall not want. In green pastures, and so on.
I will bless the Lord at all times, and so on.
I will extol You, my God, O King, and so on .
O praise the Lord, all you nations, and so on .
The Deacon.
Sir, pronounce the blessing.
The Priest.
The Lord will bless us, and keep us without condemnation for the communion of His pure gifts, now and always, and for ever.
And when they have filled, the Deacon says:—
Sir, pronounce the blessing.
The Priest says:—
The Lord will bless us, and make us worthy with the pure touchings of our fingers to take the live coal, and place it upon the mouths of the faithful for the purification and renewal of their souls and bodies, now and always.
O taste and see that the Lord is good; who is parted and not divided; distributed to the faithful and not expended; for the remission of sins, and the life everlasting; now and always, and for ever.
The Deacon.
In the peace of Christ, let us sing:
The Singers.
O taste and see that the Lord is good.
The Priest says the prayer before the communion.
O Lord our God, the heavenly bread, the life of the universe, I have sinned against Heaven, and before You, and am not worthy to partake of Your pure mysteries; but as a merciful God, make me worthy by Your grace, without condemnation to partake of Your holy body and precious blood, for the remission of sins, and life everlasting.
XLIII. Then he distributes to the clergy; and when the deacons take the disks and the chalices for distribution to the people, the Deacon, who takes the first disk, says:—
Sir, pronounce the blessing.
The Priest replies:—
Glory to God who has sanctified and is sanctifying us all.
The Deacon says:—
Be exalted, O God, over the heavens, and Your glory over all the earth, and Your kingdom endures to all eternity.
And when the Deacon is about to put it on the side-table the Priest says:—
Blessed be the name of the Lord our God for ever.
The Deacon.
In the fear of God, and in faith and love, draw near.
The People.
Blessed is He that comes in the name of the Lord.
And again, when he sets down the disk upon the side-table, he says:—
Sir, pronounce the blessing.
The Priest.
Save Your people, O God, and bless Your inheritance.
The Priest again.
Glory to our God, who has sanctified us all.
And when he has put the chalice back on the holy table, the Priest says:—
Blessed be the name of the Lord to all eternity.
The Deacons and the People say:—
Fill our mouths with Your praise, O Lord, and fill our lips with joy, that we may sing of Your glory, of Your greatness all the day.
And again:—
We render thanks to You, Christ our God, that You have made us worthy to partake of Your body and blood, for the remission of sins, and for life everlasting. We pray You, in Your goodness and love, keep us without condemnation.
The prayer of incense at the last entrance.
XLIV. We render thanks to You, the Saviour and God of all, for all the good things You have given us, and for the participation of Your holy and pure mysteries, and we offer to You this incense, praying: Keep us under the shadow of Your wings, and count us worthy till our last breath to partake of Your holy rites for the sanctification of our souls and bodies, for the inheritance of the kingdom of heaven: for You, O God, are our sanctification, and we send up praise and thanksgiving to You, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
The Deacon begins in the entrance.
Glory to You, glory to You, glory to You, O Christ the King, only-begotten Word of the Father, that You have counted us, Your sinful and unworthy servants, worthy to enjoy your pure mysteries for the remission of sins, and for life everlasting: glory to You.
And when he has made the entrance, the Deacon begins to speak thus:—
XLV. Again and again, and at all times, in peace, let us beseech the Lord.
That the participation of His Holy rites may be to us for the turning away from every wicked thing, for our support on the journey to life everlasting, for the communion and gift of the Holy Spirit;
Let us pray.
The Priest prays.
Commemorating our all-holy, pure, most glorious, blessed Lady, the God-Mother and Ever-Virgin Mary, and all the saints that have been well-pleasing to You since the world began, let us devote ourselves, and one another, and our whole life, to Christ our God:
The People.
To You, O Lord.
The Priest.
XLVI. O God, who through Your great and unspeakable love condescended to the weakness of Your servants, and hast counted us worthy to partake of this heavenly table, condemn not us sinners for the participation of Your pure mysteries; but keep us, O good One, in the sanctification of Your Holy Spirit, that being made holy, we may find part and inheritance with all Your saints that have been well-pleasing to You since the world began, in the light of Your countenance, through the mercy of Your only-begotten Son, our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus Christ, with whom You are blessed, together with Your all-holy, and good, and quickening Spirit: for blessed and glorified is Your all-precious and glorious name, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, now and ever, and to all eternity.
The People.
The Priest.
Peace be to all.
The People.
And to your spirit.
The Deacon.
XLVII. Let us bow our heads to the Lord.
The Priest.
O God, great and marvellous, look upon Your servants, for we have bowed our heads to You. Stretch forth Your hand, strong and full of blessings, and bless Your people. Keep Your inheritance, that always and at all times we may glorify You, our only living and true God, the holy and consubstantial Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, now and ever, and to all eternity.
For unto You is becoming and is due praise from us all, and honour, and adoration, and thanksgiving, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, now and ever.
The Deacon.
XLVIII. In the peace of Christ let us sing:
And again he says:—
In the peace of Christ let us go on:
The People.
In the name of the Lord. Sir, pronounce the blessing.
Dismission prayer, spoken by the Deacon.
Going on from glory to glory, we praise You, the Saviour of our souls. Glory to Father, and Son, and Holy Spirit now and ever, and to all eternity. We praise You, the Saviour of our souls.
The Priest says a prayer from the altar to the sacristy.
XLIX. Going on from strength to strength, and having fulfilled all the divine service in Your temple, even now we beseech You, O Lord our God, make us worthy of perfect loving-kindness; make straight our path: root us in Your fear, and make us worthy of the heavenly kingdom, in Christ Jesus our Lord, with whom You are blessed, together with Your all-holy, and good, and quickening Spirit, now and always, and for ever.
The Deacon.
L. Again and again, and at all times, in peace let us beseech the Lord.
Prayer said in the sacristy after the dismissal.
You have given unto us, O Lord, sanctification in the communion of the all-holy body and precious blood of Your only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ; give unto us also the grace of Your good Spirit, and keep us blameless in the faith, lead us unto perfect adoption and redemption, and to the coming joys of eternity; for You are our sanctification and light, O God, and Your only-begotten Son, and Your all-holy Spirit, now and ever, and to all eternity. Amen.
The Deacon.
In the peace of Christ let us keep watch.
The Priest.
Blessed is God, who blesses and sanctifies through the communion of the holy, and quickening, and pure mysteries, now and ever, and to all eternity. Amen.
Then the prayer of propitiation.
O Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the living God, Lamb and Shepherd, who takest away the sin of the world, who freely forgave their debt to the two debtors, and gavest remission of her sins to the woman that was a sinner, who gavest healing to the paralytic, with the remission of his sins; forgive, remit, pardon, O God, our offenses, voluntary and involuntary, in knowledge and in ignorance, by transgression and by disobedience, which Your all-holy Spirit knows better than Your servants do:
And if men, carnal and dwelling in this world, have in anything erred from Your commandments, either moved by the devil, whether in word or in deed, or if they have come under a curse, or by reason of some special vow, I entreat and beseech Your unspeakable loving-kindness, that they may be set free from their word, and released from the oath and the special vow, according to Your goodness.
Verily, O Sovereign Lord, hear my supplication on behalf of Your servants, and pass by all their errors, remembering them no more; forgive them every transgression, voluntary and involuntary; deliver them from everlasting punishment: for You are He that hast commanded us, saying, Whatsoever things you bind upon earth, shall be bound in heaven; and whatsoever things you loose upon earth, shall be loosed in heaven: for, you are our God, a God able to pity, and to save and to forgive sins; and glory is due unto You, with the eternal Father, and the quickening Spirit, now and ever, and to all eternity. Amen.
The Divine Liturgy of the Holy Apostle and Evangelist Mark1
The Disciple of the Holy Peter.2
I. The Priest: Peace be to all.
The People: And to thy spirit.
The Deacon: Pray.
The People: Lord, have mercy; Lord, have mercy; Lord, have mercy.
The Priest prays secretly:3 We give Thee thanks, yea, more than thanks, O Lord our God, the Father of our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus Christ, for all Thy goodness at all times and in all places, because Thou hast shielded, rescued, helped, and guided us all the days of our lives, and brought us unto this hour, permitting us gain to stand before Thee in Thy holy place, that we may implore forgiveness of our sins and propitiation to all Thy people. We pray and beseech Thee, merciful God, to grant in Thy goodness that we may spend this holy day4 and all the time of our lives without sin, in fulness of joy, health, safety, holiness, and reverence of Thee. But all envy, all fear, all temptation, all the influence of Satan, all the snares of wicked men, do Thou, O Lord, drive away from us, and from Thy Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. Bestow upon us, O Lord, what is good and meet. Whatever sin we commit in thought, word, or deed, do Thou in Thy goodness and mercy be pleased to pardon. Leave us not, O Lord, while we hope in Thee; nor lead us into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one and from his works, through the grace, mercy, and love of Thine only-begotten Son.
(In a loud voice.) Through whom and with whom be glory and power to Thee, in Thy most holy, good, and life-giving Spirit, now, henceforth, and for evermore.
The People: Amen.
The Priest: II. Peace be to all.
The People: And to thy spirit.
The Deacon: Pray for the king.5
The People: Lord, have mercy;6 Lord, have mercy; Lord, have mercy.
The Priest prays: O God, Sovereign Lord, the Father of our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus Christ, we pray and beseech Thee to grant that our king may enjoy peace, and be just and brave. Subdue under him, O God, all his adversaries and enemies. Gird on thy shield and armour, and rise to his aid. Give him the victory, O God, that his heart may be set on peace and the praise of Thy holy name, that we too7 in his peaceful reign8 may spend a calm and tranquil life in all reverence and godly fear, through the grace, mercy, and love of Thine only-begotten Son:
(In a loud voice.) Through whom and with whom be glory and power to Thee, with Thy most holy, good, and life-giving Spirit, now, henceforth, and for evermore.
The People: Amen.
The Priest: III. Peace be to all.
The People: And to thy spirit.
The Deacon: Pray for the papas9 and the bishop.
The People: Lord, have mercy; Lord, have mercy; Lord, have mercy.
The Priest: O Sovereign and Almighty God, the Father of our Lord, God, and Saviour Jesus Christ, we pray and beseech Thee to defend in Thy good mercy our most holy and blessed high priest our Father in God D, and our most reverend Bishop D. Preserve them for us through many years in peace, while they according to Thy holy and blessed will fulfil the sacred priesthood committed to their care, and dispense aright the word of truth; with all the orthodox bishops, elders, deacons, sub-deacons, readers, singers, and laity, with the entire body of the Holy and only Catholic Church. Graciously bestow upon them peace, health, and salvation. The prayers they offer up for us, and we for them, do Thou, O Lord, receive at Thy holy, heavenly, and reasonable altar. But all the enemies of Thy Holy Church put Thou speedily under their feet, through the grace, mercy, and love of Thine only-begotten Son:
(Aloud.) Through whom and with whom be glory and power to Thee, with Thy all-holy, good, and life-giving Spirit, now, henceforth, and for evermore.
The People: Amen.
The Priest: IV. Peace be to all.
The People: And to thy spirit.
The Deacon: Stand10 and pray.
The People: Lord have mercy (thrice).
The Priest offers up the prayer of entrance, and for incense:
The Priest: O Sovereign Lord our God, who hast chosen the lamp of the twelve apostles with its twelve lights, and hast sent them forth to proclaim throughout the whole world and teach the Gospel of Thy kingdom, and to heal sickness and every weakness among the people, and hast breathed upon their faces and said unto them, Receive the Holy Spirit the Comforter: whosesoever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whosesoever sins ye retain, they are retained: Breathe also Thy Holy Spirit upon us Thy servants, who, standing around, are about to enter on Thy holy service,11 upon the bishops, elders, deacons, readers, singers, and laity, with the entire body of the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church.From the curse and execration, from condemnation, imprisonment, and banishment, and from the portion of the adversary;
O Lord, deliver us.
Purify our lives and cleanse our hearts from all pollution and from all wickedness, that with pure heart and conscience we may offer to Thee this incense for a sweet-smelling savour, and for the remission of our sins and the sins of all Thy people, through the grace, mercy, and love of Thine only-begotten Son:
(Aloud.) Through whom and with whom be the glory and the power to Thee, with Thy all-holy, good, and life-giving Spirit, now, henceforth, and for evermore.
The People: Amen.
The Deacon: V. Stand.
They sing:- Only-begotten Son and Word,12 etc.
The Gospel is carried in, and the Deacon says:- Let us pray.
The Priest: Peace be to all.
The People: And to thy spirit.
The Deacon: Let us pray.
The People: Lord, have mercy.
The Priest says the prayer of the Trisagion: O Sovereign Lord Christ Jesus, the co-eternal Word of the eternal Father, who wast made in all things like as we are, but without sin, for the salvation of our race; who hast sent forth Thy holy disciples and apostles to proclaim and teach the Gospel of Thy kingdom, and to heal all disease, all sickness among Thy people, be pleased now, O Lord, to send forth Thy light and Thy truth. Enlighten the eyes of our minds, that we may understand Thy divine oracles. Fit us to become hearers, and not only hearers, but doers of Thy word, that we, becoming fruitful, and yielding good fruit from thirty to an hundred fold, may be deemed worthy of the kingdom of heaven.
(Aloud.) Let Thy mercy speedily overtake us, O Lord. For Thou art the bringer of good tidings, the Saviour and Guardian of our souls and bodies and we offer glory, thanks, and the Trisagion to Thee, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, now, henceforth, and for evermore.
The People: Amen. Holy God, holy mighty, holy immortal. Holy, holy, holy,13 etc.
VI. After the Trisagion the Priest makes the sign of the cross over the people, and says:- Peace be to all.
The People: And to thy spirit.
Then follow the Let us attend;14 The Apostle and Prologue of the Hallelujah.15 The Deacons, after a prescribed form, say:- Lord, bless us.16
The Priest says:- May the Lord17 in His mercy bless and help us, now, henceforth, and for evermore.
The Priest before the Gospel is read, offers incense,18 and says:- Accept at Thy holy, heavenly, and reasonable altar, O Lord, the incense we offer in presence of Thy sacred glory. Send down upon us in return the grace of Thy Holy Spirit, for Thou art blessed, and let Thy glory encircle us.VII.
The Deacon: when he is about to read the Gospel, says:-Lord, bless us.
The Priest: May the Lord, who is the blessed God, bless and strengthen us, and make us hearers of His holy Gospel, now, henceforth, and for evermore. Amen.
The Deacon: Stand and let us hear the holy Gospel.
The Priest: Peace be to all.
The People: And to thy spirit.VIII.
The Deacon: reads the Gospel, and the Priest says the prayer of the Collect.19 Look down in mercy and compassion, O Lord, and heal the sick among Thy people.May all our brethren who have gone or who are about to go abroad, safely reach their destination in due season.Send down the gracious rain upon the thirsty lands, and make the rivers20 flow in full stream, according to Thy grace.The fruits of the land do Thou, O Lord, fill with seed and make ripe for the harvest.In peace, courage, justice, and tranquillity preserve the kingdom of Thy servant, whom Thou hast deemed worthy to reign over this land.From evil days, from famine and pestilence, from the assault of barbarians, defend, O Lord, this Christ-loving city, lowly and worthy of Thy compassion, as Thou didst spare Nineveh of old.For Thou art full of mercy and compassion, and rememberest not the iniquities of men against them.Thou hast said through Thy prophet Isaiah,-I will defend this city, to save it for mine own sake, and for my servant David's sake.Wherefore we pray and beseech Thee to defend in Thy good mercy this city, for the sake of the martyr and evangelist Mark, who has shown us the way of salvation through the grace, mercy, and love of Thine only-begotten Son. (Aloud.)Through whom and with whom be glory and power to Thee, with Thy all-holy, good, and life-giving Spirit.
The Deacon: IX. Begin.
Then they say the verse.21 The Deacon says-The three.22
The Priest: O Sovereign and Almighty God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, we pray and beseech Thee to fill our hearts with the peace of heaven, and to bestow moreover the peace of this life. Preserve for us through many years our most holy and blessed Papas D,23 and our most pious Bishop D, while they, according to Thy holy and blessed will, peacefully fulfil the holy priesthood committed to their care, and dispense aright the word of truth, with all the orthodox bishops, elders, deacons, sub-deacons,24 readers, singers, with the entire body of the holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. Bless our meetings, O Lord. Grant that we may hold them without let or hindrance, according to Thy holy will. Be pleased to give to us, and Thy servants after us for ever, houses of praise and prayer. Rise, O Lord, and let Thine enemies be scattered. Let all who hate Thy holy name be put to flight. Bless Thy faithful and orthodox people. Multiply them by thousands and tens of thousands.Let no deadly sin prevail against them, or against Thy holy people, through the grace, mercy, and love of Thine only-begotten Son.
(Aloud.) Through whom and with whom be glory and power to Thee, with Thy all-holy, good, and life-giving Spirit.
The People: Amen.
The Priest: Peace be to all.
The People: And to thy spirit.
The Deacon: Take care that none of the catechumens25 -
Then they sing the Cherubic hymn.26 X. The Priest offers incense at the entrance,27 and prays:- O Lord our God, who lackest nothing, accept this incense offered by an unworthy hand, and deem us all worthy of Thy blessing, for Thou art our sanctification, and we ascribe glory to Thee.
The holy things are carried to the altar, and the Priest prays thus:- O holy, highest, awe-inspiring God, who dwellest among the saints, sanctify us, and deem us worthy of Thy reverend priesthood. Bring us to Thy precious altar with a good conscience, and cleanse our hearts from all pollution. Drive away from us all unholy thoughts, and sanctify our souls and minds. Grant that, with reverence of Thee, we may perform the service of our holy fathers, and propitiate Thy presence through all time; for Thou art He who blesseth and sanctifieth all things, and to Thee we ascribe glory and thanks.
The Deacon: XI. Salute one another.
The Priest says the prayer of salutation: O Sovereign and Almighty Lord, look down from heaven on Thy Church, on all Thy people, and on all Thy flock. Save us all, Thy unworthy servants, the sheep of Thy fold. Give us Thy peace, Thy help, and Thy love, and send to us the gift of Thy Holy Spirit, that with a pure heart and a good conscience we may salute one another with an holy kiss, without hypocrisy, and with no hostile purpose, but guileless and pure in one spirit, in the bond of peace and love, one body and one spirit, in one faith, even as we have been called in one hope of our calling, that we may all meet in the divine and boundless love, in Christ Jesus our Lord, with whom Thou art blessed.
Then the Priest offers the incense, and says:- The incense is offered to Thy name. Let it ascend, we implore Thee, from the hands of Thy poor and sinful servants to Thy heavenly altar for a sweet-smelling savour, and the propitiation of all Thy people. For all glory, honour, adoration, and thanks are due unto Thee, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, now, henceforth, and for evermore. Amen.
After the Salutation,28 the Deacon in a loud voice says:- XII. Stand and make the offering duly.29
The Priest: making the sign of the cross over the disks and chalices, says in a loud voice (the Nicene Creed):-I believe in one God, etc.
The Deacon: Stand for prayer.
The Priest: Peace be to all.
The Deacon: Pray for those who present the offering.
The Priest says the prayer of the Oblation.30 O Sovereign Lord, Christ Jesus the Word, who art equal in power with the Father and the Holy Spirit, the great high priest; the bread that came down from heaven, and saved our souls from ruin; who gavest Thyself, a spotless Lamb, for the life of the world....
We pray and beseech Thee, O Lord, in Thy mercy, to let Thy presence rest upon this bread and these chalices31 on the all-holy table, while angels, archangels, and Thy holy priests stand round and minister for Thy glory and the renewing of our souls, through the grace, mercy, and love of Thine only-begotten Son, through whom and with whom be glory and power to Thee.
And when the People say, And from the Holy Spirit was He made flesh;
The Priest makes the sign of the cross,32 and says:- And was crucified for us.
The Priest makes the sign of the cross again,33 and says:- And to the Holy Spirit.
XIII.34 In like manner also, as after the Creed,35 he makes the sign of the cross upon the People, and says aloud:- The Lord be with all.
The People: And with thy spirit.
The Priest: Let us lift up our hearts.
The People: We lift them up to the Lord.
The Priest: Let us give thanks to the Lord.
The People: It is meet and right.36
The Priest begins the Anaphoral prayer: O Lord God, Sovereign and Almighty Father, truly it is meet and right, holy and becoming, and good for our souls, to praise, bless, and thank Thee; to make open confession to Thee by day and night with voice, lips, and heart without ceasing;
To Thee who hast made the heaven, and all that is therein; the earth, and all that is therein; The sea, fountains, rivers, lakes, and all that is therein;
To Thee who, after Thine own image and likeness, hast made man, upon whom Thou didst also bestow the joys of Paradise;
And when he trespassed against Thee, Thou didst neither neglect nor forsake him, good Lord,
But didst recall him by Thy law, instruct him by Thy prophets, restore and renew him by this awful, life-giving, and heavenly mystery.
And all this Thou hast done by Thy Wisdom and the Light of truth, Thine only-begotten Son, our Lord, God, and Saviour Jesus Christ, Through whom, thanking Thee with Him and the Holy Spirit,
We offer this reasonable and bloodless sacrifice, which all nations, from the rising to the setting of the sun, from the north and the south, present to Thee, O Lord; for great is Thy name among all peoples, and in all places are incense, sacrifice, and oblation offered to Thy holy name.37
XIV. We pray and beseech Thee, O lover of men, O good Lord,38 remember in Thy good mercy the Holy and only Catholic and Apostolic Church throughout the whole world, and all Thy people, and all the sheep of this fold.39 Vouchsafe to the hearts of all of us the peace of heaven, but grant us also the peace of this life.
Guide and direct in all peace the king,40 army, magistrates, councils,41 peoples, and neighbour-hoods, and all our outgoings and incomings.
O King of Peace, grant us Thy peace in unity and love. May we be Thine, O Lord; for we know no other God but Thee, and name no other name but Thine. Give life unto the souls of all of us, and let no deadly sin prevail against us, or against all Thy people.
Look down in mercy and compassion, O Lord, and heal the sick among Thy people. Deliver them and us, O Lord, from sickness and disease, and drive away the spirit of weakness.
Raise up those who have been long afflicted, and heal those who are vexed with unclean spirits.
Have mercy on all who are in prison, or in mines, or on trial, or condemned, or in exile, or crushed by cruel bondage or tribute. Deliver them, O Lord, for Thou art our God, who settest the captives free; who raisest up the downtrodden; who givest hope to the hopeless, and help to the helpless; who liftest up the fallen; who givest refuge to the shipwrecked, and vengeance to the oppressed.
Pity, relieve, and restore every Christian soul that is afflicted or wandering.
But do Thou, O Lord, the physician of our souls and bodies, the guardian of all flesh, look down, and by Thy saving power heal all the diseases of soul and body.
Guide and prosper our brethren who have gone or who are about to go abroad. Whether they travel by land, or river, or lake, by public road, or in whatever way journeying, bring them everywhere to a safe and tranquil haven. Be pleased to be with them by land and sea, and restore them in health and joy to joyful and healthful homes.
Ever defend, O Lord, our journey through this life from trouble and storm.
Send down rich and copious showers on the dry and thirsty lands.
Gladden and revive the face of the earth, that it may spring forth and rejoice in the raindrops.
Make the waters of the river flow in full stream.
Gladden and revive the face of the earth with the swelling waters.
Fill all the channels of the streams, and multiply the fruits of the earth.
Bless, O Lord, the fruits of the earth, and keep them safe and unharmed. Fill them with seed, and make them ripe for the harvest.
Bless even now, O Lord, Thy yearly crown of blessing for the sake of the poor of Thy people, the widow, the orphan, and the stranger, and for the sake of all of us who have our hope in Thee and call upon Thy holy name; for the eyes of all are upon Thee, and Thou givest them bread in due season.
O Thou who givest food to all flesh, fill our hearts with joy and gladness, that at all times, having all sufficiency, we may abound to every good work in Christ Jesus our Lord.
O King of kings and Lord of lords, defend the kingdom of Thy servant, our orthodox and Christ-loving sovereign,42 whom Thou hast deemed worthy to reign over this land in peace, courage, and justice.
Subdue under him, O Lord, every enemy and adversary, whether at home or abroad. Gird on Thy shield and armour, and rise to his aid. Draw Thy sword, and help him to fight against them that persecute him. Shield him in the day of battle, and grant that the fruit of his loins may sit upon his throne.
Be kind to him, O Lord, for the sake of Thy Holy and Apostolic Church, and all Thy Christ-loving people, that we too in his peaceful reign may live a calm and tranquil life, in all reverence and godliness.
O Lord our God, give peace to the souls of our fathers and brethren who have fallen asleep in Jesus, remembering our forefathers of old, our fathers, patriarchs, prophets, apostles, martyrs, confessors, bishops, and the souls of all the holy and just men who have died in the Lord.
Especially remember those whose memory we this day celebrate, and our holy father Mark,43 the apostle and evangelist, who has shown us the way of salvation.44
The Deacon: Lord, bless us.
The Priest: The Lord will bless thee in His grace, now, henceforth, and for evermore.
The Deacon reads the record of the dead.45
The Priest bows and prays: XV. Give peace, O Sovereign Lord our God, to the souls of all who dwell in the tabernacles of Thy saints. Graciously bestow upon them in Thy kingdom Thy promised blessing, which eye hath not seen, and ear hath not heard, nor has it entered into the heart of man what Thou, O God, hast prepared for those who love Thy holy name. Give peace to their souls, and deem them worthy of the kingdom of heaven.46
Grant that we may end our lives as Christians, acceptable unto Thee and without sin, and be pleased to give us part and lot with all Thy saints.
Accept, O God, by Thy ministering archangels at Thy holy, heavenly, and reasonable altar in the spacious heavens, the thank-offerings of those who offer sacrifice and oblation, and of those who desire to offer much or little, in secret or openly, but have it not to give.
Accept the thank-offerings of those who have presented them this day, as Thou didst accept the gifts of Thy righteous Abel:
The Priest offers incense, and says:-47 -As Thou didst accept the sacrifice of our father Abraham, the incense of Zacharias, the alms of Cornelius, and the widow's two mites, accept also the thank-offerings of these, and give them for the things of time the things of eternity, and for the things of earth the things of heaven. Defend, O Lord, our most holy and blessed Papas48 D, whom Thou hast fore-ordained to rule over Thy Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church, and our most pious Bishop D, that they through many years of peace may, according to Thy holy and blessed will, fulfil the sacred priesthood committed to their care, and dispense aright the word of truth.
Remember the orthodox bishops everywhere, the elders, deacons, sub-deacons, readers, singers, monks,49 virgins, widows, and laity.
Remember, O Lord, the holy city50 of our God, Jesus Christ; and the imperial city;51 and this city of ours, and all cities and all lands, and the peace and safety of those who dwell therein in the orthodox faith of Christ.
Be mindful, O Lord, of the return of the back-sliding, and of every Christian soul that is afflicted and oppressed, and in need of Thy divine mercy and help.
Be mindful, O Lord, of our brethren in captivity. Grant that they may find mercy and compassion with those who have led them captive.
Be mindful also of us, O Lord, Thy sinful and unworthy servants, and blot out our sins in Thy goodness and mercy.
Be mindful also of me, Thy lowly, sinful, and unworthy servant, and in Thy mercy blot out my sins.Be with us, O Lord, who minister unto Thy holy name.
Bless our meetings, O Lord.
Utterly uproot idolatry from the world.52
Crush under our feet Satan, and all his wicked influence.
Humble now, as at all times, the enemies of Thy Church.
Lay bare their pride.
Speedily show them their weakness.
Bring to naught the wicked plots they contrive against us.
Arise, O Lord, and let Thine enemies be scattered, and let all who hate Thy holy name be put to flight.
Do Thou bless a thousand times ten thousand Thy faithful and orthodox people while they do Thy holy will.
The Deacon: Let those who are seated stand.
The Priest says the following prayer:- Deliver the captive; rescue the distressed feed the hungry; comfort the faint-hearted, convert the erring; enlighten the darkened; raise the fallen; confirm the wavering; heal the sick; and guide them all, good Lord, into the way of salvation, and into Thy sacred fold. Deliver us from our iniquities; protect and defend us at all times.
The Deacon: Turn to the east.
The Priest: bows and prays.For Thou art far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but in that which is to come. Round Thee stand ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands of holy angels and hosts of archangels; and Thy two most honoured creatures, the many-eyed cherubim and the six-winged seraphim. With twain they cover their faces, and with twain they cover their feet, and with twain they do fly; and they cry one to another for ever with the voice of praise, and glorify Thee, O Lord, singing aloud the triumphal and thrice-holy53 hymn to Thy great glory:-
Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Sabaoth. Heaven and earth are full of Thy glory.
(Aloud.) Thou dost ever sanctify all men; but with all who glorify Thee, receive also, O Sovereign Lord, our sanctification, who with them celebrate Thy praise, and say:-
The People: Holy, holy, holy Lord.
The Priest makes the sign of the cross over the sacred mysteries: XVI. For truly heaven and earth are full of Thy glory, through the manifestation of our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus Christ. Fill, O God, this sacrifice with Thy blessing, through the inspiration of Thy all-holy Spirit. For the Lord Himself, our God and universal King, Christ Jesus, reclining at meat the same night on which He delivered Himself up for our sins and died in the flesh for all, took bread in His holy, pure, and immaculate hands, and lifting His eyes to His Father, our God, and the God of all, gave thanks; and when He had blessed, hallowed, and broken the bread, gave it to His holy and blessed disciples and apostles, saying:-
(Aloud.) Take, eat.
The Deacon: Pray earnestly.
The Priest (aloud): For this is my body, which is broken for you, and divided for the remission of sins.
The People: Amen.
The Priest prays: After the same manner also, when He had supped, He took the cup of wine mingled with water, and lifting His eyes to Thee, His Father, our God, and the God of all, gave thanks; and when He had blessed and filled it with the Holy Spirit, gave it to His holy and blessed disciples and apostles, saying:-(Aloud.)Drink ye all of it.
The Deacon: Pray earnestly again.
The Priest (aloud): For this is my blood of the new testament which is shed for you and for many, and distributed among you for the remission of sins.
The People: Amen.
The Priest prays thus:- This do ye in remembrance of me; for as often as ye eat this bread and drink this cup, ye do show forth my death and acknowledge my resurrection and ascension until I come. O Sovereign and Almighty Lord, King of heaven, while we show forth54 the death of Thine only-begotten Son, our Lord, God, and Saviour Jesus Christ, and acknowledge His blessed resurrection from the dead on the third day, we do also openly declare His ascension into heaven, and His sitting on the right hand of Thee, God and Father, and await His second terrible and dreadful coming, in which He will come to judge righteously the quick and the dead, and to render to each man according to his works.
XVII. O Lord our God, we have placed before Thee what is Thine from Thine own mercies. We pray and beseech Thee, O good and merciful God, to send down from Thy holy heaven, from the mansion Thou hast prepared, and from Thine infinite bosom, the Paraclete Himself,55 holy, powerful, and life-giving, the Spirit of truth, who spoke in the law, the apostles, and prophets; who is everywhere present, and filleth all things, freely working sanctification. in whom He will with Thy good pleasure; one in His nature; manifold in His working; the fountain of divine blessing; of like substance56 with Thee, and proceeding from Thee; sitting with Thee on the throne of Thy kingdom, and with Thine only-begotten Son, our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus Christ. Send down upon us also and upon this bread and upon these chalices Thy Holy Spirit, that by His all-powerful and divine influence He may sanctify and consecrate them, and make this bread the body.57
The People: Amen.
The Priest: (aloud).And this cup the blood of the new testament, of the very Lord, and God, and Saviour, and universal King Christ Jesus.
The Deacon: Deacons, come down.
The Priest (aloud): That to all of us who partake thereof they may tend unto faith, sobriety, healing, temperance, sanctification, the renewal of soul, body, and spirit, participation in the blessedness of eternal life and immortality, the glory of Thy most holy name, and the remission of sins, that Thy most holy, precious, and glorious name may be praised and glorified in this as in all things.
The People: As it was and is.
The Priest: XVIII. Peace be to all.
The Deacon: Pray.
The Priest prays in secret: O God of light, Father of life, Author of grace, Creator of worlds, Founder of knowledge, Giver of wisdom, Treasure of holiness, Teacher of pure prayers, Benefactor of our souls, who givest to the faint-hearted who put their trust in Thee those things into which the angels desire to look: O Sovereign Lord, who hast brought us up from the depths of darkness to light, who hast given us life from death, who hast graciously bestowed upon us freedom from slavery, who hast scattered the darkness of sin within us, through the presence of Thine only-begotten Son, do Thou now also, through the visitation of Thy all-holy Spirit, enlighten the eyes of our understanding, that we may partake without fear of condemnation of this heavenly and immortal food, and sanctify us wholly in soul, body, and spirit, that with Thy holy disciples and apostles we may say this prayer to Thee: Our Father who art in heaven, etc.
(Aloud.) And grant, O Sovereign Lord, in Thy mercy, that we with freedom of speech, without fear of condemnation, with pure heart and enlightened soul, with face that is not ashamed, and with hollowed lips, may venture to call upon Thee, the holy God who art in heaven, as our Father, and say:-
The People: Our Father who art in heaven, etc.
The Priest prays:58 - Verily, Lord, Lord, lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil; for Thy abundant mercy showeth that we through our great infirmity are unable to resist it.Grant that we may find a way whereby we may be able to withstand temptation; for Thou hast given us power to tread upon serpents, and scorpions, and all the power of the enemy.
(Aloud.) For Thine is the kingdom and power.
The People: Amen.
The Priest: XIX. Peace be to all.
The Deacon: Bow your heads to Jesus.59
The People: Thou, Lord.
The Priest prays: O Sovereign and Almighty Lord,60 who sittest upon the cherubim, and art glorified by the seraphim; who hast made the heaven out of waters, and adorned it with choirs of stars; who hast placed an unbodied host of angels in the highest heavens to sing Thy praise for ever; before Thee have we bowed our souls and bodies in token of our bondage. We beseech Thee to repel the dark assaults of sin from our understanding, and to gladden our minds with the divine radiance of Thy Holy Spirit, that, filled with the knowledge of Thee, we may worthily partake of the mercies set before us, the pure body and precious blood of Thine only-begotten Son, our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus Christ. Pardon all our sins in Thy abundant and unsearchable goodness, through the grace, mercy, and love of Thine only-begotten Son:61
(Aloud.) Through whom and with whom be glory and power to Thee, with the all-holy, good, and life-giving Spirit.
The Priest: XX. Peace be to all.
The Deacon: With the fear of God.
The Priest prays: O holy, highest, awe-inspiring God, who dwellest among the saints, sanctify us by the word of Thy grace and by the inspiration of Thy all-holy Spirit; for Thou hast said, O Lord our God, Be ye holy; for I am holy. O Word of God, past finding out, consubstantial62 and co-eternal with the Father and the Holy Spirit, and sharer of their sovereignty, accept the pure song which cherubim and seraphim, and the unworthy lips of Thy sinful and unworthy servant, sing aloud.
The People: Lord, have mercy; Lord, have mercy; Lord, have mercy.
The Priest (aloud): Holy things for the holy.63
The People: One Father holy, one Son holy, one Spirit holy, in the unity of the Holy Spirit. Amen.64
The Deacon: For salvation and help.
The Priest makes the sign of the cross upon the people, and saith in a loud voice:- The Lord be with all.
The Priest breaks the bread, and saith:- Praise ye God.
The Priest divides it among those present, and saith:- The Lord will bless and help you through His great mercy.
The Priest says:- Command.
The Clergy say:- The Holy Spirit commands and sanctifies.
The Priest: Lo, they are sanctified and consecrated.The Clergy.One holy65 Father, etc. (thrice).
The Priest says:- The Lord be with all.The Clergy.And with thy spirit.
The Priest says: The Lord Himself hath blessed it.
The Priest partakes, and prays: According to Thy loving-kindness,66 etc.
Or, As the hart panteth after the water-brooks,67 etc.
When he gives the bread to the clergy, he says:- The holy body.
And when he gives the chalice, he says:- The precious blood of our Lord, and God, and Saviour.
After the service is completed, the Deacon says:- XXI. Stand for prayer.68
The Priest: Peace be to all.
The Deacon: Pray.
The Priest: says the prayer of thanksgiving.O Sovereign Lord our God, we thank Thee that we have partaken of Thy holy, pure, immortal, and heavenly mysteries, which Thou hast given for our good, and for the sanctification and salvation of our souls and bodies. We pray and beseech Thee, 0 Lord, to grant in Thy good mercy, that by partaking of the holy body and precious blood of Thine only-begotten Son, we may have faith that is not ashamed, love that is unfeigned, fulness of holiness, power to eschew evil and keep Thy commandments, provision for eternal life, and an acceptable defence before the awful tribunal of Thy Christ:
In a loud voice: Through whom and with whom be glory and power to Thee, with Thy all-holy, good, and life-giving Spirit.
The Priest then turns to the people, and says:- XXII. O mightiest King, co-eternal with the Father, who by Thy might hast vanquished hell and trodden death trader foot, who hast bound the strong man, and by Thy miraculous power and the enlightening radiance of Thy unspeakable Godhead hast raised Adam from the tomb, send forth Thy invisible right hand, which is full of blessing, and bless us all.
Pity us, O Lord, and strengthen us by Thy divine power.
Take away from us the sinful and wicked influence of carnal desire.
Let the light shine into our souls, and dispel the surrounding darkness of sin.
Unite us to the all-blessed assembly that is well-pleasing unto Thee; for through Thee and with Thee, all praise, honour, power, adoration, and thanksgiving are due unto the Father and the Holy Spirit, now, henceforth, and for evermore.
The Deacon: Depart in peace:
The People: In the name of the Lord.
The Priest (aloud): XXIII. The love of God the Father; the grace of the Son, our Lord Jesus Christ; the communion and gift of the All-holy Spirit, be with us all, now, henceforth, and for evermore.
The People: Amen. Blessed be the name of the Lord.
The Priest prays in the sacristy, and says:- O Lord, Thou hast given us sanctification by partaking of the all-holy body and precious blood of Thine only-begotten Son; give us the grace and gift of the All-holy Spirit. Enable us to lead blameless lives; and guide us unto the perfect redemption, and adoption, and the everlasting joys of the world to come. For Thou art our sanctification, and we ascribe glory unto Thee, the Father, and the Son, and the All-holy Spirit, now, henceforth, and for evermore.
The People: Amen.
The Priest: Peace be to all.
The People: And to thy spirit.
The Priest dismisses them, and says:- May God bless, who blesseth and sanctifieth, who defendeth and preserveth us all through the partaking of His holy mysteries; and who is blessed for ever. Amen.
The Liturgy of the Blessed Apostles.
Composed by St. a.d.aeus and St. Maris, Teachers of the Easterns.1
I.2 First: Glory to God in the highest, etc.Our Father which art in heaven.
Prayer: Strengthen, O our Lord and God, our weakness through Thy mercy, that we may administer the holy mystery which has been given for the renovation and salvation of our degraded nature, through the mercies of Thy beloved Son the Lord of all.
On common days: Adored, glorified, lauded, celebrated, exalted, and blessed in heaven and on earth, be the adorable and glorious name of Thine ever-glorious Trinity, O Lord of all.
On common days they sing the Psalm (xv.), Lord, who shall dwell in Thy tabernacle? entire with its canon,3 of the mystery of the sacraments.
(Aloud.) Who shall shout with joy? etc.
Prayer: II. Before the resplendent throne of Thy majesty, O Lord, and the exalted and sublime throne of Thy glory, and on the awful seat of the strength of Thy love and the propiatory altar which Thy will hath established, in the region of Thy pasture,4 with thousands of cherubim praising Thee, and ten thousands of seraphim sanctifying Thee, we draw near, adore, thank, and glorify Thee always, O Lord of all.
On commemorations and Fridays: Thy name, great and holy, illustrious and blessed, the blessed and incomprehensible name of Thy glorious Trinity, and Thy kindness to our race, we ought at all times to bless, adore, and glorify, O Lord of all.
Responsory5 at the chancel, as above: Who commanded, etc.
To the priest, etc.
Prayer: How breathes in us, O our Lord and God, the sweet fragrance of the sweetness of Thy love; illumined are our souls, through the knowledge of Thy truth: may we be rendered worthy of receiving the manifestation of Thy beloved from Thy holy heavens: there shall we render thanks unto Thee, and, in the meantime, glorify Thee without ceasing in Thy Church, crowned and filled with every aid and blessing, because Thou art Lord and Father, Creator of all.
III. Prayer of Incense: We shall repeat the hymn to Thy glorious Trinity, O Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.
On fast-days: And on account, etc.
At the commemoration of saints: Thou, O Lord, art truly the raiser up of our bodies: Thou art the good Saviour of our souls, and the secure preserver of our life; and we ought to thank Thee continually, to adore and glorify Thee, O Lord of all.
At the lessons.6 Holy art Thou, worthy of praise, mighty, immortal, who dwellest in the holies, and Thy will resteth in them: have regard unto us, O Lord; be merciful unto us, and pity us, as Thou art our helper in all circumstances, O Lord of all.
IV. At the apostle.7 Enlighten, O our Lord and God, the movements of our meditations to hear and understand the sweet listenings to Thy life-giving and divine commands; and grant unto us through Thy grace and mercy to gather from them the assurance of love, and hope, and salvation suitable to soul and body, and we shall sing to Thee everlasting glory without ceasing and always, O Lord of all.
On fast-days: To Thee, the wise governor, etc.
V. Descending, he shall salute the Gospel, saying this prayer before the altar: Thee, the renowned seed of Thy Father, and the image of the person of Thy Father, who wast revealed in the body of our humanity, and didst arise to us in the light of Thy annunciation, Thee we thank, adore, etc.
And after the proclamation:8 - Thee, O Lord God Almighty, we beseech and entreat, perfect with us Thy grace, and pour out through our hands Thy gift, the pity and compassion of Thy divinity. May they be to us for the propitiation of the offences of Thy people, and for the forgiveness of the sins of the entire flock of Thy pasture, through Thy grace and tender mercies, O good friend of men, O Lord of all.
VI. The Deacons say:- Bow your heads.
The Priest says this secret prayer in the sanctuary:9 - O Lord God Omnipotent, Thine is the Holy Catholic Church, inasmuch as Thou, through the great passion of Thy Christ, didst buy the sheep of Thy pasture; and from the grace of the Holy Spirit, who is indeed of one nature with Thy glorious divinity, are granted the degrees of the true priestly ordination; and through Thy clemency Thou didst vouchsafe, O Lord, to make our weakness spiritual members in the great body of Thy Holy Church, that we might administer spiritual aid to faithful souls. Now, O Lord, perfect Thy grace with us, and pour out Thy gift through our hands: and may Thy tender mercies and the clemency of Thy divinity be upon us, and upon the people whom Thou hast chosen for Thyself.
(Aloud.) And grant unto us, O Lord, through Thy clemency, that we may all together, and equally every day of our life, please Thy divinity, and be rendered worthy of the aid of Thy grace to offer Thee praise, honour, thanksgiving, and adoration at all times, O Lord.
VII. And the Deacons ascend to the altar, and say:- He who has not received baptism, etc.10
And the Priest begins the respansory of the mysteries,11 and the Sacristan and Deacon place the disk and the chalice upon the altar. The Priest crosses his hands, and says:12 - We offer praise to Thy glorious Trinity at all times and for ever.
And proceeds:- May Christ, who was offered for our salvation, and commanded us to commemorate His death and His resurrection, Himself receive this sacrifice from the hands of our weakness, through His grace and mercies for ever. Amen.
And proceeds:- Laid are the renowned holy and life-giving mysteries upon the altar of the mighty Lord, even until His advent, for ever.Amen.
Praise, etc.
Thy memory, etc.
Our Father, etc.
The apostles of the Father, etc.
Upon the holy altar, etc.
They who have slept, etc.
Matthew Mark, Luke, etc.13
The Creed.14
VIII. The Priest draws near to celebrate, and thrice bows before the altar, the middle of which he kisses, then the right and the left horn of the altar; and bows to the Gospel side, and says:- Bless, O Lord, etc.Pray for me, my fathers, brethren, and masters, that God may grant unto me the capability and power to perform this service to which I have drawn near, and that this oblation may be accepted from the hands of my weakness, for myself, for you, and for the whole body of the Holy Catholic Church, through His grace and mercies for ever. Amen.
And they respond:- May Christ listen to thy prayers, and be pleased with thy sacrifice, receive thy oblation, and honour thy priesthood, and grant unto us, through thy mediation,15 the pardon of our offences, and the forgiveness of our sins, through His grace and mercies for ever.
Presently he bows at the other side, uttering the same words; and they respond in the same manner: then he bows to the altar, and says:- God, Lord of all, be with us through His grace and mercies for ever. Amen.
And bowing towards the Deacon, who is on the left (Epistle side), he says:- God, the Lord of all, confirm thy words, and secure to thee peace, and accept this oblation from my hands for me, for thee, for the whole body of the Holy Catholic Church, and for the entire world, through His grace and mercies for ever.
He kneels at the altar, and says in secret:- IX. O our Lord and God, look not on the multitude of our sins, and let not Thy dignity be turned away on account of the heinousness of our iniquities; but through Thine unspeakable grace sanctify this sacrifice of Thine, and grant through it power and capability, so that Thou mayest forget our many sins, and be merciful when Thou shalt appear at the end of time, in the man whom Thou hast assumed from among us, and we may find before Thee grace and mercy, and be rendered worthy to praise Thee with spiritual16 assemblies.
He rises, and says this prayer in secret:- We thank Thee, O our Lord and God, for the abundant riches of Thy grace to us:
And he proceeds:- Us who were sinful and degraded, on account of the multitude of Thy clemency, Thou hast made worthy to celebrate the holy mysteries of the body and blood of Thy Christ. We beg aid from Thee for the strengthening of our souls, that in perfect love and true faith we may administer Thy gift to us.
Canon: And we shall ascribe to Thee praise, glory, thanksgiving, and adoration, now, always, and for ever and ever.
He signs himself with the sign of the cross, and they respond:- Amen.
X. And he proceeds:- Peace be with you:
They respond:- With thee and with thy spirit.
And they give the (kiss of) peace to each other, and say:- For all:17
The Deacon says:- Let us thank, entreat, and beseech.
The Pries says this prayer in secret:- O Lord, mighty God, help my weakness through Thy clemency and the aid of Thy grace; and make me worthy of offering before Thee this oblation, as for the common aid of all, and to the praise of Thy Trinity, O Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.
Another prayer.18 O our Lord and God, restrain our thoughts, that they wander not amid the vanities of this world. O Lord our God, grant that I may be united to the affection of Thy love, unworthy though I be. Glory be to Thee, O Christ.Ascend into the chamber of Thy renowned light, O Lord; sow in me the good seed of humility; and under the wings of Thy grace hide me through Thy mercy. If Thou wert to mark iniquities, O Lord, who shall stand? Because there is mercy with Thee.
[The Priest says the following prayer in secret:19 - O mother of our Lord Jesus Christ, beseech for me the only-begotten Son, who was born of thee, to forgive me my offences and my sins, and to accept from my feeble and sinful hands this sacrifice which my weakness offers upon this altar, through thy intercession for me, O holy mother.]
XI. When the Deacon shall say, With watchfulness and care, etc., immediately the Priest rises up and uncovers the sacraments, taking away the veil with which they were covered: he blesses the incense, and says a canon with a loud voice:- The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God the Father, and the communion of the Holy Ghost, be with us all, now, etc.20
He signs the sacraments, and they respond:-Amen.
The Priest proceeds:- Lift up your minds: They respond:-They are towards Thee, O God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, O glorious King.
The Priest: The oblation is offered to God, the Lord of all.They respond:-It is meet and right.
The Deacon: Peace be with you.
The Priest puts on the incense, and says this prayer:- O Lord, Lord, grant me an open countenance before Thee, that with the confidence which is from Thee we may fulfil this awful and divine sacrifice with consciences free from all iniquity and bitterness. Sow in us, O Lord, affection, peace, and concord towards each other, and toward every one.
And standing, he says in secret:21 - Worthy of glory from every mouth, and of thanksgiving from all tongues, and of adoration and exaltation from all creatures, is the adorable and glorious name of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, who created the world through His grace, and its inhabitants through His clemency, who saved men through His mercy, and showed great favour towards mortals. Thy majesty, O Lord, thousands of thousands of heavenly spirits, and ten thousand myriads of holy angels, hosts of spirits, ministers of fire and spirit, bless and adore; with the holy cherubim and the spiritual seraphim they sanctify and celebrate Thy name, crying and praising, without ceasing crying unto each other.
They say with a loud voice:- Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty; full are the heavens and the earth of His glory.
The Priest in secret:- Holy, holy, holy art Thou, O Lord God Almighty; the heavens and the earth are full of His glory and the nature of His essence, as they are glorious with the honour of His splendour; as it is written, The heaven and the earth are full of me, saith the mighty Lord.
Holy art Thou, O God our Father, truly the only one, of whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named. Holy art Thou, Eternal Son, through whom all things were made. Holy art Thou, Holy, Eternal Spirit, through whom all things are sanctified.
Woe to me, woe to me, who have been astonied, because I am a man of polluted lips, and dwell among a people of polluted lips, and my eyes have seen the King, the mighty Lord.How terrible to-day is this place! For this is none other than the house of God and the gate of heaven; because Thou hast been seen eye to eye, O Lord.
Now, I pray, may Thy grace be with us, O Lord; purge away our impurities, and sanctify our lips; unite the voices of our insignificance with the sanctification of seraphim and archangels. Glory be to Thy tender mercies, because Thou hast associated the earthly with the heavenly.22
And he proceeds, saying in secret this prayer, in a bowing posture:- XII. And with those heavenly powers we give Thee thanks, even we, Thine insignificant, pithless, and feeble servants; because Thou hast granted unto us Thy great grace which cannot be repaid. For indeed Thou didst take upon Thee our human nature, that Thou mightest bestow life on us through Thy divinity; Thou didst exalt our low condition; Thou didst raise our ruined state; Thou didst rouse up our mortality; Thou didst wash away our sins; Thou didst blot out the guilt of our sins; Thou didst enlighten our intelligence, and Thou didst condemn our enemy, O Lord our God; and Thou didst cause the insignificance of our pithless nature to triumph.
Here follow the words of institution,23 after which:- Through the tender mercies of Thy grace poured out, O clement One, pardon our offences and sins; blot out my offences in the judgment. And on account of all Thy aids and Thy favours to us, we shall ascribe unto Thee praise,24 honour, thanksgiving, and adoration, now, always, and for ever and ever.
The Priest signs the sacraments. The response is made: Amen.
The Deacon: In your minds. Pray for peace with us.
The Priest says this prayer25 bowing, and in a low voice:- O Lord God Almighty, accept this oblation for the whole Holy Catholic Church, and for all the pious and righteous fathers who have been pleasing to Thee, and for all the prophets and apostles, and for all the martyrs and confessors, and for all that mourn, that are in straits, and are sick, and for all that are under difficulties and trials, and for all the weak and the oppressed, and for all the dead that have gone from amongst us; then for all that ask a prayer from our weakness, and for me, a degraded and feeble sinner. O Lord our God, according to Thy mercies and the multitude of Thy favours, look upon Thy people, and on me, a feeble man, not according to my sins and my follies, but that they may become worthy of the forgiveness of their sins through this holy body, which they receive with faith, through the grace of Thy mercy for ever and ever. Amen.
The Priest says this prayer of inclination in secret:- XIII. Do Thou, O Lord, through Thy many and ineffable mercies, make the memorial good and acceptable with that of26 all the pious and righteous fathers who have been pleading before Thee in the commemoration of the body and blood of Thy Christ, which we offer to Thee upon Thy pure and holy altar, as Thou hast taught us; and grant unto us Thy rest all the days of this life.
He proceeds with the Great Oblation:- O Lord our God, bestow on us Thy rest and peace all the days of this life, that all the inhabitants of the earth may know Thee, that Thou art the only true God the Father, and Thou didst send our Lord Jesus Christ, Thy Son and Thy beloved; and He Himself our Lord and God came and taught us all purity and holiness. Make remembrance of prophets, apostles, martyrs, confessors, bishops, doctors, priests, deacons, and all the sons of the Holy Catholic Church who have been signed with the sign of life, of holy baptism. We also, O Lord:
He proceeds:- We, Thy degraded, weak, and feeble servants who are congregated in Thy name, and now stand before Thee, and have received with joy the form which is from Thee, praising, glorifying, and exalting, commemorate and celebrate this great, awful, holy, and divine mystery of the passion, death, burial, and resurrection of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.And may Thy Holy Spirit come, O Lord,27 and rest upon this oblation of Thy servants which they offer, and bless and sanctify it; and may it be unto us, O Lord, for the propitiation of our offences and the forgiveness of our sins, and for a grand hope of resurrection from the dead, and for a new life in the kingdom of the heavens, with all who have been pleasing before Him. And on account of the whole of Thy wonderful dispensation towards us, we shall render thanks unto Thee, and glorify Thee without ceasing in Thy Church, redeemed by the precious blood of Thy Christ, with open mouths and joyful countenances:
Canon: Ascribing praise,28 honour, thanksgiving, and adoration to Thy holy, loving, and life-giving name, now, always, and for ever.
The Priest signs the mysteries with the cross, and they respond:- Amen.
The Priest bows himself and kisses the altar, first in the middle, then at the two sides right and left, and says this prayer:29 - Have mercy upon me, O God, down to the words, and sinners shall be converted unto Thee: and unto Thee lift I up mine eyes,30 down to have mercy upon us, O Lord, have mercy upon us. Also stretch forth Thy hand, and let Thy right hand save me, O Lord; may Thy mercies remain upon me, O Lord, for ever, and despise not the works of Thy hands.31
Then he says this prayer:- XIV. O Christ, peace of those in heaven and great rest of those below,32 grant that Thy rest and peace may dwell in the four parts of the world,33 but especially in Thy Holy Catholic Church; grant that the priesthood with the government may have peace; cause wars to cease from the ends of the earth, and scatter the nations that delight in wars,34 that we may enjoy the blessing of living in tranquillity and peace, in all temperance and fear of God. Spare the offences and sins of the dead, through Thy grace and mercies for ever.
And to those who are around the altar he says:- Bless, O Lord. Bless, O Lord.
And he puts on the incense with which he fumes himself, and says:- Sweeten, O Lord our God, the unpleasing savour35 of our souls through the sweetness of Thy love, and through it cleanse me from the stains of my sin, and forgive me my offences and sins, whether known or unknown to me.
A second time he takes the incense with both hands, and censes the mysteries; presently he says:- The clemency of Thy grace, O our Lord and God, gives us access to these renowned, holy, life-giving, and divine mysteries, unworthy though we be.
The Priest repeats these words once and again, and at each interval unites his hands over his breast in the form of a cross. He kisses the altar in the middle, and receives with both hands the upper oblation; and looking up, says:- Praise be to Thy holy name, O Lord Jesus Christ, and adoration to Thy majesty, always and for ever. Amen.
For He is the living and life-giving bread which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life to the whole world, of which they who eat die not; and they who receive it are saved by it, and do not see corruption, and live through it for ever; and Thou art the antidote of our mortality,36 and the resurrection of our entire frame.37
XVI. Praise to Thy holy name, O Lord. (As above.)
The Priest kisses the host39 in the form of a cross; in such a way, however, that his lips do not touch it, but appear to kiss it; and he says:- Glory to Thee, O Lord; glory to Thee, O Lord, on account of Thine unspeakable gift to us, for ever.
Then he draws nigh to the fraction of the host,40 which he accomplishes with both his hands, saying:- We draw nigh, O Lord, with true faith, and break with thanksgiving and sign through Thy mercy the body and blood of our Life-giver, Jesus Christ, in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.
And, naming the Trinity, he breaks the host,41 which he holds in his hands, into two parts: and the one which is in his left hand he lays down on the disk; with the other, which he holds in his right hand, he signs the chalice, saying:- The precious blood is signed with the holy body of our Lord Jesus Christ. In the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost for ever.
And they respond:- Amen.
Then he dips it even to the middle in the chalice, and signs with it the body which is in the paten, sating:- The holy body is signed with the propitiatory blood of our Lord Jesus Christ. In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost for ever.
And they respond:- Amen.
And he unites the two parts, the one with the other, saying:- Divided, sanctified, completed, perfected, united, and commingled have been these renowned, holy, life-giving, and divine mysteries, the one with the other, in the adorable and glorious name of Thy glorious Trinity, O Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, that they may be to us, O Lord, for the propitiation of our offences and the forgiveness of our sins; also for the grand hope of a resurrection from the dead, and of a new life in the kingdom of the heavens, for us and for the Holy Church of Christ our Lord, here and in every place whatsoever, now and always, and for ever.
XVII. In the meantime he signs the host42 with his right thumb in the form of a cross from the lower part to the upper, and from the right to the left, and thus forms a slight fissure in it where it has been dipped in the blood. He puts a part of it into the chalice in the farm of a cross: the lower part is placed towards the priest, the upper towards the chalice, so that the place of the fissure looks to the chalice. He bows, and rising, says:- Glory be to Thee, O Lord Jesus Christ, who hast made me, unworthy though I be, through Thy grace, a minister and mediator of Thy renowed, holy, life-giving, and divine mysteries: through the grace of Thy mercy, make me worthy of the pardon of my offences and the forgiveness of my sins.
He signs himself with the sign of the cross an his forehead, and does the same to those standing round him.43
The Deacons approach, and he signs each one of them an the forehead, saying:- Christ accept thy ministry: Christ cause thy face to shine: Christ save thy life: Christ make thy youth to grow.
And they respond:- Christ accept thy oblation.
XVIII. All return to their own place; and the Priest, after bowing, rises and says, in the tone of the Gospel:- The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God the Father, and the communion of the Holy Ghost, be with us all.
The Priest signs himself, and lifts up his hand over his head, so that it should be in the air, and the people be partakers in the singing:-
The Deacon says:-We all with fear, etc.
And at these words:- He hath given to us His mysteries:
The Priest begins to break44 the body, and says:- Be merciful, O Lord, through Thy clemency to the sins and follies of Thy servants, and sanctify our lips through Thy grace, that they may give the fruits of glory and praise to Thy divinity, with all Thy saints in Thy kingdom.
And, raising his voice, he says:-And make us worthy, O Lord our God, to stand before Thee continually without stain, with pure heart, with open countenance, and with the confidence which is from Thee, mercifully granted to us: and let us all with one accord invoke Thee, and say thus: Our Father, etc.
The People say:- Our Father, etc.
The Priest45 O Lord God Almighty, O Lord and our good God, who art full of mercy, we beg Thee, O Lord our God, and beseech the clemency of Thy goodness; lead us not into temptation, but deliver and save us from the evil one and his hosts; because Thine is the kingdom, the power, the strength, the might, and the dominion in heaven and on earth, now and always.
He signs himself, and they respond:- Amen.
XIX. And he proceeds:- Peace be with you.
They respond:- With thee and with thy spirit.
He proceeds:- It is becoming that the holy things should be to the holy in perfection.
And they say:- One holy Father: one holy Son: one Holy Ghost. Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever. Amen.
The Deacon: Praise ye.And they say the responsory. And when the Deacon comes to carry the chalice, he says:-Let us pray for peace with us.
The Priest says: The grace of the Holy Ghost be with thee, with us, and with those who receive Him.And he gives the chalice to the Deacon.
The Deacon says:- Bless, O Lord.
The Priest: The gift of the grace of our Life-giver and Lord Jesus Christ be completed, in mercies, with all.
And he signs the people with the cross. In the meantime the responsories are said: Brethren, receive the body of the Son, cries the Church, and drink ye His chalice with faith in the house of His kingdom.
On feast-days: Strengthen, O Lord, etc.
On the Lord's day: O Lord Jesus Christ, etc.
Daily: The mysteries which we have received, etc.
The responsories being ended, the Deacon says:- All therefore, etc.
And they respond:- Glory be to Himself on account of His ineffable gift.
The Deacon: Let us pray for peace with us.
The Priest at the middle of the altar says this prayer:46 - XX. It is meet, O Lord, just and right in all days, times, and hours, to thank, adore, and praise the awful name of Thy majesty, because Thou hast through Thy grace, O Lord, made us, mortal men possessing a frail nature, worthy to sanctify Thy name with the heavenly47 beings, and to become partakers of the mysteries of Thy gift, and to be delighted with the sweetness of Thy oracles. And voices of glory and thanksgiving we ever offer up to Thy sublime divinity, O Lord.
Another: Christ, our God, Lord, King, Saviour, and Life-giver, through His grace has made us worthy to receive His body and His precious and all-sanctifying blood. May He grant unto us that we may be pleasing unto Him in our words, works, thoughts, and deeds, so that that pledge which we have received may be to us for the pardon of our offences, the forgiveness of our sins, and the grand hope of a resurrection from the dead, and a new and true life in the kingdom of the heavens, with all who have been pleasing before Him, through His grace and His mercies for ever.
On ordinary days: Praise, O Lord, honour, blessing, and thanksgiving we ought to ascribe to Thy glorious Trinity for the gift of Thy holy mysteries, which Thou hast given to us for the propitiation of our offences, O Lord of all.
Another: Blessed be Thy adorable honour, from Thy glorious place, O Christ, the propitiator of our offences and our sins, and who takest away our follies through Thy renowned, holy, life-giving, and divine mysteries. Christ the hope of our nature always and for ever. Amen.
Obsignation or final benediction: May our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom we have ministered, and whom we have seen and honoured in His renowned, holy, life-giving, and divine mysteries, Himself render us worthy of the splendid glory of His kingdom, and of gladness with His holy angels, and for confidence before Him, that we may stand at His right hand.
And on our entire congregation may His mercies and compassion be continually poured out, now and always, and ever.
On the Lord's day and on feast-days: May He Himself who blessed us with all spiritual blessings in the heavens, through Jesus Christ our Lord, and prepared us for His kingdom, and called us to the desirable good things which neither cease nor perish, as He promised to us in His life-giving Gospel, and said to the blessed congregation of His disciples-Verily, verily I say unto you, that every one who eateth my body and drinketh my blood, abideth in me, and I in him, and I will raise him up at the last day; and he cometh not to judgment, but I will make him pass from death to eternal life:
May He Himself now bless this congregation, and maintain our position, and render glorious our people who have come and rejoiced in receiving His renowned, holy, life-giving, and divine mysteries; and may ye be sealed and guarded by the holy sign of the Lord's cross from all evils, secret and open, now and always.

The Canons of the Holy Fathers
Canon I
A Bishop must be ordained by two or three bishops*.
Canon II.
A Presbyter must be ordained by one Bishop, and so must a Deacon and other Clergymen.
Canon III.
If any Bishop or Presbyter contrary to the Lord's ordinance related to sacrifice, offers anything else at the sacrifical altar, whether it be honey, or milk, or artifical liquor instead of wine, chickens, or any kind of animals, or vegetables, contrary to the ordinance, let him be deposed from office: except ears of new wheat or bunches of grapes, in due season. Let it not be permissible to bring anything else to the sacrificial altar but oil for the lamps, and incense at the time of the holy oblation.
Canon IV.
Let all other fruit be sent home to the Bishop and Presbyters as firstfruits, but not to the sacrificial altar. It is understood that the Bishop and Presbyters shall distribute a fair share to the Deacons and other Clergymen.
Canon V.
No Bishop, or Presbyter, or Deacon shall put away his own wife under pretext of reverence. If, however, he put her away, let him be excommunicated; and if he persist in so doing, let him be deposed from office.
Canon VI.
A Bishop, or Presbyter, or Deacon, must not undertake worldly cares. If he does, let him be deposed from office.
Canon VII.
If any Bishop, or Presbyter, or Deacon, celebrate the holy day of Easter before the vernal equinox with the Jews, let him be deposed.
Canon VIII
If any Bishop, or Presbyter, or Deacon, or anyone else in the sacerdotal list, fail to partake of communion when the oblation has been offered, he must tell the reason; and if it is a good excuse, he shall receive a pardon. But if he refuses to tell it, he shall be excommunicated, on the ground that he has become a cause of harm to the laity and has instilled a suspicion as against the offerer, of it that the later has failed to present it in a sound manner.
Canon IX.
All those faithful who enter and listen to the Scriptures, but do not stay for prayer and Holy Communion must be excommunicated, on the ground that they are causing the Church a breach of order.
Canon X.
If anyone pray in company with one who has been excommunicated, he shall be excommunicated himself.
Canon XI.
If anyone who is a clergyman pray in company with a deposed clergyman, he shall be deposed too.
Canon XII.
If any clergyman or layman, who has been excommunicated, or who has not been admitted to penance, shall go away and be received in another city without commendatory letters, both the receiver and the one received shall be excommunicated.
Canon XIII
If he has been excommunicated, let his excommunication be augmented, on the ground that he has lied and that he has deceived the Church of God.
Canon XIV.
A bishop shall not abandon his own parish and go outside of it to interlope to another one, even though urged by a number of persons to go there, unless there be a good reason for doing so, on the ground that he can be of greater help to the inhabitants there, by reason of his piety. And even then he must not do so of his own accord, but in obedience of the judgment of many Bishops and at their urgent request.
Canon XV.
If any Presbyter, or Deacon, or anyone at all in the Sacerdotal list, abandoning his own province, departs to another, and after deserting it entirely, sojourns in another, contrary to the opinion of his own Bishop, we bid him to officiate no longer; especially if his Bishop summons him to return, and he has not obeyed and persists in his disordeliness, he may, however, commune there as a layman.
Canon XVI.
If, on the other hand, the Bishop with whom they are associating, admits them as clergymen in defiance of the deprivation prescribed against them, he shall be excommunicated as a teacher of disorder.
Canon XVII.
Whoever has entered into two marriages after baptism, or who has possessed himself of a concubine, cannot be a Bishop, a Presbyter, or a Deacon, or anything else in the sacerdotal list.
Canon XVIII.
No one who has taken a widow, or a divorced woman, or an harlot, or a house-maid, or any actress as his wife, may be a Bishop, or a Presbyter, or a Deacon, or hold any other position at all in the sacerdotal list.
Canon XIX.
Whoever marries two sisters, or a niece, may not be a clergyman.
Canon XX.
Any Clergyman that gives surety shall be deposed.
Canon XXI.
A eunuch, whether he became such by influence of men, or was deprived of his virile parts under persecution, or was born thus, may, if he is worthy, become a Bishop.
Canon XXII.
Let no one who has mutilated himself become a clergyman; for he is a murderer of himself, and an enemy of God's creation.
Canon XXIII.
If anyone who is a clergyman should mutilate himself, let him be deposed from office. For he is a self-murderer.
Canon XXIV.
Any layman who has mutilate himself, let him be excommunicated for three years. For he is a plotter against his own life.
Canon XXV.
Any Bishop, or Presbyter, or Deacon taht is taken in the act of committing fornication, or perjury, or theft shall be deposed from office, but shall not be excommunicated. For Scripture says; "Thou shall not exact revenge twice for the same offence". The same rule applies for the rest of clergymen
Canon XXVI.
As to bachelors who have entered the clergy, we allow only anagnosts and psalts to marry, if they wish to do so.
Canon XXVII.
As for a Bishop, or Presbyter, or Deacon that strikes believers for sinning, or unbelievers for wrong-doing, with the idea of making them afraid, we command that he be deposed from office. For our Lord has nowhere taught that: on the contrary, He Himself when struck did not strike back; when reviled, He did not revile His revilers; when suffering, He did not threaten.
If any Bishop, or Presbyter, or Deacon, who has been justly deposed from office for proven crimes, should dare to touch the liturgy which once had been put in his hands, let him be cut off from the Church altogether.
Canon XXIX.
If any Bishop become the recipient of this office by means of money, or any Presbyter, or any Deacon, let him be deposed as well as the one who ordained him, and let him be cut off from all communion, as was Simon the Sorcerer by me Peter.
Canon XXX.
If any Bishop comes into possession of a church by employing secular rulers, let him be deposed from office, and let him be excommunicated. And all those who communicate with him too.
Canon XXXI.
If any Presbyter, condemning his own Bishop, draw people aside, and set up another altar, without finding anything wrong with the bishop in point of piety and righteousness, let him be deposed, on the ground that he is an office-seeker. For he is a tyrant. Let the rest of the clergymen be treated likewise, and all those who abet him. But let the laymen be excommunicated. Let these things be done, after one, and a second, and a third request of the Bishop.
Canon XXXII.
If any Bishop excommunicates any Presbyter or Deacon, these men must not be incardinated by anyone else but the one who excommunicated them, unless by a coincidence the bishop who excommunicated them should be deceased.
None of the foreign Bishops, or Presbyters, or Deacons, shall be received without letters commendatory. Even when they bear such, they shall be examined. And if they really are preachers of piety, they shall be received; but if they are not, after furnishing them what they have need of, they shall not be admitted to communion. For many things are done with a view of rapine.
Canon XXXIV.
It behoves the Bishops of every nation to know the one among them who is the premier or chief, and to recognise him as their head, and to refrain from doing anything superfluous without his advice and approval: but, instead, each of them should do only whatever is necessiated by his own parish and by his the territories under him. But let not even such a one do anything without the advice and consent and approval of all. For thus will there be concord, and God will be glorified through the Lord in Holy Spirit, the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
Canon XXXV.
A Bishop shall not dare to confer ordaination outside of his own boundries, in cities or territories not subject to him. If he be proved to have done so against the wishes of those having possession of those cities or territories, let him be deposed, and well as those whom he ordained.
Canon XXXVI.
In case any Bishop who has been ordained refuses the office and the care of the laity which has been entrusted to him, he shall be excommunicated and remain so until such time as he accepts it. Likewise as touching a Presbyter or a Deacon. But if on departing, he failed to accept it, not contrary to his own inclination, but because of the spitefullness of the laity, let him be a bishop, but let the clergy of that city be excommunicated, since no one can correct such an insubordinate laity.
Twice a year let a council of bishops be held, and let them examine one another in regard to dogmas of piety, and let incidental ecclesiastical contradictions be eliminated: the first one, in the fourth week of Pentecost; the second one, on the twelfth of Hyperberetaeus.
Let the bishop have the care of all ecclesiastical matters and let him manage them, on the understanding that God is overseeing and supervising. Let him not be allowed to appropriate anything therefrom or to give God's things to his relatives. If they be indigent, let him provide for them as indigents, but let him not trade off things of the Church under this pretext.
Canon XXXIX.
Let Presbyters and Deacons do nothing without the consent of the Bishop. For he is the one entrusted with the Lord's people, and it is from him that an accounting will be demanded with respect to their souls.
Canon XL.
Let the Bishops own property (if, indeed, he has any) be publicly known, and let the Lord's be publicly known. In order that the Bishop may have authority to dispose of his own property when he dies, and leave it to whomsoever he wishes as as he wishes. And lest by reason of any pretext of ecclesiastical property that of the Bishop be submerged, be it that he has a wife and children, or relatives, or house servants. For it is only just with God and men that neither the church should suffer any loss owing to ignorance of the Bishop's property, nor the Bishop, or his relatives, should have their property confiscated on the pretext that it belonged to the church. Or even to have trouble with those who are quarreling over his property, and to have his death involved in aspersions.
Canon XLI.
We command that the Bishop have authority over the property of the Church. For if the precious souls of human beings ought to be entrusted to him, there is little need of any special injunction concerning money; so that everything may be entrusted to be governed in accordance with his authority, and he may grant to those in need through the presbyters and deacons with fear of God and all reverence, while he himself may partake thereof whatever he needs (if he needs anything) for his necessary wants, and for brethern who are his guests, so as not to deprive them of anything, in any manner. For God's law has enjoined that those who serve at the altar are to be maintained at the altar's expense. The more so in view of the fact that not even a soldier ever bears arms against belligerents at his own expense.
Canon XLII.
If a Bishop, or Presbyter, or Deacon, wastes his time by playing dice, or getting drunk, either let him desist therefrom or let him be deposed from office.
Canon XLIII.
Let any subdeacon, Anagnost, or Psalt, who does like things either desist or be excommunicated. Likewise any laymen.
Canon XLIV.
Let any Bishop, or Presbyter, or Deacon, who demands interest on money lent to others cease doing so or be deposed.
Canon XLV.
Let any Bishop, or Presbyter, or Deacon, that merely joins in prayer with heretics, be suspended, but if he has permitted them to perform any service as Clergymen, let him be deposed. (sc. from office)
Canon XLVI.
We order any Bishop, or Presbyter, who has accepted any heretics' Baptism, or sacrifice, be deposed; For "what consonancy hath Christ with Beliar? or what part hath the believer with an infidel?
Canon XLVII.
If a Bishop or Presbyter baptize anew anyone who has had a true baptism, or fail to baptize anyone that has been polluted by the impious, let him be deposed, on the ground that he is mocking the cross and death of the Lord and railing to distinguish priests from pseudopriests.
If any layman who has divorced his wife takes another, or one divorced by another man, let him be excommunicated.
Canon XLIX.
If any Bishop or Presbyter, baptize anyone not into the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, but into three beginningless beings or into three sons or into three comforters, let him be deposed.
Canon L.
If any Bishop or Presbyter does not perform three immersions, (literally, "three baptisms") in making one baptism (literally, "one initiation"), but a single immersion (literally, "a single baptism"), that given into the death of the Lord, let him be deposed (sc. from office). For the Lord did not say, "Baptize ye into my death," but, "Go ye and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. (Matt. 28:19)
Canon LI.
If any Bishop, or Presbyter, or Deacon, or any at all on the sacerdotal list, abstains from marriage, or meat, or wine, not as a matter of mortification, but out of an abhorrence thereof, forgetting that all things are exceedingly good, and that God made man male and female, and blasphemously misrepresenting God's work of creation, either let him mend his ways or let him be deposed from office, and expelled from the Church. Let a layman be treated similarly.
Canon LII.
If any Bishop or Presbyter shall refuse to welcome back anyone returning from sin, but on the contrary, rejects him, let him be deposed from office, since he grieves Christ, who said, "There is joy in heaven over a single sinner who repenteth".
Canon LIII.
If any Bishop, or Presbyter, or Deacon, on the days of fests will not partake of meat and wine, because he loathes these things, and not on account of asceticism, let him be deposed from office, on the ground that he has his own conscience seared and has become a cause of scandal to many.
Canon LIV.
If any clergyman be caught eating in a tavern or any restaurant where intoxicating beverages are served, let him be excommunicated, except only in case it happens to be at a wayside in where he has put up for the night by necessity.
Canon LV.
If any Clergyman should insult the bishop, let him be deposed from office. For "thou shalt not speak ill of thy people's ruler"
Canon LVI.
If any Clergyman should insult a Presbyter, or a Deacon, let him be excommunicated.
Canon LVII.
If any clergyman jeers, fleers, or flouts, or contumeliously or scurriously or derisively or mockingly scoffs or sneers at anyone who is lame or maimed, or who is deaf, or who is blind, or him who is a cripple, let him be excommunicated. The same rule applies to the layman.
Canon LVIII.
If any Bishop or Presbyter neglects the Clergy or the laity, and fails to instruct them in piety, let him be excommunicated: but if he persists in his negligence and indolence, let him be deposed from office.
Canon LIX.
If any Bishop, or Presbyter fails to supply necessities when any of the clergy is in want, let him be excommunicated. If he persists, let him be deposed, as having murdered his brother.
Canon LX.
If any one reads to the public in churches the impious writers bearing false inscriptions and purporting to be holy, to the injury of laity and clergy, let him be deposed.
Canon LXI.
If a charge of fornication, or of adultery, or of any other forbidden act be brought against a faithful one, and be proved, let him not be promoted to the clergy.
Canon LXII.
If any Clergyman, for fear of any human being, whether the latter be a Jew, Greek, or heretic, should deny the name of Christ, let him be cast out and rejected; If he deny the name of clergyman, let him be deposed; and if he repent, let him be accepted as a layman.
Canon LXIII.
If any Bishop, or Presbyter, or Deacon, or any one else on the sacerdotal list at all, eat meat in the blood of its soul, or that has been killed by a wild beast, or that has died a natural death, let him be deposed. For the law has forbidden this. But if any layman do the same, let him be excommunicated.
If any Clergyman be found fasting on Sunday, or on Saturday with the exception of one only, let him be deposed from office. If, however, he is a layman, let him be excommunicated.
Canon LXV.
If any Clergyman, or Layman, enter a synagogue of Jews, or of heretics to pray, let him be both deposed and excommunicated.
(Ap. c.VII, XLV, LXXI; c. XI of the 6th; c. I of Antioch; cc. VI, XXXII, XXXIII, XXXVII, XXXVIII of Laodicea.)
Canon LXVI.
If any clergyman strikes anyone in a fight, and kills by a single blow, let him be deposed from office for his insolence. But if he be a layman, let him be excommunicated.
(c. XCI of the 6th, cc. XXI, XXII, XXIII of Ancyra; Athanasius in his Epistles; cc. II, VIII, XI, etc., c. V of Nyssa)
Canon LXVII.
If anyone is keeping a virgin whom he has forcibly raped, though she be not engaged to another man, let him be excommunicated. And let it not be permissible for him to take another, but let him be obliged to keep her whom he has made his choice even though she happen to be indigent.
(cc. XXII, XXIII, XXV, XXVI of Basil)
If any Bishop, Presbyter, or Deacon accepts a second ordination from anyone, let him and the one who ordained him be deposed. unless it be established that his ordination has been performed by heretics. For those who have been baptized or ordained by such persons cannot possibly be either faithful Christians or clergymen.
Canon LXIX.
If any Bishop, or Presbyter, or Deacon, or subdeacon, or Anagnost, or Psalt fails to fast throughout the forty days of Holy Lent, or on Wednesday, or on Friday, let him be deposed from office. Unless he be preventd from doing so by reason of bodily illness. If, on the other hand, a layman fails to do so, let him be excommunicated.
Canon LXX.
If any bishop, or presbyter, or deacon, or any at all who is on the list of clergymen, fasts together with Jews, or celebrates a holiday together with them or accepts from them holiday gifts or favors, such as unleavened wafers, or anything of the like, let him be deposed from office. If a layman do likewise, however, let him be excommunicated.
Canon LXXI.
If any Christian conveys oil to a temple of heathen, or to a synagogue of the Jews, in their festivals, or lights lamps for them, let him be excommunicated.
Canon LXXII.
If any Clergyman or Layman takes a wax candle or oil from the holy Church, let him be excommunicated, and be compelled to give back what he took, together with a fifth part of its value to boot.
Let no one appropriate any longer for his own use any golden or silver vessel that has been sanctified, or any cloth, for it is unlawful to do so. If anyone be caught in the act, let him be punished with excommunication.
Canon LXXIV.
When a bishop has been accused of somthing by trustworthy men, he must be summoned by Bishops; and if he answers and confesses, or is found guilty, let the penalty be fixed. But if when summoned he refuses to obey let him be summoned a second time by sending two Bishops to him. If even then he refuses to obey let him be summoned a third time, two bishops again being sent to him; but if even then he shows contempt and fails to answer let the synod decide the matter against him in whatever way seems best, so that he may not seem that he is getting the benefit by evading the trial.
(c. VI of the 2nd; cc. IX, XVII, XXI of the 4th; cc. XIV, XV of Antioch, c.IV of Sarican cc. VIII, XII, XVI, XXVII, XCVI, CV, CXXXI, CXXXVII, CXXXIX, of Carthage, and c. IX of Theophilus.)
Canon LXXV.
As a witness against a bishop let no heretic be accepted, but neither shall one faithful alone: for "every charge shall be established by the mouth or two or three witnesses" (Deut. 17:6, Matt. 18:16)
Canon LXXVI.
It is decreed that no Bishop shall be allowed to ordain whomsoever he wishes to the office of the Episcopate as a matter of concession to a brother, or to a son, or to a relative. For it is not right to make heirs of the Episcopate to be created, by subjecting God's things to human passion; for God's Church ought not be entrusted to heirs. If anyone shall do this let the ordination remain invalid and void, and let the bishop himself be penanced with excommunication.
If any cripple, or anyone with a defect in an eye or in a leg, is worthy of the episcopate, let him be made a bishop. For it is not an injury to the body that defiles one, but a pollution of the soul.
Let no one that is deaf nor anyone that is blind be made a Bishop, not on the ground that he is deficient morally, but least he should be embarrased in the exercise of ecclesiastical functions.
Canon LXXIX.
If anyone is possessed of a devil, let him not be made a clergyman, nor even be allowed to pray in company with the faithful. But after he has been cleansed thereof, let him be received, and if worthy be ordained.
Canon LXXX.
It is not right (allowed) to ordain a man a bishop immediately after he has joined the Church and been baptized if he has hitherto been leading a heathen life, or has been converted from wicked behaviour. For it is wrong to let one without experience become a teacher of others, unless in some special case this be allowed as a matter of divine favor and grace.
Canon LXXXI.
We have said that a Bishop or a Presbyter must not decend himself into public offices, but must attend to ecclesiastical needs. Either let him be persuaded therefore, not to do so, or let him be deposed, for no one can serve two masters, according to the Lord's injunction.
We do not permit house servants to be ordained to the clergy without the consent of their masters, to the sorrow of the masters owning them. For such a thing causes an upheaval in the households. But if any house servant should appear worthy to be ordained to any rank, as our own Onesimus did, and their masters are willing to permit it, and grant them their freedom, and allow them to leave home, let him be so ordained.
If a bishop,or presbyter, or deacon, is engaged in military matters, and wishes to hold both the Roman (i.e. civil) and a sacerdotal office, let him be deposed; for (render) "unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's; and unto God the things that are God's". (Matt. 22:21)
If anyone insults an emperor or, King, or any other ruler, contrary to what is right and just, let him pay the penalty. Accordingly, If he is a clergyman, let him be deposed; but if he is a layman, let him be excommunicated.
Canon LXXXV.
To all the Cergyman and Laymen let the following books be venerable and sacred: Of the Old Testament, The five of Moses, namely, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; The one of Jesus of Nave (commonly called Joshua in Englsh); the one of Judges; the one of Ruth; the four of the Kingdoms; two Paralipomena (Chronicles) of the book of the days; two of Esdras (Ezra) one of Esther; three of the Maccabees; one of Job; one Psalter (commonly called the Psalms in English and Greek); three of Solomon, namely Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs; twelve of the Prophets; one of Isaiah; one of Jeremiah; one of Ezekiel; one of Daniel; outside of these it is permissible for yo to recont in addition thereto also the Wisdom of the very learned Sirach by way of teachig your young folks. Our own books, that is to say, those of the New Testament, are: comprising the four Gospels, namely, that of Matthew, of Mark, of Luke, and of John; fourteen Epistles of Paul; two Epistles of Peter; three Epistles of John; one of James; one of Jude. Two Epistles of Clement; and the Injunctions addressed to you through me, Clement, in eight books, which ought not to be divulged to all on account of the secret matters they contain and the Acts of us Apostles.

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